Difference between revisions of "American Indian Genealogy"

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<center>''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American_Indian_Genealogy|American Indian Genealogy]]''{{American Indian Genealogy Sidebar}}</center><div style="width: 72%; float: right">
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' '''American Indian Genealogy''' {{American Indian Genealogy Sidebar}}
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''American Indian Genealogy'' is a guide to beginning Native American research, available records types, BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) agencies and reservations, census, church, military records, schools, annuity, allotment, treaties, removal records, archives and libraries, cultural groups, and forts.<br>
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| {{Click|Image:AI_ORP.png|American Indian Online Genealogy Records|left}}Click this button for links to databases, indexes, or sites that help you find an American Indian ancestor by topic or tribe.<br><br><br>
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'''Key to Success''' [[Image:Cheyenne-Henry-Roman-Nose-Yellow-Bear-and-Lame-Man-1899.jpg|thumb|right|300px|<center>
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Cheyenne Indians: Henry Roman Nose, Yellow Bear, and Lame Man.</center>]]"The key to success in American Indian genealogy is the cross-disciplinary approach. One cannot just be a genealogist who pours through public records. Only the very lucky will find a census record with a notation that so-and-so was a Choctaw Indian. The task requires an expanded thought process where one must investigate all possibilities without tiring of the effort. The history of the family, community, county and state must be known. Church and local records must be examined for any clue regarding family origins. A successful researcher must also have an intimate knowledge of tribal history and culture. This is a very big order, indeed especially for the small splinter groups that dot the southern map. The quest can be a noble and romantic endeavor. At the least, one can come away with a great body of knowledge of the first American. At most, one can find that allusive [sic] Native American ancestor."<ref>Thomas J. Blumer, "Practical Pointers in Tracing Your Indian Ancestry in the Southeast," ''Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society,'' 13 (Spring/Fall 1994): 67-82.</ref>
 
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== Getting Started  ==
[[Image:Cheyenne-Henry-Roman-Nose-Yellow-Bear-and-Lame-Man-1899.jpg|thumb|right|150x220px]]"The Key to success in American Indian genealogy is the cross-disciplinary approach. One cannot just be a genealogist who pours through public records. Only the very lucky will find a census record with a notation that so-and-so was a Choctaw Indian. The task requires an expanded thought process where one must investigate all possibilities without tiring of the effort. The history of the family, community, county and state must be known. Church and local records must be examined for any clue regarding family origins. A successful researcher must also have an intimate knowledge of tribal history and culture. This is a very big order, indeed especially for the small splinter groups that dot the southern map. The quest can be a noble and romantic endeavor. At the least, one can come away with a great body of knowledge of the first American. At most, one can find that allusive [sic]&nbsp;Native American ancestor." Thomas J. Blumer, "Practical Pointers in Tracing Your Indian Ancestry in the Southeast". ''Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society.'' volume13, number 1, (Spring/Fall1994): 67-82.
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=== Did You Know?  ===
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Several approaches could be taken to locate information about a potential American Indian ancestor. <br>
  
*American Indians served in every [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military]] conflict from the [[United States Revolutionary War|Revolutionary War]] to the present. Many served as scouts for the United States Army during many of their skirmishes with other Indians.<br>
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If the [[Indian Tribes of the United States|name of the tribe]] with which the ancestor was associated is known, a researcher should study the history and culture of that tribe and locate the records created by various records jurisdictions for that tribe.  
*In 1902 the Commissioner of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] (BIA) sent a circular letter to all field agents giving them instructions to systematize the surnames of all Indians under their charge.<br>
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*The [[Indian Reorganization Act|Indian Reorganization Act ]](also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act) of 1934 established the right for most Indian tribes of the United States to govern their own affairs through the establishment of their own tribal governments, tribal councils, and tribal offices.<br>
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=== Getting Started with American Indian Research  ===
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=== Research Approaches  ===
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Several approaches could be taken to locate information about a potential American Indian ancestor.  
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*If the [[Indian Tribes of the United States|name of the tribe]] with which the ancestor was associated is known, a researcher should study the history and culture of that tribe and locate the records created by various records jurisdictions for that tribe.
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:*If the [[Searching for an American Indian When the Tribe is Unknown|tribe is not known]], a more logical approach would be to determine the tribes associated with the locality or localities where the ancestor resided. In this case, sometimes only the state is known. Occasionally a county of residence is known. In either case, the records of that locality should be searched until the association of the ancestor is established or at least strongly suspected.  
*If the tribe is not known, a more logical approach would be to determine the tribes associated with the locality or localities where the ancestor resided. In this case, sometimes only the state is known. Occasionally a county of residence is known. In either case, the records of that locality should be searched until the association of the ancestor is established or at least strongly suspected.  
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:*If a residence close to a reservation or a Bureau of Indian Affairs agency is known, the history of the reservation or [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agency]] and the location of records they generated could be studied.
*If a residence close to a reservation or a Bureau of Indian Affairs agency is known, the history of the reservation or [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agency]] and the location of records they generated could be studied.
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Many records were created by the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and their various offices. Many of those records have been preserved by the [[American Indian Research in the National Archives of the United States|National Archives]] of the United States and its [[American Indian Research in the Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)|regional archives]]. Some of those records have been microfilmed and are available at the [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City. Some of the records are also being digitized and indexed by internet websites and by commercial companies.  
 
