Difference between revisions of "Australia Convict Records"

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Australia was first settled in 1788, when the British government established a penal colony at Port Jackson, Sydney Bay. As a result, records about convicts transported to Australia are numerous and play a major role in Australian family history research.
+
[[Australia]] Australia  
  
Indexes and records of convicts are available in a variety of formats including microfiche, microfilm, book and CD. Some indexes and guides are available on the internet and generally provide information for further research in material in State Archives and libraries. See:
+
Convict Records Australia was first settled in 1788, when the British government established a penal colony at Port Jackson, Sydney Bay. As a result, records about convicts transported to Australia are numerous and play a major role in Australian family history research.  
* [http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/index.html Convicts to Australia - A Guide to Researching your Convict Ancestors]
 
  
This site contains a searchable database of 780 First Fleet convicts:
+
== History of Transportation to Australia  ==
* [http://cedir.uow.edu.au/programs/FirstFleet/ First Fleet Online]
 
  
Ships that transported convicts: Ships of the First Fleet
+
New South Wales holds more convict records than any other state. Of the approximately 150,000 convicts transported to Australia from Great Britain between 1788 and 1850, nearly 90,000 of them went to the region of New South Wales, which then covered a substantial portion of Australia. To learn more, read the following guides.
  
Convicts from Ireland: Ireland-Australia Transportation Records, 1791-1853
+
*[http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/archives/indexes_online_3357.asp#Convicts Convict Records at State Records NSW]
 +
*[http://www.pcug.org.au/~ppmay/convicts.htm Irish Convicts to NSW 1791-1830]
  
The punishment of "transportation" for a crime tried in London by the Old Bailey Court resulted in exile to Australia after the American Revolutionary War. The website below is searchable by several catagories including by name for the punishment of Transportation:<br>[http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/luceneweb/hri3/hitlist_bailey.jsp?mode=bailey&table=cvp&ot=&os=&vt=&vs=&ps=cat_pt+=+12&c_date=&v_sur=&vg=&d_sur=&dg=&min_age=&max_age=&min_month=00&min_year=&max_month=13&max_year=&sf= Proceedings of the Old Bailey 1674-1834]
+
By 1829 convicts or ex-convicts made up approximately 65 percent of the population of New South Wales. The ex-convicts had received either a ticket of leave, a certificate of freedom, or a pardon.<br>  
  
A partial index of convicts arriving in Australia is available at:
+
== First Fleet  ==
* [http://users.bigpond.net.au/convicts/page2.html Claim a Convict.]
 
  
'''New South Wales''' holds more convict records than any other state. Of the approximately 150,000 convicts transported to Australia from Great Britain between 1788 and 1850, nearly 90,000 of them went to the region of New South Wales, which then covered a substantial portion of Australia. The following is a guide to the convict records held by the Archives Office:
+
The first fleet of ships carrying convicts to Australia arrived first in Tasmania. [http://cedir.uow.edu.au/programs/FirstFleet/ First Fleet Online] contains a searchable database of those in this fleet.<br>
  
* [http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/archives/indexes_online_3357.asp#Convicts Convict Records at State Records NSW]
+
== Handbooks and Guides  ==
* [http://www.pcug.org.au/~ppmay/convicts.htm Irish Convicts to NSW 1791-1830]
 
  
By 1829 convicts or ex-convicts made up approximately 65 percent of the population of New South Wales. The ex-convicts had received either a ticket of leave, a certificate of freedom, or a pardon.
+
Indexes and records of convicts are available in a variety of formats including microfiche, microfilm, book and CD. Some indexes and guides are available on the internet and generally provide information for further research in material in State Archives and libraries. See:
  
'''Tickets of leave''' were issued to convicts having served about half of their sentences with good behavior. These tickets allowed convicts to seek employment as they wished, limited their movement to a certain district for the remainder of their sentences. Prior to 1828, bench magistrates granted tickets of leave and approved applications for convicts to marry. The actual ticket of leave was issued to the convict; the government retained the ticket of leave butts. Ticket of leave butts listed the convict’s name, ship, and date of arrival, native place, trade or calling, date and place of trial and sentence, a physical description, and the district to which he or she was confined.
+
*[http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/index.html Convicts to Australia - A Guide to Researching your Convict Ancestors]
  
