The following important events in the history of Arizona affected political boundaries, record keeping, and family movements.
1539: Marcos de Niza a Spanish Franciscan Friar was first to explore Arizona.
1776:The Spanish established a garrison at Tucson.
1821: Arizona became a part of Mexico. Apache troubles eliminated white settlements except in Tucson.
1846: The Mormon Battalion built Cooke's Wagon Road, south of the Gila River. The road became a favorite route into Arizona and California for early prospectors and pioneers.
1846: U.S. Military under command of Col. Alexander W. Doniphan engaged the Navajo at Bear Springs.
1848-1853: Mexico ceded the portion of Arizona north of the Gila River to the United States. This became part of New Mexico Territory in 1850. In 1853, the Gadsden Purchase added the area south of the Gila.
1862: Indian battle of Apache Pass
1864: Kit Carson, led a U.S. army against the Navajo Indians. The army killed the sheep and burned their crops forcing the tribe to surrender or face starvation. The Navajo were marched to Fort Sumner at Bosque Redondo, New Mexico. The march became known as "The Long Walk". Eight thouseand survived the march but many others died.
1863-1866: Arizona was organized as a separate territory. The first four counties were organized in 1864. In 1866, the northwestern part of Arizona Territory was transferred to the new state of Nevada.
1886: (September 4) Apache Indian Chief, Geronimo, captured by Federal Troops under General Miles in Arizona, ending the last major Indian War. Geronimo had led his band on a six month escape from San Carlos reservation in Arizona.
- Battle of Bull Run (Indian & federal troops)
- Battle of Picacho Pass (Indian & federal troops)
- Battle of Skull Cave (Indian & federal troops)
1871: Camp Grant Massacre
1873: Apache removal by U.S. Army under direction of Kit Carson.
1882: Battle of Big Dry Wash
1870-1910:The non-Indian population of Arizona increased from fewer than 10,000 to over 200,000 as settlers moved in from many states and countries.
1912: (February 14,) Arizona became a state.
Sources for studying the history of Arizona include:
Farish, Thomas Edwin. History of Arizona. Eight Volumes, San Francisco, California: Filmer Brothers Electrotype Company, 19--? Reprint of Phoenix, Arizona: N.p., 1915-18. (FHL book 979.1 H2f; v. 1-4 on film 934825 items 1-4.)
Wyllys, Rufus Kay. Arizona: The History of a Frontier State. Phoenix, Arizona: Hobson and Herr, 1950. (FHL book 979.1 H2w.)
A bibliography that includes some local histories is Donald M. Powell, Arizona Gathering II, 1950-1969: An Annotated Bibliography (Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, 1973; FHL book 979.1 A3pa).