Many records were created by the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and their various offices. Many of those records have been preserved by the [[American Indian Research in the National Archives of the United States|National Archives]] of the United States and its [[American Indian Research in the Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)|regional archives]]. Some of those records have been microfilmed and are available at the [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City. Some of the records are also being digitized and indexed by internet websites and by commercial companies.  
  
There are also other jurisdictions that recorded information about the American Indians, including churches, schools, hospitals, and others. Each of these jurisdictions may have records of individual Indians and should be studied.  
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There are also other jurisdictions that recorded information about the American Indians, including [[American_Indian_Church_Records|churches]], [[American_Indian_School_Records|schools]], [[American_Indian_Sanitary_Record_of_Sick,_Injured,_Births,_Deaths,_etc.|hospitals]], and others. Each of these jurisdictions may have records of individual Indians and should be studied.  
  
 
=== By Locality  ===
 
=== By Locality  ===
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If you know where your ancestor lived at the time of the alleged Indian connection, go to the page for the Indians of that state or province by clicking on the link below.  
 
If you know where your ancestor lived at the time of the alleged Indian connection, go to the page for the Indians of that state or province by clicking on the link below.  
  
==== States ====
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'''States'''<br>
  
[[Indians of Alabama|Alabama]], [[Alaska: American Indians|Alaska]], [[Indians of Arizona|Arizona]], [[Indians of Arkansas|Arkansas]], [[Indians of California|California,]] [[Indians of Colorado|Colorado,]] [[Indians of Connecticut|Connecticut]], [[Indians of Delaware|Delaware,]] [[Indians of Florida|Florida,]] [[Indians of Georgia|Georgia]], Hawaii, [[Indians of Idaho|Idaho]], [[Illinois Native Races|Illinois,]] [[Indians of Indiana|Indiana,]] [[Indians of Iowa|Iowa,]] [[Indians of Kansas|Kansas,]] [[Indians of Kentucky|Kentucky]], [[Indians of Louisiana|Louisiana,]] [[Indians of Maine|Maine]], [[Indians of Maryland|Maryland]], [[Indians of Massachusetts|Massachusetts,]] [[Indians of Michigan|Michigan,]] [[Indians of Minnesota|Minnesota]], [[Indians of Mississippi|Mississippi]], [[Indians of Missouri|Missouri]], [[Indians of Montana|Montana]], [[Indians of Nebraska|Nebraska,]] [[Indians of Nevada|Nevada]], [[Indians of New Hampshire|New Hampshire]], [[Indians of New Jersey|New Jersey]], [[Indians of New Mexico|New Mexico]], [[Indians of New York|New York]], [[Indians of North Carolina|North Carolina]], [[Indians of North Dakota|North Dakota,]] [[Indians of Ohio|Ohio]], [[Indians of Oklahoma|Oklahoma,]] [[Indians of Oregon|Oregon]], [[Indians of Pennsylvania|Pennsylvania,]] [[Indians of Rhode Island|Rhode Island]], [[Indians of South Carolina|South Carolina]], [[Indians of South Dakota|South Dakota]], [[Indians of Tennessee|Tennessee,]] [[Indians of Texas|Texas,]] [[Indians of Utah|Utah]], [[Indians of Vermont|Vermont,]] [[Indians of Virginia|Virginia]], [[Indians of Washington|Washington]], [[Indians of West Virginia|West Virginia]], [[Indians of Wisconsin|Wisconsin]], [[Indians of Wyoming|Wyoming]]
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{{American Indian state pages list}}
  
==== Provinces of Canada ====
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'''Provinces of Canada'''
  
[[Canada Native Races|Canada]]  
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:*[[Canada Native Races|Canada]]  
 