[http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/indexes/searchform.aspx?id=19 '''A Certificate of Freedom'''] was a document stating that a convict's sentence had been served and was usually given to convicts with a 7, 10 or 14 year sentence or when they received a pardon. Convicts with a life sentence could receive a Pardon, but not a Certificate of Freedom. The Certificate of Freedom number was sometimes annotated on the indent or noted on a Ticket of Leave Butt. Colonial Certificates of Freedom relate to sentences received for offences committed after arrival in the colony. The government retained certificates of freedom butts, which were similar to ticket of leave butts.
+
Ships that transported convicts: Ships of the First Fleet
  
'''Pardons''', both conditional and absolute, were generally granted to convicts with life sentences. Conditional pardons required that the ex-convict never return to the British Isles or his or her pardon would be void. Absolute pardons allowed an ex-convict to return to the British Isles if he or she wished. Pardons contain information similar to tickets of leave.
+
Convicts from Ireland: Ireland-Australia Transportation Records, 1791-1853
  
'''Convict indents''' are lists that were made when convicts arrived on transport ships. Information given in indents is similar to that in tickets of leave but also includes a convict’s marital status and number of children and whether the convict was literate. An index to convict indents for 1788–1842 is held by the Archives Office of New South Wales.
+
The punishment of "transportation" for a crime tried in London by the Old Bailey Court resulted in exile to Australia after the American Revolutionary War. The website below is searchable by several categories including by name for the punishment of Transportation:<br>[http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/luceneweb/hri3/hitlist_bailey.jsp?mode=bailey&table=cvp&ot=&os=&vt=&vs=&ps=cat_pt+=+12&c_date=&v_sur=&vg=&d_sur=&dg=&min_age=&max_age=&min_month=00&min_year=&max_month=13&max_year=&sf= Proceedings of the Old Bailey 1674-1834]
  
'''Tasmania''' received more than 60,000 convicts from Great Britain in addition to convicts from other colonies. Western Australia received approximately 10,000 transported convicts between 1850 and 1868. South Australia never received convicts. However, [http://www.jaunay.com/convicts.html South Australian transported convicts 1837-1851]
+
A partial index of convicts arriving in Australia is available at:  
  
The ticket of leave butts and certificate of freedom butts for the over 67,000 convicts sent to Tasmania have not survived. The main records for Tasmanian convicts are the convict conduct registers. Information contained in these registers are similar to the tickets of leave and certificates of freedom. Description lists are also available for Tasmanian convicts and give detailed descriptions of the convicts.
+
*[http://users.bigpond.net.au/convicts/page2.html Claim a Convict.]
  
* [http://portal.archives.tas.gov.au/menu.aspx?search=5 Index to convict applications for permission to marry 1829-1857] - Tasmania
+
<br>
  
'''Victoria and Queensland''' did not become separate, self-governing colonies until after convict transportation to eastern Australia ceased. Thus, these areas do not have convict records. Technically, during the transportation era, no convicts were transported to the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, however convicts did find their way to the District. Please observe the copyright requirements for the following site: [http://www.access.prov.vic.gov.au/public/PROVguides/PROVguide057/PROVguide057.jsp PRO Victoria - Convict Records]
+
'''Tickets of leave''' were issued to convicts having served about half of their sentences with good behavior. These tickets allowed convicts to seek employment as they wished, limited their movement to a certain district for the remainder of their sentences. Prior to 1828, bench magistrates granted tickets of leave and approved applications for convicts to marry. The actual ticket of leave was issued to the convict; the government retained the ticket of leave butts. Ticket of leave butts listed the convict’s name, ship, and date of arrival, native place, trade or calling, date and place of trial and sentence, a physical description, and the district to which he or she was confined.  
  
'''Western Australia Convicts:'''[http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/con-wa.html Swan River Convicts 1850-1868]
+
[http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/indexes/searchform.aspx?id=19 '''A Certificate of Freedom'''] was a document stating that a convict's sentence had been served and was usually given to convicts with a 7, 10 or 14 year sentence or when they received a pardon. Convicts with a life sentence could receive a Pardon, but not a Certificate of Freedom. The Certificate of Freedom number was sometimes annotated on the indent or noted on a Ticket of Leave Butt. Colonial Certificates of Freedom relate to sentences received for offences committed after arrival in the colony. The government retained certificates of freedom butts, which were similar to ticket of leave butts.
  
