Difference between revisions of "C genealogical glossary terms"

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===== C  =====
 
===== C  =====
 +
 
*Roman numeral for "one-hundred."
 
*Roman numeral for "one-hundred."
  
 
===== circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))  =====
 
===== circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))  =====
 +
 
*Swedish word for "about, approximately."
 
*Swedish word for "about, approximately."
  
 
===== contrajó matrimonio con (c.m.c.)  =====
 
===== contrajó matrimonio con (c.m.c.)  =====
 +
 
*Spanish word for "contracted marriage with."
 
*Spanish word for "contracted marriage with."
  
 
===== circa, German (ca.)  =====
 
===== circa, German (ca.)  =====
 +
 
*German word for "about."
 
*German word for "about."
  
 
===== caballero  =====
 
===== caballero  =====
 +
 
*Spanish word for "nobleman, knight, gentleman."
 
*Spanish word for "nobleman, knight, gentleman."
  
 
===== cabaretier  =====
 
===== cabaretier  =====
 +
 
*French word for "barkeeper."
 
*French word for "barkeeper."
  
 
===== cabeza  =====
 
===== cabeza  =====
 +
 
*Spanish word for "head."
 
*Spanish word for "head."
  
 
===== cabeça  =====
 
===== cabeça  =====
 +
 
*Portuguese word for "head."
 
*Portuguese word for "head."
  
 
===== cabildo  =====
 
===== cabildo  =====
 +
 
*Spanish word for "town council."
 
*Spanish word for "town council."
  
Line 49: Line 58:
  
 
===== cacciatore  =====
 
===== cacciatore  =====
 +
 
*Italian word for "hunter."
 
*Italian word for "hunter."
  
 
===== Cadastral map  =====
 
===== Cadastral map  =====
 +
 
*Map that shows the people who own land in an area. Also called land ownership map.
 
*Map that shows the people who own land in an area. Also called land ownership map.
  
 
===== cadastro  =====
 
===== cadastro  =====
 +
 
*Portuguese word for "land census."
 
*Portuguese word for "land census."
  
 
===== cadaver  =====
 
===== cadaver  =====
 +
 
*Latin word for "dead body, cadaver."
 
*Latin word for "dead body, cadaver."
  
 
===== cadeia  =====
 
===== cadeia  =====
 +
 
*Portuguese word for "jail."
 
*Portuguese word for "jail."
  
 
===== Cadency  =====
 
===== Cadency  =====
* A mark on a coat of arms showing a younger son's birth order.
+
 
 +
*A mark on a coat of arms showing a younger son's birth order.
  
 
===== caduto  =====
 
===== caduto  =====
 +
 
*Italian word for "fallen."
 
*Italian word for "fallen."
  
 
===== caelebs  =====
 
===== caelebs  =====
 +
 
*Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
 
*Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
  
 
===== caelum  =====
 
===== caelum  =====
 +
 
*Latin word for "heaven, sky."
 
*Latin word for "heaven, sky."
  
 
===== caementarius  =====
 
===== caementarius  =====
 +
 
*Latin word for "stonemason."
 
*Latin word for "stonemason."
  
 
===== cafezal  =====
 
===== cafezal  =====
 +
 
*Portuguese word for "coffee plantation."
 
*Portuguese word for "coffee plantation."
  
 
===== cafone  =====
 
===== cafone  =====
 +
 
*Italian word for "peasant."
 
*Italian word for "peasant."
  
 
===== café  =====
 
===== café  =====
 +
 
*Portuguese word for "coffee."
 
*Portuguese word for "coffee."
  
Line 96: Line 118:
  
 
===== calcearius  =====
 
===== calcearius  =====
 +
 
*Latin word for "shoemaker."
 
*Latin word for "shoemaker."
  
 
===== calciator  =====
 
===== calciator  =====
 +
 
*Latin word for "shoemaker."
 
*Latin word for "shoemaker."
  
Line 106: Line 130:
  
 
===== calderaio  =====
 
===== calderaio  =====
 +
 
*Italian word for "tinker."
 
*Italian word for "tinker."
  
 
===== caledonia  =====
 
===== caledonia  =====
 +
 
*Latin word for "Scotland."
 
*Latin word for "Scotland."
  
 
===== Frank T. Calef collection (Calef collection)  =====
 
===== Frank T. Calef collection (Calef collection)  =====
 +
 
*A manuscript collection of genealogical information about people who are descended from Puritans or Mayflower passengers.
 
*A manuscript collection of genealogical information about people who are descended from Puritans or Mayflower passengers.
  
Line 118: Line 145:
 
*An probate index that is arranged by first letter of the surname only and then by probate date. I may give the place of residence of a testator.
 
*An probate index that is arranged by first letter of the surname only and then by probate date. I may give the place of residence of a testator.
  
California Gold Rush  
+
===== California Gold Rush =====
  
    The movement of large numbers of people to the gold fields in California, especially in 1849.
+
*The movement of large numbers of people to the gold fields in California, especially in 1849.
  
 
===== caligator  =====
 
===== caligator  =====
 +
 
*Latin word for "shoemaker."
 
*Latin word for "shoemaker."
  
Line 130: Line 158:
  
 
===== calle  =====
 
===== calle  =====
 +
 
*Spanish word for "street."
 
*Spanish word for "street."
  
Line 149: Line 178:
  
 
===== caly  =====
 
===== caly  =====
 +
 
*Polish word for "entire."
 
*Polish word for "entire."
  
 
===== calzolaio  =====
 
===== calzolaio  =====
 +
 
*Italian word for "shoemaker."
 
*Italian word for "shoemaker."
  
 
===== cambria  =====
 
===== cambria  =====
 +
 
*Latin word for "Wales."
 
*Latin word for "Wales."
  
Line 165: Line 197:
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
cameranius  
+
===== cameranius =====
  
    Latin word for "chamberlain, valet, groom."
+
*Latin word for "chamberlain, valet, groom."
  
cameriera  
+
===== cameriera =====
  
    Italian word for "maid, servant girl."
+
*Italian word for "maid, servant girl."
  
cameriere  
+
===== cameriere =====
  
    Italian word for "waiter."
+
*Italian word for "waiter."
  
cameriere di casa  
+
===== cameriere di casa =====
  
    Italian word for "house steward."
+
*Italian word for "house steward."
  
camino  
+
===== camino =====
  
    Spanish word for "road."
+
*Spanish word for "road."
  
campagna  
+
===== campagna =====
  
    Italian word for "countryside, rural."
+
*Italian word for "countryside, rural."
  
campagnuolo, -a  
+
===== campagnuolo, -a =====
  
    Italian word for "countryman, countrywoman."
+
*Italian word for "countryman, countrywoman."
  
campesino (a)  
+
===== campesino (a) =====
  
    Spanish word for "peasant."
+
*Spanish word for "peasant."
  
campo, Portuguese  
+
===== campo, Portuguese =====
  
    Portuguese word for "field, plain."
+
*Portuguese word for "field, plain."
  
campo, Spanish  
+
===== campo, Spanish =====
  
    Spanish word for "field."
+
*Spanish word for "field."
  
camponês (a)  
+
===== camponês (a) =====
  
    Portuguese word for "peasant, small farmer."
+
*Portuguese word for "peasant, small farmer."
  
cana de açúcar  
+
===== cana de açúcar =====
  
    Portuguese word for "sugarcane.
+
*Portuguese word for "sugarcane.
  
 
===== Canada East  =====
 
===== Canada East  =====
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*A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
 
*A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
  
cancro  
+
===== cancro =====
  
    Italian word for "cancer."
+
*Italian word for "cancer."
  
cantante  
+
===== cantante =====
  
    Italian word for "singer."
+
*Italian word for "singer."
  
cantatrice  
+
===== cantatrice =====
  
    Italian word for "singer."
+
*Italian word for "singer."
  
 
===== Canton  =====
 
===== Canton  =====
Line 269: Line 301:
 
*The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
 
*The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
  
capela  
+
===== capela =====
  
    Portuguese word for "chapel."
+
*Portuguese word for "chapel."
  
capella  
+
===== capella =====
  
    Latin word for "chapel."
+
*Latin word for "chapel."
  
capellanus  
+
===== capellanus =====
  
    Latin word for "chaplain."
+
*Latin word for "chaplain."
  
 
===== Capellanías, military  =====
 
===== Capellanías, military  =====
Line 289: Line 321:
 
*A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
 
*A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
  
capilla  
+
===== capilla =====
  
    Spanish word for "chapel."
+
*Spanish word for "chapel."
  