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:*[[Indians of Alberta|Alberta,]] [[Indians of British Columbia|British Columbia]], [[Indians of Manitoba|Manitoba]], [[Newfoundland_and_Labrador_First_Nations|Newfoundland and Labrador]], [[Indians of New Brunswick|New Brunswick]], [[Indians of Nova Scotia|Nova Scotia]], [[Indians of Ontario|Ontario,]] [[Indians of Prince Edward Island|Prince Edward Island]], [[Indians of Quebec|Quebec,]] [[Indians of Saskatchewan|Saskatchewan]]
[[Indians of Alberta|Alberta,]] [[Indians of British Columbia|British Columbia]], [[Indians of Manitoba|Manitoba]], [[Indians of Newfoundland|Newfoundland]], [[Indians of New Brunswick|New Brunswick]], [[Indians of Nova Scotia|Nova Scotia]], [[Indians of Ontario|Ontario,]] [[Indians of Prince Edward Island|Prince Edward Island]], [[Indians of Quebec|Quebec,]] [[Indians of Saskatchewan|Saskatchewan]]  
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=== By Tribe  ===
 
=== By Tribe  ===
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The Tribal Office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.  
 
The Tribal Office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.  
  
Some of the major tribes of the United States is listed [[Indian Tribes of the United States|here.]]  
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Some of the major tribes of the United States are listed [[Indian Tribes of the United States|here.]]  
  
=== By Name of Reservation ===
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=== By BIA Office ===
  
There are or have been hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many of them are federally recognized and supervised. Some are state reservations, administered by a state office of Indian Affairs. Federal reservations usually have an agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs responsible for the administration of that reservation.  
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'''Agencies and Sub Agencies'''
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] of the Bureau of Indian Affairs are the field offices of that federal bureau. They are normally the '''office that recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians.''' They are listed under the pages for the Indians of [state], the tribes they served, the name of the agency, and the reservation for which they were the field office. They are also cross-linked among these pages.  
  
[http://www.nps.gov/nagpra/DOCUMENTS/ResMAP.HTM Indian Reservations in the Continental United States]. by National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior.  
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'''Sub-Agencies''' normally served smaller jurisdictions or tribes than the agencies and were subordinate to an agency.  
  
[http://www.native-languages.org/states.htm Maps of United States Indians by State]. by Native languages of the Americans website.
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U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Affairs '''BIA''' [http://www.bia.gov/cs/groups/public/documents/text/idc013422.pdf Regional, Agency, and Field Offices Map]  
  
[http://www.onebookaz.org/kids/documents/pdf/IslandHopping-4thgrade_lesson-11.pdf Southwestern United States]: Indian Reservations. by Arizona Geographic Alliance.  
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BIA [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/index.htm Regional Offices] page links to twelve regions: [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Alaska/index.htm Alaska], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Eastern/index.htm Eastern], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/EasternOklahoma/index.htm Eastern Oklahoma], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/GreatPlains/index.htm Great Plains], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Midwest/index.htm Midwest], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Navajo/index.htm Navajo], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Northwest/index.htm Northwest],[http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Pacific/index.htm &nbsp;Pacific], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/RockyMountain/index.htm Rocky Mountain], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/SouthernPlains/index.htm Southern Plains], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Southwest/index.htm Southwest], and [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Western/index.htm Western]; site map, with listing of Tribes served, and agencies
  
U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Affairs BIA [http://www.bia.gov/cs/groups/public/documents/text/idc013422.pdf Regional, Agency, and Field Offices Map]
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'''Area Offices.''' [[Area Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Area Offices]] of the BIA are administrative offices. They kept many records, but most of the files regarding individuals are kept at the agency level or in the Tribal Offices of each tribe.
  
BIA&nbsp;[http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/index.htm Regional Offices] page links to twelve regions: [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Alaska/index.htm Alaska], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Eastern/index.htm Eastern], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/EasternOklahoma/index.htm Eastern Oklahoma], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/GreatPlains/index.htm Great Plains], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Midwest/index.htm Midwest], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Navajo/index.htm Navajo], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Northwest/index.htm Northwest],[http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Pacific/index.htm &nbsp;Pacific], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/RockyMountain/index.htm Rocky Mountain], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/SouthernPlains/index.htm Southern Plains], [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Southwest/index.htm Southwest], and [http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Western/index.htm Western]; site&nbsp;map, with listing of Tribes served, and agencies
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'''Superintendencies.''' Historically, the Bureau of Indian Affairs used an administrative office called a [[Superintendencies of Indian Affairs|superintendency]] to oversee the local agencies and sub agencies. Most of them were abolished in the 1870s and, for a time, the agencies reported directly to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in Washington, DC. The records of the superintendencies usually consist primarily of correspondence and reports of the BIA Field Offices.
  