The Family History Library has copies of the following:<br>''Guide to the convict records in the Archives Office of New South Wales''. Sydney, Australia: The Archives Authority, 1970. (Family History Library Call No. [http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=152914&disp=Guide+to+the+convict+records+in+the+Arch&columns=*,180,0 994.4 A35g]No. 14 or on Microfilm No. [http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlefilmnotes&columns=*,180,0&titleno=152914&disp=Guide+to+the+convict+records+in+the+Arch++ 908277 Item 1].)
+
'''Pardons''', both conditional and absolute, were generally granted to convicts with life sentences. Conditional pardons required that the ex-convict never return to the British Isles or his or her pardon would be void. Absolute pardons allowed an ex-convict to return to the British Isles if he or she wished. Pardons contain information similar to tickets of leave.  
  
Records about convicts are found under several headings in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:
+
'''Convict indents''' are lists that were made when convicts arrived on transport ships. Information given in indents is similar to that in tickets of leave but also includes a convict’s marital status and number of children and whether the convict was literate. An index to convict indents for 1788–1842 is held by the Archives Office of New South Wales.
  
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=983182&subject_disp=Australia+-+Convict+records&columns=*,180,0 AUSTRALIA - CONVICT RECORDS]<br>Additional Convict Records are available by adding a State to the Place Search: AUSTRALIA, [STATE] - Convict Records
+
'''Tasmania''' received more than 60,000 convicts from Great Britain in addition to convicts from other colonies. Western Australia received approximately 10,000 transported convicts between 1850 and 1868. South Australia never received convicts. However, [http://www.jaunay.com/convicts.html South Australian transported convicts 1837-1851]  
  
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=551638&subject_disp=Australia+-+Correctional+institutions&columns=*,180,0 AUSTRALIA - CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS]<br>The Family History Library has a large collection of records generated by correctional institutions. Correctional institutions, including jails and penal colonies, created many valuable genealogical records. Such records include jail entrance and charge books, musters of convicts and prisoners, registers of sentences and punishments, registers of prisoner conduct, petitions for mitigation of sentences, and registers of sentences remitted or commuted. Additional Correctional Institutions records are available by adding a State or Town to the Place Search: AUSTRALIA - CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS AUSTRALIA, [STATE].
+
The ticket of leave butts and certificate of freedom butts for the over 67,000 convicts sent to Tasmania have not survived. The main records for Tasmanian convicts are the convict conduct registers. Information contained in these registers are similar to the tickets of leave and certificates of freedom. Description lists are also available for Tasmanian convicts and give detailed descriptions of the convicts.  
  
Additional&nbsp; Australia topics include:<br>[[Australia Census]]
+
*[http://portal.archives.tas.gov.au/menu.aspx?search=5 Index to convict applications for permission to marry 1829-1857] - Tasmania
  
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=477045&subject_disp=Australia+-+Court+records&columns=*,180,0 COURT RECORDS]
+
'''Victoria and Queensland''' did not become separate, self-governing colonies until after convict transportation to eastern Australia ceased. Thus, these areas do not have convict records. Technically, during the transportation era, no convicts were transported to the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, however convicts did find their way to the District. Please observe the copyright requirements for the following site: [http://www.access.prov.vic.gov.au/public/PROVguides/PROVguide057/PROVguide057.jsp PRO Victoria - Convict Records]  
  
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=339121&subject_disp=Australia+-+Emigration+and+immigration&columns=*,180,0 EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION]
+
'''Western Australia Convicts:'''[http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/con-wa.html Swan River Convicts 1850-1868]  
  
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=477044&subject_disp=Australia+-+Public+records&columns=*,180,0 PUBLIC RECORDS]
+
The Family History Library has copies of the following:<br>''Guide to the convict records in the Archives Office of New South Wales''. Sydney, Australia: The Archives Authority, 1970. (Family History Library Call No. [http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=152914&disp=Guide+to+the+convict+records+in+the+Arch&columns=*,180,0 994.4 A35g]No. 14 or on Microfilm No. [http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlefilmnotes&columns=*,180,0&titleno=152914&disp=Guide+to+the+convict+records+in+the+Arch++ 908277 Item 1].)
  