 
===== Capital case  =====
 
===== Capital case  =====
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*A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
 
*A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
  
Capital, USA  
+
===== Capital, USA =====
  
    A city where the main offices of a government are located.
+
*A city where the main offices of a government are located.
  
capitis  
+
===== capitis =====
  
    Latin word for "head, chief."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "head, chief."<br>
  
capofamiglia  
+
===== capofamiglia =====
  
    Italian word for "family head."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "family head."<br>
  
capostipite  
+
===== capostipite =====
  
    Italian word for "family founder, earliest ancestor."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "family founder, earliest ancestor."<br>
  
cappellaio  
+
===== cappellaio =====
  
    Italian word for "hatter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "hatter."<br>
  
capt et jurat  
+
===== capt et jurat =====
  
    Latin word for "taken and sworn."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "taken and sworn."<br>
  
 
===== Captain  =====
 
===== Captain  =====
Line 325: Line 357:
 
*An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
 
*An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
  
Captain  
+
===== Captain =====
  
    An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.<br>
  
caput  
+
===== caput =====
  
    Latin word for "head, chief."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "head, chief."<br>
  
cara  
+
===== cara =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "face."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "face."<br>
  
carabiniere  
+
===== carabiniere =====
  
    Italian word for "policeman."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "policeman."<br>
  
carbonaio  
+
===== carbonaio =====
  
    Italian word for "coal dealer."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "coal dealer."<br>
  
carbonarius  
+
===== carbonarius =====
  
    Latin word for "collier, coal miner."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "collier, coal miner."<br>
  
 
===== Card index  =====
 
===== Card index  =====
Line 357: Line 389:
 
*A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
 
*A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
  
carecarius  
+
===== carecarius =====
  
    Latin word for "carter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "carter."<br>
  
 
===== Carey Act of 1894  =====
 
===== Carey Act of 1894  =====
Line 365: Line 397:
 
*A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
 
*A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
  
Cariboo Gold Rush  
+
===== Cariboo Gold Rush =====
  
    A gold mining boom in the Cariboo Mountains of south central British Columbia that lasted from 1860 to 1863.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A gold mining boom in the Cariboo Mountains of south central British Columbia that lasted from 1860 to 1863.<br>
  
carnarius  
+
===== carnarius =====
  
    Latin word for "butcher."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "butcher."<br>
  
carnicero  
+
===== carnicero =====
  
    Spanish word for "butcher."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "butcher."<br>
  
carpentarius  
+
===== carpentarius =====
  
    Latin word for "carpenter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "carpenter."<br>
  
 
===== Carpenter  =====
 
===== Carpenter  =====
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*A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
 
*A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
  
carpinteiro  
+
===== carpinteiro =====
  
    Portuguese word for "carpenter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "carpenter."<br>
  
carpintero  
+
===== carpintero =====
  
    Spanish word for "carpenter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "carpenter."<br>
  
carraio  
+
===== carraio =====
  
    Italian word for "wheelwright."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "wheelwright."<br>
  
carretera  
+
===== carretera =====
  
    Spanish word for "road."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "road."<br>
  
carta  
+
===== carta =====
  
    Latin word for "deed, charter, map."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "deed, charter, map."<br>
  
 
===== Cartas de dote  =====
 
===== Cartas de dote  =====
Line 409: Line 441:
 
*The Spanish term for dowry records.
 
*The Spanish term for dowry records.
  
carte, French  
+
===== carte, French =====
  
    French word for "map."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "map."<br>
  
carte, Italian  
+
===== carte, Italian =====
  
    Italian word for "maps, charts."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "maps, charts."<br>
  
cartório  
+
===== cartório =====
  
    Portuguese word for "archive."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "archive."<br>
  
casa  
+
===== casa =====
  
    Italian, Portuguese and Spanish word for "house."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian, Portuguese and Spanish word for "house."<br>
  
casado (a)  
+
===== casado (a) =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "married."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "married."<br>
  
casado con (c.c.)  
+
===== casado con (c.c.) =====
  
    Spanish word for "married to."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "married to."<br>
  
casale  
+
===== casale =====
  
    Latin word for "estate, village."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "estate, village."<br>
  
casamento  
+
===== casamento =====
  
    Portuguese word for "marriage."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "marriage."<br>
  
 
===== Casamentos  =====
 
===== Casamentos  =====
Line 453: Line 485:
 
*An identification number assigned to a case file.
 
*An identification number assigned to a case file.
  
casar, casarse  
+
===== casar, casarse =====
  
    Spanish word for "to marry."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "to marry."<br>
  
casar-se  
+
===== casar-se =====
  
    Portuguese word for "to marry."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "to marry."<br>
  
casaro  
+
===== casaro =====
  
    Italian word for "dairy farmer."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "dairy farmer."<br>
  
casatus  
+
===== casatus =====
  
    Latin word for "cottager."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "cottager."<br>
  
Case file number  
+
===== Case file number =====
  
    An identification number assigned to a case file.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An identification number assigned to a case file.<br>
  
 
===== Case file, court records  =====
 
===== Case file, court records  =====
Line 493: Line 525:
 
*The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
 
*The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
  
cassa  
+
===== cassa =====
  
    Italian word for "chest, cash, cashier."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "chest, cash, cashier."<br>
  
cassetta  
+
===== cassetta =====
  
    Italian word for "chest."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "chest."<br>
  
casta  
+
===== casta =====
  
    Spanish word for "caste, racial lineage."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "caste, racial lineage."<br>
  
castaldo  
+
===== castaldo =====
  
    Italian word for "land agent."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "land agent."<br>
  
castello  
+
===== castello =====
  
    Italian word for "castle."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "castle."<br>
  
castelo  
+
===== castelo =====
  
    Portuguese word for "castle."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "castle."<br>
  
castillo  
+
===== castillo =====
  
    Spanish word for "castle."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "castle."<br>
  
 
===== Castizo, Puerto Rico  =====
 
===== Castizo, Puerto Rico  =====
Line 529: Line 561:
 
*A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
 
*A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
  
cataster  
+
===== cataster =====
  
    Latin word for "land, property record."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "land, property record."<br>
  
catasto  
+
===== catasto =====
  
    Italian word for "land register."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "land register."<br>
  
catastro  
+
===== catastro =====
  
    Spanish word for "land census."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "land census."<br>
  
catedral  
+
===== catedral =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "cathedral."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "cathedral."<br>
 +
 
 +
===== Catholic diocese, Ireland  =====
 +
 
 +
An ecclesiastical division headed by a bishop, made up of many parishes within the Bishop's jurisdiction, which parishes may be in more than one county. Both the Church of Ireland and the Catholic Church had dioceses, but neither the name of the diocese nor its boundaries are the same between the two churches.
  
 
===== Catholic mission  =====
 
===== Catholic mission  =====
  
 
*A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
 
*A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
 +
 +
===== Catholic parish, Ireland  =====
 +
 +
*A parish of the Catholic Church, whose name, boundaries, members, diocese, and records are different than that of the [[C_genealogical_glossary_terms#Civil_parish.2C_Ireland|civil parish]]. The Catholic parish has no civil jurisdiction.
  
 
===== Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada  =====
 
===== Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada  =====
Line 557: Line 597:
 
*A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
 
*A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
  
catholicus  
+
===== catholicus =====
  
    Latin word for "Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "Catholic."<br>
  
catholique romaine  
+
===== catholique romaine =====
  
    French word for "Roman Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "Roman Catholic."<br>
  
catorce  
+
===== catorce =====
  
    Spanish word for "fourteen."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "fourteen."<br>
  
catorze  
+
===== catorze =====
  
    Portuguese word for "fourteen."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "fourteen."<br>
  
cattolico, -a  
+
===== cattolico, -a =====
  
    Italian word for "Roman Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "Roman Catholic."<br>
  
católico (a)  
+
===== católico (a) =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "Catholic."<br>
  
caupo (cauponis)  
+
===== caupo (cauponis) =====
  
    Latin word for "innkeeper."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "innkeeper."<br>
  
causa  
+
===== causa =====
  
    Latin word for "cause, sake, because of." Ex causa means "on account of, for the sake of."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "cause, sake, because of." Ex causa means "on account of, for the sake of."<br>
  
cavalheiro  
+
===== cavalheiro =====
  
    Portuguese word for "gentleman, knight, nobleman."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "gentleman, knight, nobleman."<br>
  
cavaliere  
+
===== cavaliere =====
  
    Italian word for "knight."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "knight."<br>
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
Line 603: Line 643:
 
*A warning notice issued by an interested person to a probate court that no action is to be taken in granting a probate without his case being heard.
 
*A warning notice issued by an interested person to a probate court that no action is to be taken in granting a probate without his case being heard.
  
<br> cazador  
+
===== <br> cazador =====
  
    Spanish word for "hunter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "hunter."<br>
  
caçador  
+
===== caçador =====
  
    Portuguese word for "hunter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "hunter."<br>
  
caña de azúcar  
+
===== caña de azúcar =====
  
    Spanish word for "sugar cane."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "sugar cane."<br>
  
CC  
+
===== CC =====
  
    Roman numeral for "two-hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Roman numeral for "two-hundred."<br>
  
CCC  
+
===== CCC =====
  
    Roman numeral for "three-hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Roman numeral for "three-hundred."<br>
  
CD  
+
===== CD =====
  
    Roman numeral for "four-hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Roman numeral for "four-hundred."<br>
  
ce  
+
===== ce =====
  
    Italian word for "us."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "us."<br>
  
ce, c'  
+
===== ce, c' =====
  
    French word for "it."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "it."<br>
  
ce, cet, cette  
+
===== ce, cet, cette =====
  
    French word for "this, that."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "this, that."<br>
  
cech  
+
===== cech =====
  
    Czech word for "guild."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Czech word for "guild."<br>
  
Ceded  
+
===== Ceded =====
  
    Transfer, give up control. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States, it gave up control of the area.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Transfer, give up control. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States, it gave up control of the area.<br>
  
cedo  
+
===== cedo =====
  
    Portuguese word for "early."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "early."<br>
  
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)  
+
===== Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) =====
 
 
    The Canadian army that served in World War I.
 
  
ceglarz
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; The Canadian army that served in World War I.<br>
  
    Polish word for "brick maker."
+
===== ceglarz  =====
  
cego (a)
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Polish word for "brick maker."<br>
  
    Portuguese word for "blind."
+
===== cego (a)  =====
  
cejourd'hier
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "blind."<br>
  
    French word for "yesterday."
+
===== cejourd'hier  =====
  
cejourd'hui
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "yesterday."<br>
  
    French word for "today."
+
===== cejourd'hui  =====
  
celator
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "today."<br>
  
    Latin word for "turner."
+
===== celator  =====
  
celebrare il matrimonio
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "turner."<br>
  
    Italian word for "solemnize a marriage."
+
===== celebrare il matrimonio  =====
  
celebraverunt
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "solemnize a marriage."<br>
  
    Latin word for "they celebrated, were married."
+
===== celebraverunt  =====
  
celibe
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "they celebrated, were married."<br>
  