=== By Name of Bureau of Indian Affairs Offices ===
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=== By Reservation ===
  
==== Agencies and Sub agencies  ====
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There are or have been hundreds of [[American Indian Reservations|Indian Reservations]] in the United States. Many of them are federally recognized and supervised. Some are state reservations, administered by a state office of Indian Affairs. Federal reservations usually have an agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs responsible for the administration of that reservation.
  
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] of the Bureau of Indian Affairs are the field offices of that federal bureau. They are normally the office that recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians. They are listed under the pages for the Indians of [state], the tribes they served, the name of the agency, and the reservation for which they were the field office. They are also cross-linked among these pages.  
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:*[http://www.nps.gov/nagpra/DOCUMENTS/ResMAP.HTM Indian Reservations in the Continental United States]. by National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior.
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:*[http://www.native-languages.org/states.htm Maps of United States Indians by State]. by Native languages of the Americans website.  
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:*[http://www.statemuseum.arizona.edu/aip/az_reservations.pdf Southwestern United States]. Arizona's Indian Reservations.
  
[[Subagencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Sub agencies]] normally served smaller jurisdictions or tribes than the agencies and were subordinate to an agency.
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== Research Facilities  ==
  
==== Area Offices  ====
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There are many research facilities which have significant collections of American Indian records. See also [[American Indian Archives and Libraries]]. A few of the larger ones are listed below. Some university libraries and historical societies have significant and unique collections for their areas of interest.<br>
  
[[Area Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Area Offices]] of the BIA are administrative offices. They kept many records, but most of the files regarding individuals are kept at the agency level or in the Tribal Offices of each tribe.
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'''Archives'''
  
==== Superintendencies  ====
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Records of the native population can be found in several [[American Indian Archives and Libraries|archives]], including the National Archives and its regional archives, state archives, and other archival institutions.
  
Historically, the Bureau of Indian Affairs used an administrative office called a [[Superintendencies of Indian Affairs|superintendency]] to oversee the local agencies and sub agencies. Most of them were abolished in the 1870s and, for a time, the agencies reported directly to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in Washington, DC. The records of the superintendencies usually consist primarily of correspondence and reports of the BIA Field Offices.  
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*'''[[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]].''' Many of the records created by the various levels of the Bureau of Indian Affairs have been preserved by the National Archives of the United States. [[American Indian Research in the National Archives of the United States|Read more...]]
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*'''[[United States National Archives Regional Branches|National Archives Regional Archives]].''' The Regional Archives of NARA are the depositories for many federal records, including those of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The [[National Archives at Fort Worth]] has more American Indian records than the others. [[American Indian Research in the Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)|Read more...]]
  
= Research Facilities  =
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'''Historical Societies'''
  
There are many research facilities which have significant collections of American Indian records. A few of the larger ones have been listed, but there are many others. Some of the university libraries and historical societies have significant and somewhat unique collections for their geographical areas of interest.<br>
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*'''[[Oklahoma Historical Society]].''' One of the largest collection of American Indian history and records is housed in the [http://www.okhistory.org/research/collections/indian_archives.html American Indian Archives] of the Oklahoma Historical Society in Oklahoma City.
  
== Archives  ==
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'''Libraries'''
  
Records of the native population can be found in several archives, including the National Archives and its regional archives, state archives, and other archival institutions.  
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Many [[American Indian Archives and Libraries|libraries]] have special collections of materials regarding the local American Indian groups. Some of the larger libraries have very large collections of such material.  
  