The following books are good sources for further information about convicts and the English penal and transportation systems:
+
Records about convicts are found under several headings in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:  
  
* Bateson, Charles. ''The Convict Ships''. Second Edition. Glasgow, Scotland: Brown, Son &amp; Ferguson, 1969. (Family History Library&nbsp; Call Number[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*,180,0&callno=994+H2b 994 H2b].)
+
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=983182&subject_disp=Australia+-+Convict+records&columns=*,180,0 AUSTRALIA - CONVICT RECORDS]<br>Additional Convict Records are available by adding a State to the Place Search: AUSTRALIA, [STATE] - Convict Records
  
* Cobley, John F. C. C. ''The Crimes of the First Fleet Convicts''. Sydney, Australia: Angus &amp; Robertson, 1970. (Family History Library&nbsp; Call Number [http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*,180,0&callno=994+P2c 994 P2c].)
+
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=551638&subject_disp=Australia+-+Correctional+institutions&columns=*,180,0 AUSTRALIA - CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS]<br>The Family History Library has a large collection of records generated by correctional institutions. Correctional institutions, including jails and penal colonies, created many valuable genealogical records. Such records include jail entrance and charge books, musters of convicts and prisoners, registers of sentences and punishments, registers of prisoner conduct, petitions for mitigation of sentences, and registers of sentences remitted or commuted. Additional Correctional Institutions records are available by adding a State or Town to the Place Search: AUSTRALIA - CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS AUSTRALIA, [STATE].  
  
* Hughes, Robert. ''The Fatal Shore''. New York, NY, USA: Alfred A. Knoft, 1987. (Family History Library&nbsp; Call Number [http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=523824&disp=The+fatal+shore&columns=*,180,0 994 H2hr].)
+
Additional&nbsp; Australia topics include:<br>[[Australia Census]]
 +
 
 +
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=477045&subject_disp=Australia+-+Court+records&columns=*,180,0 COURT RECORDS]
 +
 
 +
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=339121&subject_disp=Australia+-+Emigration+and+immigration&columns=*,180,0 EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION]
 +
 
 +
[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=477044&subject_disp=Australia+-+Public+records&columns=*,180,0 PUBLIC RECORDS]
 +
 
 +
The following books are good sources for further information about convicts and the English penal and transportation systems:
 +
 
 +
*Bateson, Charles. ''The Convict Ships''. Second Edition. Glasgow, Scotland: Brown, Son &amp; Ferguson, 1969. (Family History Library&nbsp; Call Number[http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*,180,0&callno=994+H2b 994 H2b].)
 +
 
 +
*Cobley, John F. C. C. ''The Crimes of the First Fleet Convicts''. Sydney, Australia: Angus &amp; Robertson, 1970. (Family History Library&nbsp; Call Number [http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*,180,0&callno=994+P2c 994 P2c].)
 +
 
 +
*Hughes, Robert. ''The Fatal Shore''. New York, NY, USA: Alfred A. Knoft, 1987. (Family History Library&nbsp; Call Number [http://webview/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=523824&disp=The+fatal+shore&columns=*,180,0 994 H2hr].)
  
 
[[Category:Australia]]
 
[[Category:Australia]]

Revision as of 16:51, 1 June 2010

Australia Australia

Convict Records Australia was first settled in 1788, when the British government established a penal colony at Port Jackson, Sydney Bay. As a result, records about convicts transported to Australia are numerous and play a major role in Australian family history research.

History of Transportation to Australia

New South Wales holds more convict records than any other state. Of the approximately 150,000 convicts transported to Australia from Great Britain between 1788 and 1850, nearly 90,000 of them went to the region of New South Wales, which then covered a substantial portion of Australia. To learn more, read the following guides.

By 1829 convicts or ex-convicts made up approximately 65 percent of the population of New South Wales. The ex-convicts had received either a ticket of leave, a certificate of freedom, or a pardon.

First Fleet

The first fleet of ships carrying convicts to Australia arrived first in Tasmania. First Fleet Online contains a searchable database of those in this fleet.