    Italian word for "bachelor, bachelorette, single, unmarried."
+
===== celibe  =====
  
celle
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "bachelor, bachelorette, single, unmarried."<br>
  
    French word for "this one, she."
+
===== celle  =====
  
celle-ci
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "this one, she."<br>
  
    French word for "the latter (f.)."
+
===== celle-ci  =====
  
celle-là
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the latter (f.)."<br>
  
    French word for "the former (f.)."
+
===== celle-là  =====
  
celui
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the former (f.)."<br>
  
    French word for "this one, he."
+
===== celui  =====
  
celui-ci
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "this one, he."<br>
  
    French word for "the latter (m.)."
+
===== celui-ci  =====
  
celui-là
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the latter (m.)."<br>
  
    French word for "the former (m.)."
+
===== celui-là  =====
  
celý
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the former (m.)."<br>
  
    Czech word for "entire."
+
===== celý  =====
  
cem
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Czech word for "entire."<br>
  
    Portuguese word for "one hundred."
+
===== cem  =====
  
cementerio
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "one hundred."<br>
  
    Spanish word for "cemetery."
+
===== cementerio  =====
  
<br>  
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "cemetery."<br>
  
 
===== Cementerios  =====
 
===== Cementerios  =====
Line 749: Line 787:
 
*An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
 
*An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
  
cemitério  
+
===== cemitério =====
  
    Portuguese word for "cemetery."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "cemetery."<br>
  
censimento  
+
===== censimento =====
  
    Italian word for "census."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "census."<br>
  
 
===== Censo  =====
 
===== Censo  =====
Line 761: Line 799:
 
*The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
 
*The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
  
Census  
+
===== Census =====
  
    An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.<br>
  
Census Birthplace Index, 1881 British Census  
+
===== Census Birthplace Index, 1881 British Census =====
  
    An index to the 1881 census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by place of birth, first name, and age in descending order.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An index to the 1881 census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by place of birth, first name, and age in descending order.<br>
  
Census bundle number  
+
===== Census bundle number, England<br> =====
  
    A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a piece number.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a piece number.<br>
 
 
<br>  
 
  
 
===== Census district  =====
 
===== Census district  =====
Line 781: Line 817:
 
*In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
 
*In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
  
Census district, British  
+
===== Census district, British =====
  
    A civil boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. The boundary of a census district was determined by the government and was based on the population in the area. Each district was divided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict was divided into enumeration districts.
+
A civil boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. The boundary of a census district was determined by the government and was based on the population in the area. Each district was divided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict was divided into enumeration districts.
  
Census district, Scotland  
+
===== Census district, Scotland =====
  
    A geographic boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. In Scotland, this area is the same as the civil or ecclesiastical boundary.
+
A geographic boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. In Scotland, this area is the same as the civil or ecclesiastical boundary.
  
Census division, Canada  
+
===== Census division, Canada =====
  
    In Canadian national censuses, the smallest area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. Only sometimes are the subdistricts divided into two or more divisions.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; In Canadian national censuses, the smallest area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. Only sometimes are the subdistricts divided into two or more divisions.<br>
  
<br> Census enumeration district, England  
+
===== Census enumeration district, England =====
  
    The geographic area assigned to one census taker, who was known as an enumerator. The size of the enumeration district depended on the number of people living in the area. The enumerator was responsible to collect information about every person in the district on a specific night.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; The geographic area assigned to one census taker, who was known as an enumerator. The size of the enumeration district depended on the number of people living in the area. The enumerator was responsible to collect information about every person in the district on a specific night. Several enumeration districts make up a section of the census known as a census piece or bundle.<br>
    Several enumeration districts make up a section of the census known as a census piece or bundle.
 
  
Census folio number  
+
===== Census folio number =====
  
    A census folio is a two-sided sheet of paper used for recording the census. The folio number is stamped in the top right corner of the front of the sheet. Folio numbers run consecutively through a section of the census known as a piece or bundle.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A census folio is a two-sided sheet of paper used for recording the census. The folio number is stamped in the top right corner of the front of the sheet. Folio numbers run consecutively through a section of the census known as a piece or bundle.<br>
  
 
===== Census index  =====
 
===== Census index  =====
Line 810: Line 845:
 
*A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
 
*A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
  
Census page number  
+
===== Census page number =====
  
    A number printed on a page in an enumerator's book. The number appears in the top middle or a top corner of each page. Page numbers run consecutively through one enumeration district only.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A number printed on a page in an enumerator's book. The number appears in the top middle or a top corner of each page. Page numbers run consecutively through one enumeration district only.<br>
  
Census piece number  
+
===== Census piece number =====
  
    A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a bundle number.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a bundle number.<br>
  
 
===== Census Place Index, 1881 British Census  =====
 
===== Census Place Index, 1881 British Census  =====
Line 822: Line 857:
 
*An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
 
*An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
  
Census Record-As-Enumerated, 1881 British Census  
+
===== Census Record-As-Enumerated, 1881 British Census =====
  
    An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged in the same order as the original census, with individuals listed by the household in which they were enumerated. Use this index after using the Surname Index, Birthplace Index, or Census Place Index.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged in the same order as the original census, with individuals listed by the household in which they were enumerated. Use this index after using the Surname Index, Birthplace Index, or Census Place Index.<br>
  
 
===== Census schedule  =====
 
===== Census schedule  =====
Line 844: Line 879:
 
Census street index  
 
Census street index  
  
    An alphabetical list of streets appearing in the census record of a geographic area. The index shows the name of the street and a set of reference numbers that are helpful in finding the street in a census record of most large cities.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An alphabetical list of streets appearing in the census record of a geographic area. The index shows the name of the street and a set of reference numbers that are helpful in finding the street in a census record of most large cities.<br>
  
Census subdistrict, Canada  
+
===== Census subdistrict, Canada =====
  
    In Canadian national censuses, an area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. In some provinces, townships are census subdistricts. A political ward in a city may also be a census subdistrict. Only sometimes are the subdistricts further divided into two or more divisions.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; In Canadian national censuses, an area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. In some provinces, townships are census subdistricts. A political ward in a city may also be a census subdistrict. Only sometimes are the subdistricts further divided into two or more divisions.<br>
  
Census substitutes  
+
===== Census substitutes =====
  
    Records which can be used instead of a census. The substitutes are lists of people in an area, such as tax lists.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Records which can be used instead of a census. The substitutes are lists of people in an area, such as tax lists.<br>
  
Census Surname Index, 1881 British Census  
+
===== Census Surname Index, 1881 British Census =====
  
    An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by first name and age in descending order.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by first name and age in descending order.<br>
  
Census, PERiodical Source Index  
+
===== Census, PERiodical Source Index =====
 
 
    A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.
 
  
census, Latin and Czech
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.<br>
  
    Latin and Czech word for "census."
+
===== Census, Latin and Czech =====
  
cent
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin and Czech word for "census."<br>
  
    French word for "hundred."
+
===== cent  =====
  
centenario
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "hundred."<br>
  
    Spanish word for "centennial."
+
===== centenario  =====
  
centenarius
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "centennial."<br>
  
    Latin word for "a person one hundred years of age."
+
===== centenarius  =====
  
centenário
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "a person one hundred years of age."<br>
  
    Portuguese word for "centennial."
+
===== centenário  =====
  
centesimo, -a
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "centennial."<br>
  
    Italian word for "hundredth."
+
===== centesimo, -a  =====
  
centesimus
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "hundredth."<br>
  
    Latin word for "hundredth."
+
===== centesimus  =====
  
centesimus primus
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "hundredth."<br>
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-first."
+
===== centesimus primus  =====
  
centesimus quinquagesimus
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-first."<br>
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-fiftieth."
+
===== centesimus quinquagesimus  =====
  
centième
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-fiftieth."<br>
  
    French word for "hundredth."
+
===== centième  =====
  
cento
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "hundredth."<br>
  
    Italian and Portuguese word for "one hundred."
+
===== cento  =====
  
<br>  
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian and Portuguese word for "one hundred."<br>
  
 
===== Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden  =====
 
===== Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden  =====
Line 920: Line 953:
 
*A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
 
*A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
  
<br> centum  
+
===== centum =====
  
    Latin word for "hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "hundred."<br>
  
centum quinquaginta  
+
===== centum quinquaginta =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-fifty."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-fifty."<br>
  
centum unus  
+
===== centum unus =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-one."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-one."<br>
  
Century Farm Applications, Iowa  
+
===== Century Farm Applications, Iowa =====
 
 
    A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.
 
 
 
centésimo
 
 
 
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "one-hundredth."
 
  
centésimo primero
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.<br>
  
    Spanish word for "one-hundred-first."
+
===== centésimo  =====
  
<br>  
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "one-hundredth."<br>
  
===== Century Farm Applications, Iowa =====
+
===== centésimo primero =====
  
*A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "one-hundred-first."
  
cerca  
+
===== cerca =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "near, approximate."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "near, approximate."<br>
  
cerdo (cerdonis)  
+
===== cerdo (cerdonis) =====
  
    Latin word for "handworker."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "handworker."<br>
  
cerrajero  
+
===== cerrajero =====
  
    Spanish word for "locksmith."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "locksmith."<br>
  
certidão  
+
===== certidão =====
  
    Portuguese word for "certificate."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "certificate."<br>
  
certificado  
+
===== certificado =====
  
    Spanish word for "certificate."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "certificate."<br>
  
 
===== Certificate of arrival  =====
 
===== Certificate of arrival  =====
Line 986: Line 1,013:
 
*A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
 
*A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
  
certificato  
+
===== certificato =====
  
    Italian word for "certificate."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "certificate."<br>
  
 
===== Certificats  =====
 
===== Certificats  =====
Line 994: Line 1,021:
 
*A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
 
*A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
  
certifichiamo  
+
;certifichiamo: Italian word for "we certify."
  