=== National Archives  ===
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*'''[[Library of Congress]].''' Largest library in the world with a good American Indian collection.
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*'''[[Family History Library]]''' in Salt Lake City has a collection of many American Indian records, including microfilm copies of some of the holdings of the National Archives and its regional archives. See [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library]].
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*'''University Libraries.''' The libraries of many universities have collections of American Indian manuscripts and published records. A few examples of those with significant collections are:
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**[[University of Oklahoma Libraries]] at Norman<ref>[http://www.ou.edu/content/ousearch.html?q=American+Indian+manuscripts+and+published+records&type=web&sa=GO OU Search: American Indian manuscrips and published records] in ''University of Oklahoma'' (accessed 11 May 2016).</ref>
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**[[University of Arizona Special Collections]] at Tucson<ref>[http://speccoll.library.arizona.edu/collections/history-apaches History of the Apaches] in ''University of Arizona Special Collections'' (accessed 11 May 2016)</ref>.
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**[[Brigham Young University Harold B. Lee Library]] at Provo, Utah<ref>[http://home.byu.edu/home/search?search=American+Indian+collection Search: American Indian Collection] in ''Brigham Young University'' (accessed 11 May 2016)</ref>
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**[http://sallypro.sandiego.edu/iii/encore/plus/C__Samerican%20indian__Orightresult__U?lang=eng&suite=cobalt University of San Diego], at San Diego, California
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**[http://libguides.law.usd.edu/content.php?pid=409093&sid=3346919 University of South Dakota], at Pierre
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**[http://www.gonzaga.edu/search/?q=American+Indian+collection&btnG.x=0&btnG.y=0&btnG=Submit&ud=1&sort=date%3AD%3AL%3Ad1&ie=UTF-8&output=xml_no_dtd&proxystylesheet=mainweb&client=mainweb&oe=UTF-8&proxyreload=1 Gonzaga University], at Spokane, Washington,
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**[http://www.marquette.edu/library/find/search/#gsc.tab=0&gsc.q=American%20Indian%20manuscripts%20and%20published%20records Marquette University], at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and many others.
  
Many of the records created by the various levels of the Bureau of Indian Affairs have been preserved by the National Archives of the United States. [[American Indian Research in the National Archives of the United States|Read more...]]
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== Record Keepers  ==
  
=== Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)  ===
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'''Federal.''' Several federal departments have historically kept Indian records:
  
The Regional Archives of NARA is the depository for many federal records, including those of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. [[American Indian Research in the Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)|Read more...]]
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*'''''Department of War'''''
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*'''''Department of Interior'''''
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*'''''Department of State (Territorial)'''''
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*'''''[[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]''''' since 1947, and its forerunner, the Office of Indian Affairs, from 1824 to 1947, have been the primary offices of the federal government responsible for the administration of Indian Affairs in the United States. They also generated the largest amount of records regarding individual Indians.
  
== Historical Societies  ==
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'''States.''' Nearly every state in the United States has an Office of Indian Affairs, although their title may vary from one state to another. These offices coordinate affairs between their state's government and the tribal governments. They also have particular responsibility for any tribes recognized by the state that are not federally recognized. For a list of contact information for each state, [https://www.oregonlegislature.gov/cis/Documents/indian_comms_affairs_contacts.pdf click here].<br>
  
=== Oklahoma Historical Society  ===
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'''Churches.''' Several denominations sent missionaries among the Native Americans, often establishing American Indian Missions, some of which evolved into long-standing congregations on or near Indian reservations. [[American Indian Church Records|Read more...]]<br>
  
One of the largest collection of American Indian history and records is housed in the [http://www.okhistory.org/research/collections/indian_archives.html American Indian Archives] of the Oklahoma Historical Society in Oklahoma City.
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'''Schools.''' Many schools were established for the education of American Indian children, including boarding school, day schools, mission schools, and many others. [[American Indian School Records|Read more...]]
  
== Libraries  ==
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'''Health Facilities.''' The Bureau of Indian Affairs established health facilities for American Indians at many locations throughout the United States. [[American Indian Health Facilities|Read more...]]
  
Many libraries have special collections of materials regarding the local American Indian groups. Some of the larger libraries have very large collections of such material.
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== See Also  ==
  
=== Library of Congress  ===
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Related Wiki pages are found at:
  
=== Family History Library  ===
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*[[United States Native Races|United States Native Races]]
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*[[Starting Native American Research|Starting Native American (Native Races) Research]]
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*[[United States Native Races Part 1 - How Do I Find Records about My Ancestors?|United States Native Races Part 1]]: How do I Find Records About My Ancestors?
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*[[United States Native Races Part 2 - Has Someone Already Researched My Family?|United States Native Races Part 2]]: Has Anyone Already Researched My Family?
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*[[United States Native Races Part 3 - What Records Can I Search?|United States Native Races Part 3]]: What Records Can I Search?
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*[[United States Native Races Part 4 - What Should I Know about Native Americans before I Search the Records?|United States Native Races Part 4:]] What Should I Know about Native Americans before I Search the Records?
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*[[United States Native Races Part 5 - Where Do I Find Records?|United States Native Races Part 5]]: Where Do I Find the Records?
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*[[United States Native Races Part 6 - What Tools Can Help My Search?|United States Native Races Part 6]]: What Tools Can Help My Search?
  