Handbooks and Guides

Indexes and records of convicts are available in a variety of formats including microfiche, microfilm, book and CD. Some indexes and guides are available on the internet and generally provide information for further research in material in State Archives and libraries. See:

Ships that transported convicts: Ships of the First Fleet

Convicts from Ireland: Ireland-Australia Transportation Records, 1791-1853

The punishment of "transportation" for a crime tried in London by the Old Bailey Court resulted in exile to Australia after the American Revolutionary War. The website below is searchable by several categories including by name for the punishment of Transportation:
Proceedings of the Old Bailey 1674-1834

A partial index of convicts arriving in Australia is available at:


Tickets of leave were issued to convicts having served about half of their sentences with good behavior. These tickets allowed convicts to seek employment as they wished, limited their movement to a certain district for the remainder of their sentences. Prior to 1828, bench magistrates granted tickets of leave and approved applications for convicts to marry. The actual ticket of leave was issued to the convict; the government retained the ticket of leave butts. Ticket of leave butts listed the convict’s name, ship, and date of arrival, native place, trade or calling, date and place of trial and sentence, a physical description, and the district to which he or she was confined.

A Certificate of Freedom was a document stating that a convict's sentence had been served and was usually given to convicts with a 7, 10 or 14 year sentence or when they received a pardon. Convicts with a life sentence could receive a Pardon, but not a Certificate of Freedom. The Certificate of Freedom number was sometimes annotated on the indent or noted on a Ticket of Leave Butt. Colonial Certificates of Freedom relate to sentences received for offences committed after arrival in the colony. The government retained certificates of freedom butts, which were similar to ticket of leave butts.

Pardons, both conditional and absolute, were generally granted to convicts with life sentences. Conditional pardons required that the ex-convict never return to the British Isles or his or her pardon would be void. Absolute pardons allowed an ex-convict to return to the British Isles if he or she wished. Pardons contain information similar to tickets of leave.

Convict indents are lists that were made when convicts arrived on transport ships. Information given in indents is similar to that in tickets of leave but also includes a convict’s marital status and number of children and whether the convict was literate. An index to convict indents for 1788–1842 is held by the Archives Office of New South Wales.

Tasmania received more than 60,000 convicts from Great Britain in addition to convicts from other colonies. Western Australia received approximately 10,000 transported convicts between 1850 and 1868. South Australia never received convicts. However, South Australian transported convicts 1837-1851

The ticket of leave butts and certificate of freedom butts for the over 67,000 convicts sent to Tasmania have not survived. The main records for Tasmanian convicts are the convict conduct registers. Information contained in these registers are similar to the tickets of leave and certificates of freedom. Description lists are also available for Tasmanian convicts and give detailed descriptions of the convicts.

Victoria and Queensland did not become separate, self-governing colonies until after convict transportation to eastern Australia ceased. Thus, these areas do not have convict records. Technically, during the transportation era, no convicts were transported to the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, however convicts did find their way to the District. Please observe the copyright requirements for the following site: PRO Victoria - Convict Records

Western Australia Convicts:Swan River Convicts 1850-1868

The Family History Library has copies of the following:
Guide to the convict records in the Archives Office of New South Wales. Sydney, Australia: The Archives Authority, 1970. (Family History Library Call No. 994.4 A35gNo. 14 or on Microfilm No. 908277 Item 1.)

Records about convicts are found under several headings in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:

AUSTRALIA - CONVICT RECORDS
Additional Convict Records are available by adding a State to the Place Search: AUSTRALIA, [STATE] - Convict Records

AUSTRALIA - CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS
The Family History Library has a large collection of records generated by correctional institutions. Correctional institutions, including jails and penal colonies, created many valuable genealogical records. Such records include jail entrance and charge books, musters of convicts and prisoners, registers of sentences and punishments, registers of prisoner conduct, petitions for mitigation of sentences, and registers of sentences remitted or commuted. Additional Correctional Institutions records are available by adding a State or Town to the Place Search: AUSTRALIA - CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS AUSTRALIA, [STATE].

Additional  Australia topics include:
Australia Census

COURT RECORDS

EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION

PUBLIC RECORDS

The following books are good sources for further information about convicts and the English penal and transportation systems:

  • Bateson, Charles. The Convict Ships. Second Edition. Glasgow, Scotland: Brown, Son & Ferguson, 1969. (Family History Library  Call Number994 H2b.)
  • Cobley, John F. C. C. The Crimes of the First Fleet Convicts. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson, 1970. (Family History Library  Call Number 994 P2c.)
  • Hughes, Robert. The Fatal Shore. New York, NY, USA: Alfred A. Knoft, 1987. (Family History Library  Call Number 994 H2hr.)