    Italian word for "we certify."
+
;cervecero: Spanish word for "brewer."
  
cervecero
+
;cervejeiro: Portuguese word for "brewer."
  
    Spanish word for "brewer."
+
;cesarski: Polish word for "imperial."
  
cervejeiro
+
;cesarstwo: Polish word for "empire."
  
    Portuguese word for "brewer."
+
;cesta: Czech word for "road."
  
cesarski
+
;cestovní pas: Czech word for "passport."
  
    Polish word for "imperial."
+
;ceux: French word for "those."
  
cesarstwo
+
;confronta (cfr.): Italian word for "compare."
  
    Polish word for "empire."
+
;chalupnik: Polish word for "cottager, poor peasant."
  
cesta
+
;chalupník: Czech word for "cottager, poor peasant."
 
 
    Czech word for "road."
 
 
 
cestovní pas
 
 
 
    Czech word for "passport."
 
 
 
ceux
 
 
 
    French word for "those."
 
 
 
confronta (cfr.)
 
 
 
    Italian word for "compare."
 
 
 
chalupnik
 
 
 
    Polish word for "cottager, poor peasant."
 
 
 
chalupník  
 
 
 
    Czech word for "cottager, poor peasant."
 
  
 
===== Chamizo  =====
 
===== Chamizo  =====
Line 1,090: Line 1,095:
 
*A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
 
*A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
  
charbonnier  
+
;charbonnier: French word for "charcoal burner."
 
 
    French word for "charcoal burner."
 
  
charcutier  
+
;charcutier: French word for "pork merchant."
 
 
    French word for "pork merchant."
 
  
 
===== Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey  =====
 
===== Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey  =====
Line 1,110: Line 1,111:
 
*A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
 
*A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
  
charretier  
+
;charretier: French word for "cart or carriage man."
  
    French word for "cart or carriage man."
+
;charron: French word for "cartwright, wheelwright."
  
charron
+
;chartarius: Latin word for "paper miller."
  
    French word for "cartwright, wheelwright."
+
;chasseur: French word for "hunter."
  
chartarius
+
;chaudronnier: French word for "cooper, barrel maker."
  
    Latin word for "paper miller."
+
;chce: Polish and Czech word for "he wants."
  
chasseur
+
;che: Italian word for "which, than, what, who, that, whom."
 
 
    French word for "hunter."
 
 
 
chaudronnier
 
 
 
    French word for "cooper, barrel maker."
 
 
 
chce
 
 
 
    Polish and Czech word for "he wants."
 
 
 
che  
 
 
 
    Italian word for "which, than, what, who, that, whom."
 
  
 
===== Cherokee  =====
 
===== Cherokee  =====
Line 1,158: Line 1,145:
 
*The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
 
*The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
  
Cheyenne Indians  
+
;Cheyenne Indians: A tribe of Native Americans that lived on the western plains in the United States.
 
 
    A tribe of Native Americans that lived on the western plains in the United States.
 
  
chez  
+
;chez: French word for "at the home of."
  
    French word for "at the home of."
+
;chi: Italian word for "who, whom."
 
 
chi  
 
 
 
    Italian word for "who, whom."
 
  
 
===== Chicago fire, USA  =====
 
===== Chicago fire, USA  =====
Line 1,178: Line 1,159:
 
*A city in Cook County, Illinois.
 
*A city in Cook County, Illinois.
  
Chicago Road  
+
;Chicago Road: The military highway that ran between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, after the 1820s. It was a major route for settlers moving to the Northwest.
 
 
    The military highway that ran between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, after the 1820s. It was a major route for settlers moving to the Northwest.
 
  
 
===== Chickasaw  =====
 
===== Chickasaw  =====
Line 1,186: Line 1,165:
 
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
 
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
  
chiesa  
+
;chiesa: Italian word for "church."
 
 
    Italian word for "church."
 
 
 
chiesa ortodossa
 
 
 
    Italian word for "Greek Catholic."
 
 
 
chilometro
 
  
    Italian word for "kilometer."
+
;chiesa ortodossa: Italian word for "Greek Catholic."
  
chimico
+
;chilometro: Italian word for "kilometer."
  
    Italian word for "chemist."
+
;chimico: Italian word for "chemist."
  
 
===== China  =====
 
===== China  =====
Line 1,209: Line 1,180:
  
 
*Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
 
*Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
  
 
===== Chino  =====
 
===== Chino  =====
Line 1,220: Line 1,185:
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
hirotherarus  
+
;hirotherarus: Latin word for "glover."
  
    Latin word for "glover."
+
;Chirurg: German word for "surgeon."
  
Chirurg
+
;chirurgien: French word for "surgeon."
  
    German word for "surgeon."
+
;chirurgo: Italian word for "surgeon."
  
chirurgien
+
;chirurgus: Latin word for "surgeon."
  
    French word for "surgeon."
+
;chiunque: Italian word for "whoever."
  
chirurgo
+
;chlap: Czech word for "peasant, country fellow."
  
    Italian word for "surgeon."
+
;chlapec: Czech word for "boy."
  
chirurgus
+
;chlop: Polish word for "peasant, country fellow."
  
    Latin word for "surgeon."
+
;chlopiec: Polish word for "boy."
  
chiunque
+
===== Choctaw  =====
  
    Italian word for "whoever."
+
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
  
chlap
+
===== Cholo  =====
  
    Czech word for "peasant, country fellow."
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
chlapec
+
;choroba: Polish and Czech word for "disease."
  
    Czech word for "boy."
+
;Christening (chr): An ordinance performed on a baby by the minister of the local parish in the Church of England, Wales, and Ireland. The child is baptized, given a name, and received into the church.
  
chlop
+
;chramarius: Latin word for "merchant."
  
    Polish word for "peasant, country fellow."
+
;Christelik: Afrikaans word for "Christianlike, religious."
  
chlopiec
+
;Christen: Afrikaans word for "Christian."
  
    Polish word for "boy."
+
===== Christen, religious  =====
  
<br>
+
*To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
  
===== Choctaw =====
+
===== Christen, shipping =====
  
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
+
*To name a new ship on its first voyage.
  
===== Cholo  =====
+
Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
;Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
 
 
choroba
 
 
 
    Polish and Czech word for "disease."
 
 
 
Christening (chr)
 
 
 
    An ordinance performed on a baby by the minister of the local parish in the Church of England, Wales, and Ireland. The child is baptized, given a name, and received into the church.
 
 
 
chramarius
 
 
 
    Latin word for "merchant."
 
 
 
Christelik
 
 
 
    Afrikaans word for "Christianlike, religious."
 
 
 
Christen
 
 
 
    Afrikaans word for "Christian."
 
 
 
===== Christen, religious  =====
 
 
 
*To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
 
 
 
===== Christen, shipping  =====
 
 
 
*To name a new ship on its first voyage.
 
 
 
Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
 
 
 
Christening records
 
 
 
    Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
 
  
 
===== Christian Church  =====
 
===== Christian Church  =====
Line 1,316: Line 1,247:
 
*A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
 
*A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
  
Christmonat  
+
;Christmonat: German word for "December."
 
 
    German word for "December."
 
 
 
chrzczony
 
  
    Polish word for "christened."
+
;chrzczony: Polish word for "christened."
  
chrzest  
+
;chrzest: Polish word for "christening."
  
    Polish word for "christening."
+
;chrzestna, chrzestny: Polish word for "godparent(s)."
  
chrzestna, chrzestny
 
 
    Polish word for "godparent(s)."
 
 
<br>
 
  
 
===== Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint  =====
 
===== Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint  =====
Line 1,414: Line 1,336:
 
*A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
 
*A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
  
chwilowo  
+
;chwilowo: Polish word for "temporarily."
  
    Polish word for "temporarily."
+
;château: French word for "castle."
  
château
+
;châtelain: French word for "owner of a castle."
  
    French word for "castle."
+
;ci: Italian word for "there, us, to us."
  
châtelain
+
;CI: Roman numeral for "one-hundred-one."
  
    French word for "owner of a castle."
+
;ci-dessous: French word for "below here."
  
ci  
+
;ci-dessus: French word for "above here."
  
    Italian word for "there, us, to us."
+
;ciabattino: Italian word for "cobbler."
  
CI
+
;cidade: Portuguese word for "city."
  
    Roman numeral for "one-hundred-one."
+
;cidadão (ã): Portuguese word for "citizen."
  
ci-dessous
+
;ciego (a):Spanish word for "blind."
  
    French word for "below here."
+
;ciento: Spanish word for "one hundred."
  
ci-dessus
+
;ciento uno: Spanish word for "one hundred one."
  
    French word for "above here."
+
;cigány: Hungarian word for "gypsy."
  
ciabattino
+
;cikán: Czech word for "gypsy."
  
    Italian word for "cobbler."
+
;Cimarrón: A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
cidade
+
;cimeterium: Latin word for "cemetery."
  
    Portuguese word for "city."
+
;cimetière: French word for "cemetery."
  
cidadão (ã)
+
;cimitero: Italian word for "cemetery."
  
    Portuguese word for "citizen."
+
;cinco: Portuguese and Spanish word for "five."
  
ciego (a)
+
;cincuenta: Spanish word for "fifty."
  
    Spanish word for "blind."
+
;cingarus: Latin word for "gypsy."
  
ciento
+
;cinq: French word for "five."
  
    Spanish word for "one hundred."
+
;cinquanta: Italian word for "fifty."
  
ciento uno
+
;cinquante: French word for "fifty."
  
    Spanish word for "one hundred one."
+
;cinquantesimo, -a: Italian word for "fiftieth."
  
cigány
+
;cinquantième: French word for "fiftieth."
  
    Hungarian word for "gypsy."
+
;cinque: Italian word for "five."
  
cikán
+
;cinquième: French word for "fifth."
  