The [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City has a collection of many American Indian records, including microfilm copies of some of the holdings of the National Archives and its regional archives.
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'''Native American'''
  
=== University Libraries  ===
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*[[Starting Native American Research|Starting Native American Research]]
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*[[Native American Census|Native American Census ]]
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*[[Native American Probate Records|Native American Probate Records]]
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*[[Native American Research in Oklahoma|Native American Research in Oklahoma]]
  
The libraries of many universities have collections of American Indian manuscripts and published records. A few examples of those with significant collections are the University of Oklahoma at Norman, the University of Arizona at Tucson, Brigham Young University at Provo, Utah, the University of San Diego at San Diego, California, the University of South Dakota at Pierre, Gonzaga University at Spokane, Washington, Marquette University at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and many others.
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'''Indians of the United States'''
  
= Jurisdictions Responsible for the Creation of American Indian Records =
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*[[Indians of the United States and Their Records|Indians of the United States and Their Records]]
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*[[Indians of North America|Indians of North America]]
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*[[Indians of North America - A Beginner's Guide|Indians of North America - A Beginner's Guide]]
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*[[Indians of North America: Identifying Tribal Names|Indians of North America Identifying Tribal Names]]
  
== Federal  ==
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'''Five Civilized Tribes'''
  
Department of War
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*[[Five Civilized Tribes|Five Civilized Tribes]]
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*[[The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll|The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll]]
  
Department of Interior
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== Did You Know?  ==
  
Department of State (Territorial)  
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*American Indians served in every [[United States Military Records|U.S. Military]] conflict from the [[United States Revolutionary War|Revolutionary War]] to the present. Many served as scouts for the United States Army during many of their skirmishes with other Indians.<br>
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*In 1902 the Commissioner of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] (BIA) sent a circular letter to all field agents giving them instructions to systematize the surnames of all Indians under their charge.
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*The [[Indian Reorganization Act|Indian Reorganization Act ]](also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act) of 1934 established the right for most Indian tribes of the United States to govern their own affairs through the establishment of their own tribal governments, tribal councils, and tribal offices.<br>
  
The [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]], since 1947, and its forerunner, the Office of Indian Affairs, from 1824 to 1947, have been the primary offices of the federal government responsible for the administration of Indian Affairs in the United States. They also generated the largest amount of records regarding individual Indians.
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== Websites  ==
  
== State  ==
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:*Join the [https://www.facebook.com/pages/American-Indian-Southeastern-US-Genealogy-Research-Community/217746328279090 Facebook] American Indian (Southeastern US) Genealogy Research Community!
  
Nearly every state in the United States has an Office of Indian Affairs, although their title may vary from one state to another. These offices coordinate affairs between their state's government and the tribal governments. They also have particular responsibility for any tribes recognized by the state that are not federally recognized. For a list of contact information for each state, [http://www.leg.state.or.us/cis/ODAIR/indian_comms_affairs_contacts.pdf click here].<br>
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:*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Bureau of Indian Affairs On-Line]
 +
:*[http://www.atalm.org/ Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries and museums] (ATALM)
 +
:*[http://nativeamericanresearch.blogspot.com Native American Research]
 +
:*[http://researchindians.blogspot.com/ How to do American Indian Research]
 +
:*[http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100010002/1100100010021 Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada]
 +
:*[http://www.nara.gov National Archives and Records Administration] (NARA)
 +
:*[https://familysearch.org FamilySearch]
 +
:*[http://www.ancestry.com Ancestry]
 +
:*[https://go.fold3.com/native_americans/?xid=1890&utm_source=content&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=odp-na-nov2015 Fold3 Native American Collection (Ancestry.com)]
 +
:*[https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native-american Access Genealogy]  
 +
:*[http://www.rootsweb.com RootsWeb]
  
== Ecclesiastical ==
+
== References ==
  
Several denominations sent missionaries among the Native Americans, often establishing American Indian Missions, some of which evolved into long-standing congregations on or near Indian reservations. [[American Indian Church Records|Read more...]]<br>
+
{{reflist}}
 
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{{American Indian}}{{United States Combo}} {{-}}
== Educational  ==
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__NOTOC__  
 
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Many schools were established for the education of American Indian children, including boarding school, day schools, mission schools, and many others. [[American Indian School Records|Read more...]]
+
 
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== Health  ==
+
 
+
The Bureau of Indian Affairs established health facilities for American Indians at many locations throughout the United States. [[American Indian Health Facilities|Read more...]]
+
 
+
= Research Tools  =
+
 
+
*Join a [https://www.facebook.com/pages/American-Indian-Southeastern-US-Genealogy-Research-Community/217746328279090 Facebook] or [https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Join_a_Skype_Research_Community Skype] American Indian (Southeastern US) Genealogy Research Community!
+
*(helpful tools and resources, gazetteers)
+
*(language dictionary, handwriting guide or tutorial, etc.
+
 
