The first census in the Austrian Empire was taken in 1754 under Maria Theresia, because of resistance by the nobility and clergy the next census was not taken in the Austrian Empire (without Hungary) until 1869, 1880, 1890, 1900 and the last census in 1910. One can find there statistical information about number of inhabitants and houses per village/town -- but NO NAMES of individuals.
During the First Republic a census was taken in 1923 and 1934. While annexed to Germany a census was taken in 1939. Since 1945 (Second Republic) a census has been taken every 10 years beginning in 1951.