    Czech word for "gypsy."
+
;cinqüenta: Portuguese word for "fifty."
  
<br>
+
;cinterem: Hungarian word for "burial ground."
  
===== Cimarrón  =====
+
;ciocia (ciotka): Polish word for "aunt."
  
*A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
;cioè: Italian word for "that is, namely."
  
cimeterium
+
;cipész: Hungarian word for "shoemaker."
  
    Latin word for "cemetery."
+
;circa, Danish: Danish word for "approximately."
  
cimetière
+
;circa, German (ca.): German word for "about."
  
    French word for "cemetery."
+
;circa, Italian: Italian word for "about, approximately."
  
cimitero
+
;circa, Latin: Latin word for "about, around, round about."
  
    Italian word for "cemetery."
+
;circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin)): Swedish word for "about, approximately."
  
cinco
+
;circiter: Latin word for "about, approximately."
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "five."
+
===== Circuit court guardian docket  =====
  
cincuenta
+
*A list of guardian judgments made by the circuit court.
  
    Spanish word for "fifty."
+
===== Circuit court of appeals  =====
  
cingarus
+
*The former name of the United States Court of Appeals. The court of appeals may review and revise decisions made by federal district courts. The United States Supreme Court may review and revise decisions made by the circuit courts of appeals.
  
    Latin word for "gypsy."
+
===== Circuit court, Alabama  =====
  
cinq
+
*A court in Alabama with countywide jurisdiction over felonies, major criminal and civil cases, and appeals from inferior courts.
  
    French word for "five."
+
===== Circuit court, New Jersey  =====
  
cinquanta
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and equity cases such as mortgage foreclosures, name changes, marriages, adoptions, estate partitions, naturalizations, debts, and probate suits. Circuit courts were replaced by superior courts in 1947.
  
    Italian word for "fifty."
+
===== Circuit court, Ohio  =====
  
cinquante
+
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
  
    French word for "fifty."
+
===== Circuit court, USA  =====
  
cinquantesimo, -a
+
*A court used in many states of the United States. The court generally has jurisdiction over several towns, counties, or districts in the state. Circuit courts have jurisdiction over both criminal and civil matters.
  
    Italian word for "fiftieth."
+
===== Circuit court, Virginia  =====
  
cinquantième
+
*A court in Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit courts were created in 1851 and continue today.
  
    French word for "fiftieth."
+
===== Circuit court, Wisconsin  =====
  
cinque
+
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and some appeals.
  
    Italian word for "five."
+
Circuit superior court of law and chancery, Virginia
  
cinquième
+
*A court in Virginia with districtwide jurisdiction. In 1851 these courts were replaced by circuit courts.
  
    French word for "fifth."
+
===== Circuit superior court of law, West Virginia  =====
  
cinqüenta
+
*A court in West Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit superior courts of law were used from 1809 to 1852.
  
    Portuguese word for "fifty."
+
===== Circumcision register, Jewish  =====
  
cinterem
+
*A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
  
    Hungarian word for "burial ground."
+
;cirka: Norwegian word for "approximately."
 +
  
ciocia (ciotka)
+
===== Citizen, early England and Wales  =====
  
    Polish word for "aunt."
+
*A freeman who lived in a city.
  
cioè
+
===== Citizenship  =====
  
    Italian word for "that is, namely."
+
*The allegiance of an individual to a government and its laws and customs. In return, the individual is granted all rights allowed by the government.
  
cipész
+
===== Citizenship book, Danish  =====
  
    Hungarian word for "shoemaker."
+
*A list of people who received the rights to citizenship extended by a city. Citizenship rights included the right to engage in business in the city, protection under the law, and permission to live in the city without being expelled. Citizenship books include the names of the people granted citizenship and their age, social and economic status, occupation and training, and sometimes birthplace and names of relatives. Until the twentieth century, only males of the middle or upper class, usually merchants and tradesmen, were granted citizenship. The Danish citizenship books are called borgerskabprotokoller.
  
circa, Danish
+
===== Citizenship book, Germany  =====
  
    Danish word for "approximately."
+
*A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
  
circa, German (ca.)
+
;Citizenship record: Citizenship records document the process of a person becoming a member of a country.  
  
    German word for "about."
+
:The records may give the name, age, country of birth, ethnic background, date and port of arrival, name of the ship, previous residences, or current address. Each of the various types of records created during the citizenship process can give different details about the person.
  
circa, Italian
+
:In the United States, records for earlier years usually contain less information than those after 1906, when the names, birth dates, and birth places of the spouse and children are given.
  
    Italian word for "about, approximately."
+
:Citizenship records are found in town, county, state, and federal court records.
  
circa, Latin
+
;citoyen(ne): French word for "citizen."
  
    Latin word for "about, around, round about."
+
;cittadinanze: Italian word for "citizenship."
  
circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))
+
;cittadino, -a: Italian word for "citizen."
  
    Swedish word for "about, approximately."
+
;città: Italian word for "city, town."
  
circiter
+
;City: An inhabited place that has more people than a town or village. Different countries have different requirements for what is considered a city. In some countries, for example, a city must be an incorporated entity. In others, it must have a charter from the government.
  
    Latin word for "about, approximately."
+
===== City census  =====
  
<br>
+
*A census taken by a city rather than a state or federal government.
  
===== Circuit court guardian docket =====
+
===== City court, Kansas =====
  
*A list of guardian judgments made by the circuit court.
+
*A court in Kansas with citywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and traffic matters. Also called magistrate court.
  
===== Circuit court of appeals  =====
+
City court, Utah
  
*The former name of the United States Court of Appeals. The court of appeals may review and revise decisions made by federal district courts. The United States Supreme Court may review and revise decisions made by the circuit courts of appeals.
+
*A court used in Utah between 1906 and 1977. City courts had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases in a county. They were replaced by the circuit court system in 1977.
  
===== Circuit court, Alabama =====
+
===== City directory =====
  
*A court in Alabama with countywide jurisdiction over felonies, major criminal and civil cases, and appeals from inferior courts.
+
*A list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers (if applicable) of the people living in a city. City directories may also provide other information about individuals such as their profession, trade, or place of employment.
  
===== Circuit court, New Jersey =====
+
===== City livery company, England =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and equity cases such as mortgage foreclosures, name changes, marriages, adoptions, estate partitions, naturalizations, debts, and probate suits. Circuit courts were replaced by superior courts in 1947.
+
*A craft or trade association in London that is descended from the medieval trade guilds. The term livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform that each guild (or company) used on special occasions. Eventually the term was used to refer to the collective membership of the company.
  
===== Circuit court, Ohio =====
+
===== City map =====
  
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
+
*A map that shows the streets and sometimes political divisions of a large city.
  
===== Circuit court, USA =====
+
===== City records =====
  
*A court used in many states of the United States. The court generally has jurisdiction over several towns, counties, or districts in the state. Circuit courts have jurisdiction over both criminal and civil matters.
+
*Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
  
===== Circuit court, Virginia  =====
+
;ciudad: Spanish word for "city."
  
*A court in Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit courts were created in 1851 and continue today.
+
;ciudadano (a): Spanish word for "citizen."
  
===== Circuit court, Wisconsin  =====
+
;Civil authorities: Authorities in charge of a country or other non-church unit.
  
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and some appeals.
+
===== Civil case  =====
  
Circuit superior court of law and chancery, Virginia
+
*A lawsuit involving a violation of laws when an individual (but not society) is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel. Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement on private rights.
  
*A court in Virginia with districtwide jurisdiction. In 1851 these courts were replaced by circuit courts.
+
===== Civil court, Florida  =====
  
===== Circuit superior court of law, West Virginia  =====
+
*A court in Florida that exists in counties with more than 100,000 residents. In these counties, civil courts take the place of county courts.
  
*A court in West Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit superior courts of law were used from 1809 to 1852.
+
===== Civil court, general  =====
  
===== Circumcision register, Jewish  =====
+
*A court that hears civil cases (lawsuits involving a violation of laws when an individual but not society is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel). Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement of private rights.
  
*A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
+
===== Civil district, Denmark  =====
  
<br> cirka
+
*An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
  
    Norwegian word for "approximately."
+
;Civil division: The part of a governmental unit which oversees noncriminal matters.
 
  
===== Citizen, early England and Wales =====
+
===== Civil government =====
  
*A freeman who lived in a city.
+
*A government that has authority over a country or other non-church unit.
  
===== Citizenship =====
+
===== Civil law =====
  
*The allegiance of an individual to a government and its laws and customs. In return, the individual is granted all rights allowed by the government.
+
*The laws in a country that define the rights and obligations that people owe one another. Civil law covers issues such as the borrowing and lending of money, contracts, land and property ownership, marriage, divorce, adoption, and injury due to the actions of another person. In the Canadian province of Québec civil law is based on a French code of laws. In other provinces, civil law is based on English common law.
  
===== Citizenship book, Danish =====
+
===== Civil marriage register =====
  
*A list of people who received the rights to citizenship extended by a city. Citizenship rights included the right to engage in business in the city, protection under the law, and permission to live in the city without being expelled. Citizenship books include the names of the people granted citizenship and their age, social and economic status, occupation and training, and sometimes birthplace and names of relatives. Until the twentieth century, only males of the middle or upper class, usually merchants and tradesmen, were granted citizenship. The Danish citizenship books are called borgerskabprotokoller.
+
*A government record of marriages performed by various civil and religious officials. A register is usually a record in a bound book.
  
===== Citizenship book, Germany =====
+
===== Civil parish, Ireland =====
  
*A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
+
*An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.
  
Citizenship record
+
===== Civil Registration District  =====
 +
*The geographic area of a country in which the birth, marriage, divorce, and death records of the citizens are kept. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
  
    Citizenship records document the process of a person becoming a member of a country.
+
===== Civil registration office  =====
  
    The records may give the name, age, country of birth, ethnic background, date and port of arrival, name of the ship, previous residences, or current address. Each of the various types of records created during the citizenship process can give different details about the person.
+
*A local government office that keeps the government's local birth, marriage, and death records. Some civil registration offices may also have records regarding divorces.
  