+
= Some Important Websites  =
+
 
+
FamilySearch&nbsp; [https://familysearch.wiki.org https://familysearch.wiki.org]
+
 
+
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) [http://www.nara.gov www.nara.gov]
+
 
+
Bureau of Indian Affairs On-Line [http://www.doi.gov/bureau-indian-affairs.html www.doi.gov/bureau-indian-affairs.html]
+
 
+
Native American Heritage Genealogy [http://www.nativeamericanheritage.com www.nativeamericanheritage.com]
+
 
+
Ancestry [http://www.ancestry.com www.ancestry.com]
+
 
+
Access Genealogy&nbsp; [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com]
+
 
+
RootsWeb [http://www.rootsweb.com www.rootsweb.com]
+
 
+
Indians of Canada [http://www.inac.gc.ca www.inac.gc.ca]
+
 
+
Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries and museums (ATALM) [http://www.atalm.org www.atalm.org]
+
 
+
Native American Research [http://nativeamericanresearch.blogspot.com http://nativeamericanresearch.blogspot.com]
+
 
+
How to Research Indians [http://researchindians.blogspot.com http://researchindians.blogspot.com]
+
 
+
=== Things you can do  ===
+
 
+
In order to make this wiki a better research tool, we need your help! Many tasks need to be done. You can help by:<br>
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*[[Edit a page|Expand an article]] or [[Special:Shortpages|short page]]
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*[[How to author an article in the Wiki|Create a new article]]<br>
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*[[How to categorize an article|Categorize articles]]<br>
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|
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*[[Create an external link|Add external links to articles]]
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*[[Create an internal link|Add internal links to articles]]
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*Other...
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|}
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<div></div>
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__NOTOC__ <!-- Add Categories BELOW -->
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<div></div></div>
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{{ featured article }}
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[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
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[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States|Genealogy]]

Latest revision as of 19:16, 26 June 2016

United States Gotoarrow.png American Indian Genealogy

American Indian Topics
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Beginning Research
Tribes
Record Types
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Other Topics
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American Indian Genealogy is a guide to beginning Native American research, available records types, BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) agencies and reservations, census, church, military records, schools, annuity, allotment, treaties, removal records, archives and libraries, cultural groups, and forts.

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Click this button for links to databases, indexes, or sites that help you find an American Indian ancestor by topic or tribe.


Key to Success
Cheyenne Indians: Henry Roman Nose, Yellow Bear, and Lame Man.
"The key to success in American Indian genealogy is the cross-disciplinary approach. One cannot just be a genealogist who pours through public records. Only the very lucky will find a census record with a notation that so-and-so was a Choctaw Indian. The task requires an expanded thought process where one must investigate all possibilities without tiring of the effort. The history of the family, community, county and state must be known. Church and local records must be examined for any clue regarding family origins. A successful researcher must also have an intimate knowledge of tribal history and culture. This is a very big order, indeed especially for the small splinter groups that dot the southern map. The quest can be a noble and romantic endeavor. At the least, one can come away with a great body of knowledge of the first American. At most, one can find that allusive [sic] Native American ancestor."[1]

Getting Started

Several approaches could be taken to locate information about a potential American Indian ancestor.

If the name of the tribe with which the ancestor was associated is known, a researcher should study the history and culture of that tribe and locate the records created by various records jurisdictions for that tribe.

  • If the tribe is not known, a more logical approach would be to determine the tribes associated with the locality or localities where the ancestor resided. In this case, sometimes only the state is known. Occasionally a county of residence is known. In either case, the records of that locality should be searched until the association of the ancestor is established or at least strongly suspected.
  • If a residence close to a reservation or a Bureau of Indian Affairs agency is known, the history of the reservation or agency and the location of records they generated could be studied.

Many records were created by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and their various offices. Many of those records have been preserved by the National Archives of the United States and its regional archives. Some of those records have been microfilmed and are available at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. Some of the records are also being digitized and indexed by internet websites and by commercial companies.

There are also other jurisdictions that recorded information about the American Indians, including churches, schools, hospitals, and others. Each of these jurisdictions may have records of individual Indians and should be studied.

By Locality

If you know where your ancestor lived at the time of the alleged Indian connection, go to the page for the Indians of that state or province by clicking on the link below.

States

Provinces of Canada

By Tribe

There are over 550 federally recognized Tribal entities in the United States and are usually called tribes or nations. There are also many more Indian groups, sometimes called bands, some of which are included in the federally recognized tribal entities. In addition to those recognized by the federal government, there are tribes that are state-recognized, tribes that are seeking official recognition, and tribes that have existed historically that are no longer recognized as a distinct tribe.