    In the United States, records for earlier years usually contain less information than those after 1906, when the names, birth dates, and birth places of the spouse and children are given.
+
===== Civil Registration, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
  
    Citizenship records are found in town, county, state, and federal court records.
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by civil governments. Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records from the United States and all Canadian provinces except Québec are cataloged under the subject heading "Vital Records."
  
citoyen(ne)
+
===== Civil registration, general  =====
  
    French word for "citizen."
+
*Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by a government. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
  
cittadinanze
+
===== Civil Secretary, Canada  =====
  
    Italian word for "citizenship."
+
*A government official in Upper Canada (Ontario) who served as a private secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the province. He received letters and petitions. This position does not exist in modern-day Ontario.
  
cittadino, -a
+
===== Civil War, American  =====
  
    Italian word for "citizen."
+
*A term for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Also called the War between the States and the War of Secession.
  
città
+
===== Civil war, general  =====
  
    Italian word for "city, town."
+
*A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
  
City
+
;civilregistret
 +
*Swedish word for "civil registrar."
  
    An inhabited place that has more people than a town or village. Different countries have different requirements for what is considered a city. In some countries, for example, a city must be an incorporated entity. In others, it must have a charter from the government.
+
;civis
 +
*Latin word for "citizen."
  
<br>
+
;cizozemský
 +
*Czech word for "foreign."
  
===== City census  =====
+
;cizí
 +
*Czech word for "foreign, strange."
  
*A census taken by a city rather than a state or federal government.
+
;ciò
 +
*Italian word for "that."
  
===== City court, Kansas  =====
+
;CL
 +
*Roman numeral for "one-hundred-fifty."
  
*A court in Kansas with citywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and traffic matters. Also called magistrate court.
+
===== Claim  =====
  
City court, Utah
+
*A request made in a court of law.
  
*A court used in Utah between 1906 and 1977. City courts had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases in a county. They were replaced by the circuit court system in 1977.
+
===== Claim registers  =====
  
===== City directory  =====
+
*Records of claims made against a deceased person's estate.
  
*A list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers (if applicable) of the people living in a city. City directories may also provide other information about individuals such as their profession, trade, or place of employment.
+
===== Claims docket  =====
  
===== City livery company, England  =====
+
*A list of court cases.
  
*A craft or trade association in London that is descended from the medieval trade guilds. The term livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform that each guild (or company) used on special occasions. Eventually the term was used to refer to the collective membership of the company.
+
===== Clarence Torrey Collection, New England  =====
  
===== City map  =====
+
*A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Its proper name is New England Marriages Prior to 1700.
  
*A map that shows the streets and sometimes political divisions of a large city.
+
===== Class 1 settler  =====
  
===== City records  =====
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas before 1 March 1836 and received headright land grants from Spain and Mexico.
  
*Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
+
===== Class 2 settler  =====
  
ciudad
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 2 March 1836 to 1 October 1837 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
    Spanish word for "city."
+
===== Class 3 settler  =====
  
ciudadano (a)
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 October 1837 to 1 January 1840 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
    Spanish word for "citizen."
+
===== Class 4 settler  =====
  
Civil authorities
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
    Authorities in charge of a country or other non-church unit.
+
;clausit: Latin word for "he/she finished, closed." Diem clausit extremem means "(died) he/she finished the last day."
  
<br>
+
;claustrarius: Latin word for "locksmith."
  
===== Civil case  =====
+
;clausum:Latin word for "closed, finished."
  
*A lawsuit involving a violation of laws when an individual (but not society) is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel. Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement on private rights.
+
===== Clergy directory  =====
  
===== Civil court, Florida  =====
+
*A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
  
*A court in Florida that exists in counties with more than 100,000 residents. In these counties, civil courts take the place of county courts.
+
;clergé: French word for "clergymen."
  
===== Civil court, general =====
+
===== Clerical register of souls, Norway =====
  
*A court that hears civil cases (lawsuits involving a violation of laws when an individual but not society is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel). Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement of private rights.
+
*A census taken by the Lutheran clergy in Norway during the mid-1700s. It lists all members of a family and all persons living with the family. In Norwegian this census is called a sjeleregister.
  
===== Civil district, Denmark =====
+
===== Clerical survey records, Sweden =====
  
*An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
+
*A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
  
Civil division
+
;clericus: Latin word for "clergyman."
  
    The part of a governmental unit which oversees noncriminal matters.
+
===== Clerk  =====
  
===== Civil government  =====
+
*An individual charged with keeping records.
  
*A government that has authority over a country or other non-church unit.
+
===== Clerk of the court  =====
  
===== Civil law  =====
+
*A government official who keeps the records of a court.
  
*The laws in a country that define the rights and obligations that people owe one another. Civil law covers issues such as the borrowing and lending of money, contracts, land and property ownership, marriage, divorce, adoption, and injury due to the actions of another person. In the Canadian province of Québec civil law is based on a French code of laws. In other provinces, civil law is based on English common law.
+
;clero: Portuguese word for "clergy."
  
===== Civil marriage register =====
+
===== Clipping file =====
  
*A government record of marriages performed by various civil and religious officials. A register is usually a record in a bound book.
+
*A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
  
===== Civil parish, Ireland  =====
+
;clostrarius: Latin word for "locksmith."
  
*An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.
+
;clérigo: Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."
  
<br>
+
;CM: Roman numeral for "nine-hundred."
  
Civil Registration District
+
;cmentarz: Polish word for "cemetery, churchyard."
  
    The geographic area of a country in which the birth, marriage, divorce, and death records of the citizens are kept. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
+
;co: Polish and Czech word for "what."
  
===== Civil registration office =====
+
===== Coast Guard =====
  
*A local government office that keeps the government's local birth, marriage, and death records. Some civil registration offices may also have records regarding divorces.
+
*The branch of a nation's armed forces that is employed to protect and police a nation's coastline. In Great Britain, the Coast Guard was originally formed to prevent smuggling.
  
===== Civil Registration, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== Coat of arms =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by civil governments. Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records from the United States and all Canadian provinces except Québec are cataloged under the subject heading "Vital Records."
+
*An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
  
===== Civil registration, general  =====
+
;cocchiere: Italian word for "coachman."
  
*Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by a government. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
+
===== Codicil  =====
  
===== Civil Secretary, Canada  =====
+
*A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
  
*A government official in Upper Canada (Ontario) who served as a private secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the province. He received letters and petitions. This position does not exist in modern-day Ontario.
+
;oelebs: Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
  
===== Civil War, American  =====
+
;coemeterium: Latin word for "cemetery."
  
*A term for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Also called the War between the States and the War of Secession.
+
;Coextensive (District of Columbia): Having the same boundaries. Washington is coextensive with the District of Columbia which means that the City of Washington occupies the same space and has the same boundaries as the District of Columbia.
  
===== Civil war, general  =====
+
;cofradía: Spanish word for "religious brotherhood, guild."
  
*A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
+
===== Cofradías, Spain  =====
  
civilregistret
+
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
  
    Swedish word for "civil registrar."
+
;cognationis: Latin word for "blood relationship."
  
civis
+
;cognato, -a: Italian word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."
  
    Latin word for "citizen."
+
;cognome, -i: Italian word for "surname(s)."
  
cizozemský
+
;cognomen: Latin word for "name, family name, surname."
  
    Czech word for "foreign."
+
===== Cohabitation certificates  =====
  
cizí
+
*A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
  
    Czech word for "foreign, strange."
+
;cojo: Spanish word for "lame."
  
ciò
+
;col consenso: Italian word for "with the consent."
  
    Italian word for "that."
+
;colera: Italian word for "cholera."
  
CL
+
;colheita: Portuguese word for "harvest."
  
    Roman numeral for "one-hundred-fifty."
+
;colina: Portuguese and Spanish word for "hill."
  
<br>
+
;Collaboration Lists: A feature on the FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service that allows people to type in information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Each collaboration list focuses on a particular place, surname, or topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
  
===== Claim  =====
+
;Collateral (genealogy): A member of a family but not in the direct line, such as an aunt, uncle, or cousin.
  
*A request made in a court of law.
+
===== Collection Fabien, Canada  =====
  
===== Claim registers  =====
+
*A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada<br>Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
  
*Records of claims made against a deceased person's estate.
+
;Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
  
===== Claims docket =====
+
===== Collection Rhode Island Family Records =====
  
*A list of court cases.
+
*A collection of will abstracts and family records created by Martha A. Benns. The collection is available at the Rhode Island Historical Society and the Family History Library™.
  
===== Clarence Torrey Collection, New England =====
+
===== Collections, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Its proper name is New England Marriages Prior to 1700.
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize collections of genealogical or historical information gathered by a person or group and then made available for public research.
  
===== Class 1 settler =====
+
===== Collective biography =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas before 1 March 1836 and received headright land grants from Spain and Mexico.
+
*A group of biographies about a specific group of people, such as merchants, students of an academy, or prominent citizens in an area.
  
===== Class 2 settler =====
+
===== Collective naturalization, USA =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 2 March 1836 to 1 October 1837 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
+
*The process of granting a group of people United States citizenship. This happened in 1803 for residents of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1845 for residents of Texas, in 1868 for African-Americans, in 1898 for residents of Hawaii, and in 1924 for Native Americans. No individual naturalization records were made for people granted collective naturalization.
  
===== Class 3 settler =====
+
===== Collectors' roll =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 October 1837 to 1 January 1840 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
+
*A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
  
===== Class 4 settler  =====
+
;collina: Italian word for "hill."
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
+
;colline: French word for "hill."
  
clausit
+
;collis: Latin word for "hill."
  
    Latin word for "he/she finished, closed." Diem clausit extremem means "(died) he/she finished the last day."
+
===== Colonel  =====
  
claustrarius
+
*Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
  
    Latin word for "locksmith."
+
;colonia: Spanish word for "colony."
  
clausum
+
===== Colonial census  =====
  
    Latin word for "closed, finished."
+
*A list and description of the population of a colony.
  
===== Clergy directory  =====
+
;Colonial government: The government of any of the Thirteen Colonies, such as Delaware, before it became a state of the United States.
  
*A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
+
===== Colonial land records  =====
  
clergé
+
*Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
  
    French word for "clergymen."
+
;Colonial legislature: A legislature (law-making group of people) that existed while an area was a colony of some "mother" country.
  
===== Clerical register of souls, Norway =====
+
===== Colonial naturalization =====
  
*A census taken by the Lutheran clergy in Norway during the mid-1700s. It lists all members of a family and all persons living with the family. In Norwegian this census is called a sjeleregister.
+
*A naturalization that occurred during a country's colonial period.
  
===== Clerical survey records, Sweden =====
+
===== Colonial period, Latin America =====
  
*A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
+
*The period of time from 1492 to the 1820s when Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America. During this period, the Spanish and Portuguese exploited native resources, suppressed native cultures, imported slaves from Africa, and established Catholic missions that oversaw the conversion (sometimes forced) of the native peoples to Catholicism. The native-born Spanish controlled the local governments, even pure-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the New World had little influence. The colonial period ended as the various countries in Latin America won their independence and established their own governments.
  
clericus
+
===== Colonial records  =====
  
    Latin word for "clergyman."
+
*Records kept about a colony or by a colonial government.
  
===== Clerk =====
+
===== Colonial Wars =====
  
*An individual charged with keeping records.
+
*Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
  
===== Clerk of the court  =====
+
;Colonist: German word for "settler, tenant farmer."
  
*A government official who keeps the records of a court.
+
===== Colonization Policy  =====
  
<br> clero
+
*Agreements made by the Mexican government during the 1820s to allow Americans to colonize Texas. Moses Austin was the first American to receive permission to form a colony, but he died before he could establish it. Stephen F. Austin, his son, organized the first colony at Washington-on-the-Bravos. Other colonies soon formed. By 1830 the Mexican government was alarmed at the number of American colonists in Mexico and halted the immigration.
  
    Portuguese word for "clergy."
+
===== Colonizer  =====
  
===== Clipping file  =====
+
*A person who moves from an established area to a colony.
  
*A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
+
Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.  
  
clostrarius
+
;colono: Italian word for "farmer, colonist."
  
    Latin word for "locksmith."
+
;colonus: Latin word for "colonist, settler, resident, farmer, peasant."
  
clérigo
+
;Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."
+
;colorado (a): Spanish word for "red."
  
CM
+
===== Colorado Territory  =====
  
    Roman numeral for "nine-hundred."
+
*A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.
  
cmentarz
+
;colorator: Latin word for "dyer."
  
    Polish word for "cemetery, churchyard."
+
;coltivatore: Italian word for "cultivator, farmer."
  
co
+
;colônia: Portuguese word for "colony."
  
    Polish and Czech word for "what."
+
;come: Italian word for "as, like, how."
  
===== Coast Guard  =====
+
;come sopra: Italian word for "as above."
  
*The branch of a nation's armed forces that is employed to protect and police a nation's coastline. In Great Britain, the Coast Guard was originally formed to prevent smuggling.
+
;comerciante: Portuguese and Spanish word for "merchant."
  
===== Coat of arms  =====
+
;comercio : Spanish word for "business, commerce."
  
*An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
+
;comes: Latin word for "count."
  
cocchiere
+
;comitas : Latin word for "county."
  
    Italian word for "coachman."
+
;comitatus : Latin word for "county."
  
===== Codicil  =====
+
;comitissa : Latin word for "countess."
  
*A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
+
===== Commander  =====
  
<br> oelebs
+
*An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.
  
    Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
+
;commater: Latin word for "godmother."
  
coemeterium
+
===== Commercial directory  =====
  
    Latin word for "cemetery."
+
*An alphabetical list of craftsmen, tradesmen, merchants, and others in business within a given area.
  
Coextensive (District of Columbia)
+
===== Commercial on-line service  =====
  
    Having the same boundaries. Washington is coextensive with the District of Columbia which means that the City of Washington occupies the same space and has the same boundaries as the District of Columbia.
+
*A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.
  
cofradía
+
;commerciante di vino: Italian word for "wine merchant."
  
    Spanish word for "religious brotherhood, guild."
+
===== Commissariat court, Scotland  =====
  
<br>
+
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissary court.
  
===== Cofradías, Spain =====
+
===== Commissary court, Church of England =====
  
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
+
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Commissary courts are also called episcopal, bishop's, diocesan, exchequer, and consistory courts.
  
cognationis
+
===== Commissary court, Scotland  =====
  
    Latin word for "blood relationship."
+
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.
  
cognato, -a
+
;commissionario: Italian word for "broker."
  
    Italian word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."
+
===== Commissioned officer  =====
  
cognome, -i
+
*A military officer who holds the rank of second lieutenant, ensign, or above.
  
    Italian word for "surname(s)."
+
===== Commissioners court, Texas  =====
  
cognomen
+
*A court in Texas with countywide jurisdiction.
  
    Latin word for "name, family name, surname."
+
===== Commodore, British  =====
  
<br>
+
*An officer in the British navy who commands a squadron.
  
===== Cohabitation certificates =====
+
===== Common pleas court, West Virginia =====
  
*A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
+
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. Its jurisdiction varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
  
<br> cojo (a)
+
===== Commonwealth, USA  =====
  
    Spanish word for "lame."
+
*A term used in the official names of four states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Virginia.
  
col consenso
+
commorantes
  
     Italian word for "with the consent."
+
     Latin word for "living, residing."
  
colera
+
Commot
  
     Italian word for "cholera."
+
     An early Welsh administrative division that was part of a cantrev.
  
colheita
+
Commstock Load
  
     Portuguese word for "harvest."
+
     Named for Henry Comstock (nicknamed "Old Pancake"). In 1859 he held the rights to a large silver deposit in the mines of Virginia City, Nevada, but later sold the rights for almost nothing.
  
colina
+
communauté
  
     Portuguese and Spanish word for "hill."
+
     French word for "community (of goods), religious community."
  
Collaboration Lists
+
===== Commune  =====
  
    A feature on the FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service that allows people to type in information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Each collaboration list focuses on a particular place, surname, or topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
+
*The French word for community.
  
Collateral (genealogy)
+
communicanten
  
     A member of a family but not in the direct line, such as an aunt, uncle, or cousin.
+
     Dutch word for "members, communicants."
  
===== Collection Fabien, Canada  =====
+
communion
  
*A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada<br>Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
+
    French and Norwegian word for "communion."
  
Collection Gagnon, Canada
+
communionsbog
  
     A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
+
     Danish word for "communion book."
  
<br>
+
===== Community cemetery  =====
  
===== Collection Rhode Island Family Records  =====
+
*A cemetery owned by a civil government.
  
*A collection of will abstracts and family records created by Martha A. Benns. The collection is available at the Rhode Island Historical Society and the Family History Library™.
+
Compact disc: A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.  
  
===== Collections, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
+
como
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize collections of genealogical or historical information gathered by a person or group and then made available for public research.
+
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "as, how."
  
===== Collective biography  =====
+
Compact disc
  
*A group of biographies about a specific group of people, such as merchants, students of an academy, or prominent citizens in an area.
+
    A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.
  
===== Collective naturalization, USA =====
+
===== Compact disc catalog =====
  
*The process of granting a group of people United States citizenship. This happened in 1803 for residents of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1845 for residents of Texas, in 1868 for African-Americans, in 1898 for residents of Hawaii, and in 1924 for Native Americans. No individual naturalization records were made for people granted collective naturalization.
+
*The Family History Library Catalog™ on compact disc.
  
===== Collectors' roll =====
+
===== Compact disc index =====
  
*A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
+
*A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.
  
collina
+
===== compagnon =====
  
    Italian word for "hill."
+
*French word for "journeyman, partner."<br>
  
colline
+
===== comparant =====
  
    French word for "hill."
+
*Dutch word for "one who appeared."<br>
  
collis
+
===== comparatio =====
  
    Latin word for "hill."
+
*Latin word for "presence, appearance."<br>
  
===== Colonel  =====
+
===== compareerde =====
  
*Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
+
*Dutch word for "appeared before."<br>
  
<br>
+
===== comparu =====
  
<br>  
+
*French word for "appeared."<br>
  
<br>
+
===== comparuit  =====
  
<br>  
+
*Latin word for "he/she appeared, was present."<br>
  
<br>
+
===== compater  =====
  
===== Colonial census  =====
+
*Latin word for "godfather."<br>
  
*A list and description of the population of a colony.
+
<br>
  
===== Colonial land records =====
+
===== Compendium =====
  
*Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
+
*A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.
  
===== Colonial naturalization =====
+
===== compenso =====
  
*A naturalization that occurred during a country's colonial period.
+
*Italian word for "fee."<br>
  
===== Colonial period, Latin America  =====
+
<br>
  
*The period of time from 1492 to the 1820s when Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America. During this period, the Spanish and Portuguese exploited native resources, suppressed native cultures, imported slaves from Africa, and established Catholic missions that oversaw the conversion (sometimes forced) of the native peoples to Catholicism. The native-born Spanish controlled the local governments, even pure-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the New World had little influence. The colonial period ended as the various countries in Latin America won their independence and established their own governments.
+
===== Compiled biography  =====
  
===== Colonial records  =====
+
*A compilation of the histories of people’s lives. The people selected for a compiled biography usually have something in common, such as an occupation, place of origin or residence, or experience in a historical event. Also called a biographical encyclopedia or biographical dictionary.
  