There are approximately 630 "First Nations" recognized by the Canadian government, some of which reside on the US/Canadian border and are closely related to some of the tribes in the United States.

The page for each state of the United States lists the known tribes who reside in or had historical connection to that state. A separate page exists for many of the tribes listed on the state pages. If you know the name of the tribe with which your family is connected, you may simply search for the name of the tribe.

The Tribal Office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.

Some of the major tribes of the United States are listed here.

By BIA Office

Agencies and Sub Agencies Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs are the field offices of that federal bureau. They are normally the office that recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians. They are listed under the pages for the Indians of [state], the tribes they served, the name of the agency, and the reservation for which they were the field office. They are also cross-linked among these pages.

Sub-Agencies normally served smaller jurisdictions or tribes than the agencies and were subordinate to an agency.

U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Affairs BIA Regional, Agency, and Field Offices Map

BIA Regional Offices page links to twelve regions: Alaska, Eastern, Eastern Oklahoma, Great Plains, Midwest, Navajo, Northwest, Pacific, Rocky Mountain, Southern Plains, Southwest, and Western; site map, with listing of Tribes served, and agencies

Area Offices. Area Offices of the BIA are administrative offices. They kept many records, but most of the files regarding individuals are kept at the agency level or in the Tribal Offices of each tribe.

Superintendencies. Historically, the Bureau of Indian Affairs used an administrative office called a superintendency to oversee the local agencies and sub agencies. Most of them were abolished in the 1870s and, for a time, the agencies reported directly to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in Washington, DC. The records of the superintendencies usually consist primarily of correspondence and reports of the BIA Field Offices.

By Reservation

There are or have been hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many of them are federally recognized and supervised. Some are state reservations, administered by a state office of Indian Affairs. Federal reservations usually have an agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs responsible for the administration of that reservation.

Research Facilities

There are many research facilities which have significant collections of American Indian records. See also American Indian Archives and Libraries. A few of the larger ones are listed below. Some university libraries and historical societies have significant and unique collections for their areas of interest.

Archives

Records of the native population can be found in several archives, including the National Archives and its regional archives, state archives, and other archival institutions.

Historical Societies

Libraries

Many libraries have special collections of materials regarding the local American Indian groups. Some of the larger libraries have very large collections of such material.

Record Keepers

Federal. Several federal departments have historically kept Indian records:

  • Department of War
  • Department of Interior
  • Department of State (Territorial)
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs since 1947, and its forerunner, the Office of Indian Affairs, from 1824 to 1947, have been the primary offices of the federal government responsible for the administration of Indian Affairs in the United States. They also generated the largest amount of records regarding individual Indians.

States. Nearly every state in the United States has an Office of Indian Affairs, although their title may vary from one state to another. These offices coordinate affairs between their state's government and the tribal governments. They also have particular responsibility for any tribes recognized by the state that are not federally recognized. For a list of contact information for each state, click here.

Churches. Several denominations sent missionaries among the Native Americans, often establishing American Indian Missions, some of which evolved into long-standing congregations on or near Indian reservations. Read more...

Schools. Many schools were established for the education of American Indian children, including boarding school, day schools, mission schools, and many others. Read more...

Health Facilities. The Bureau of Indian Affairs established health facilities for American Indians at many locations throughout the United States. Read more...

See Also

Related Wiki pages are found at:

Native American

Indians of the United States

Five Civilized Tribes

Did You Know?

  • American Indians served in every U.S. Military conflict from the Revolutionary War to the present. Many served as scouts for the United States Army during many of their skirmishes with other Indians.
  • In 1902 the Commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) sent a circular letter to all field agents giving them instructions to systematize the surnames of all Indians under their charge.
  • The Indian Reorganization Act (also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act) of 1934 established the right for most Indian tribes of the United States to govern their own affairs through the establishment of their own tribal governments, tribal councils, and tribal offices.

Websites

  • Join the Facebook American Indian (Southeastern US) Genealogy Research Community!

References

  1. Thomas J. Blumer, "Practical Pointers in Tracing Your Indian Ancestry in the Southeast," Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society, 13 (Spring/Fall 1994): 67-82.
  2. OU Search: American Indian manuscrips and published records in University of Oklahoma (accessed 11 May 2016).
  3. History of the Apaches in University of Arizona Special Collections (accessed 11 May 2016)
  4. Search: American Indian Collection in Brigham Young University (accessed 11 May 2016)