*Records kept about a colony or by a colonial government.
+
===== Compiled record:  =====
  
===== Colonial Wars  =====
+
*collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
  
*Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
+
===== Compiled service records  =====
  
===== Colonization Policy  =====
+
*All of the records concerning people who served in the military. These records are usually indexed.
  
*Agreements made by the Mexican government during the 1820s to allow Americans to colonize Texas. Moses Austin was the first American to receive permission to form a colony, but he died before he could establish it. Stephen F. Austin, his son, organized the first colony at Washington-on-the-Bravos. Other colonies soon formed. By 1830 the Mexican government was alarmed at the number of American colonists in Mexico and halted the immigration.
+
===== Compiled source  =====
  
===== Colonizer  =====
+
*A collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
  
*A person who moves from an established area to a colony.
+
===== Complete record  =====
  
Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.  
+
*A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.
  
===== Colorado Territory =====
+
===== compos =====
  
*A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.
+
*Latin word for "in possession of."<br>
  
===== Commander =====
+
===== Compound surname =====
  
*An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.
+
*A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.
  
===== Commercial directory =====
+
===== comprare =====
  
*An alphabetical list of craftsmen, tradesmen, merchants, and others in business within a given area.
+
*Italian word for "to buy."<br>
  
===== Commercial on-line service =====
+
===== comprend =====
  
*A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.
+
*French word for "includes."<br>
  
===== Commissariat court, Scotland =====
+
===== Computer bulletin board system =====
  
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissary court.
+
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many bulletin boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer message board or computer news group.
  
===== Commissary court, Church of England =====
+
===== Computer chat session =====
  
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Commissary courts are also called episcopal, bishop's, diocesan, exchequer, and consistory courts.
+
*A computer resource that allows people to send messages to each other in real time. This may also be called a conference.
  
===== Commissary court, Scotland =====
+
===== Computer interest group =====
  
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.
+
*A group of people who share a common interest and use computer on-line services to share information, learn about the particular topic, promote projects, or publish newsletters.
  
===== Commissioned officer =====
+
===== Computer lecture session =====
  
*A military officer who holds the rank of second lieutenant, ensign, or above.
+
*A computer program that allows an individual to conduct a “classroom lecture” through a computer network or on-line service.
  
===== Commissioners court, Texas =====
+
===== Computer message board =====
  
*A court in Texas with countywide jurisdiction.
+
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many computer message boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer news group.
  
===== Commodore, British =====
+
===== Computer network =====
  
*An officer in the British navy who commands a squadron.
+
*A group of computers electronically connected to each other so they can share information and programs.
  
===== Common pleas court, West Virginia =====
+
===== Computer news group =====
  
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. Its jurisdiction varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
+
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many news groups focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
  
===== Commonwealth, USA =====
+
===== Computer number =====
  
*A term used in the official names of four states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Virginia.
+
*A number used to identify each entry in the Family History Library Catalog™. Using the Computer Number search is the fastest way to find a record in the catalog.
  
===== Commune =====
+
===== Computer on-line services =====
  
*The French word for community.
+
*The various features available to computer users through networks and modems, such as E-mail and Internet access. Computer on-line services usually refer to commercial organizations, such as America On-line or CompuServe, that provide such services for a fee.
  
===== Community cemetery =====
+
===== Computer record =====
  
*A cemetery owned by a civil government.
+
*A record that is stored in a computer-readable format.
  
Compact disc: A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.
+
===== Computerized phone directory  =====
  
===== Compact disc catalog  =====
+
*A list of people's names, addresses, and telephone numbers that can be searched by computer.
  
*The Family History Library Catalog™ on compact disc.
+
===== Comstock Lode  =====
  
===== Compact disc index  =====
+
*A large gold and silver deposit discovered in central Nevada, near Virginia City, in 1859. It attracted many miners from California, and Virginia City became one of the largest, most prosperous cities in the Rocky Mountain West. Mining began to fade in the 1880s, and the population of Nevada declined as a result.
  
*A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.
+
===== Comte  =====
  
===== Compendium  =====
+
*The third highest ranking title in the French peerage. A comte ranks below a marquis (marquess) and above a vicomte (viscount). A comte is equal to a count in other parts of continental Europe and an earl in Great Britain.
  
*A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.
+
comune
  
===== Compiled biography  =====
+
    Italian word for "municipality."
  
*A compilation of the histories of people’s lives. The people selected for a compiled biography usually have something in common, such as an occupation, place of origin or residence, or experience in a historical event. Also called a biographical encyclopedia or biographical dictionary.
+
comunhão
  
===== Compiled record:  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "communion."
  
*collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
+
comunione
  
===== Compiled service records  =====
+
    Italian word for "communion."
  
*All of the records concerning people who served in the military. These records are usually indexed.
+
comunità
  
===== Compiled source  =====
+
    Italian word for "community, township."
  
*A collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
+
comunión
  
===== Complete record  =====
+
    Spanish word for "communion."
  
*A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.
+
con
  
===== Compound surname  =====
+
    Italian and Spanish word for "with."
  
*A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.
+
concejal
  
===== Computer bulletin board system  =====
+
    Spanish word for "councilman."
  
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many bulletin boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer message board or computer news group.
+
concelho
  
===== Computer chat session  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "council, counsel."
  
*A computer resource that allows people to send messages to each other in real time. This may also be called a conference.
+
concepta est
  
===== Computer interest group  =====
+
    Latin word for "she was pregnant."
  
*A group of people who share a common interest and use computer on-line services to share information, learn about the particular topic, promote projects, or publish newsletters.
+
concernente
  
===== Computer lecture session  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "concerning."
  
*A computer program that allows an individual to conduct a “classroom lecture” through a computer network or on-line service.
+
concerniente
  
===== Computer message board  =====
+
    Spanish word for "concerning."
  
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many computer message boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer news group.
+
<br>
  
===== Computer network =====
+
===== Concession, Canada =====
  
*A group of computers electronically connected to each other so they can share information and programs.
+
*A division of a township in eastern Canada.
  
===== Computer news group  =====
+
concessit
  
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many news groups focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
+
    Latin word for "consented."
  
===== Computer number  =====
+
conciatore
  
*A number used to identify each entry in the Family History Library Catalog™. Using the Computer Number search is the fastest way to find a record in the catalog.
+
    Italian word for "tanner."
  
===== Computer on-line services  =====
+
<br>
  
*The various features available to computer users through networks and modems, such as E-mail and Internet access. Computer on-line services usually refer to commercial organizations, such as America On-line or CompuServe, that provide such services for a fee.
+
<br>
  
===== Computer record  =====
+
<br>
  
*A record that is stored in a computer-readable format.
+
concilio
  
===== Computerized phone directory  =====
+
    Spanish word for "council."
  
*A list of people's names, addresses, and telephone numbers that can be searched by computer.
+
concilio tridentino
  
===== Comstock Lode  =====
+
    Spanish word for "Council of Trent."
 +
 
 +
concubina
 +
 
 +
    Italian word for "concubine."
 +
 
 +
concubine
  
*A large gold and silver deposit discovered in central Nevada, near Virginia City, in 1859. It attracted many miners from California, and Virginia City became one of the largest, most prosperous cities in the Rocky Mountain West. Mining began to fade in the 1880s, and the population of Nevada declined as a result.
+
    French word for "concubine."
  
===== Comte  =====
+
condado
  
*The third highest ranking title in the French peerage. A comte ranks below a marquis (marquess) and above a vicomte (viscount). A comte is equal to a count in other parts of continental Europe and an earl in Great Britain.
+
    Spanish word for "county."
  
===== Concession, Canada  =====
+
conde, Portuguese
  
*A division of a township in eastern Canada.
+
    Portuguese word for "count, earl".
  
 
===== Conde  =====
 
===== Conde  =====
  
 
*The third highest raking title of Spanish nobility. A conde (equivalent in rank to a count or earl) ranks below a marqués (marques or marquis) and above a vizconde (viscount).
 
*The third highest raking title of Spanish nobility. A conde (equivalent in rank to a count or earl) ranks below a marqués (marques or marquis) and above a vizconde (viscount).
 +
 +
conditione, sub
 +
 +
    Latin word for "conditionally."
 +
 +
condizione
 +
 +
    Italian word for "status, condition."
 +
 +
conducente
 +
 +
    Italian word for "driver."
 +
 +
<br>
  
 
===== Confederacy  =====
 
===== Confederacy  =====
  
 
*The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861. These states were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.
 
*The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861. These states were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.
 +
 +
<br> Confederate
 +
 +
    A person who supported the Southern States prior to, during, and after the Civil War. Also an adjective describing things relating to the states that seceded from the United States, such as places, military forces, and flags.
  
 
===== Confederate prisoners  =====
 
===== Confederate prisoners  =====
  
 
*Men who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and were taken as prisoners of war.
 
*Men who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and were taken as prisoners of war.
 +
 +
Confederate armed forces
 +
 +
    The army and navy of the Southeran states during the United States Civil War.
  
 
===== Confederate scrip lands  =====
 
===== Confederate scrip lands  =====
  
 
*Land grants issued by Texas to Confederate veterans who were permanently disabled in the American Civil War or to widows of soldiers who were killed during the war.
 
*Land grants issued by Texas to Confederate veterans who were permanently disabled in the American Civil War or to widows of soldiers who were killed during the war.
 +
 +
Confederation (of Canada)
 +
 +
    The union on 1 July 1867 of the former British colonies of Canada West (Ontario), Canada East (Quebec), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia as the Dominion of Canada. It now includes all the present provinces and territories of Canada.
 +
 +
confermazione
 +
 +
    Italian word for "confirmation."
 +
 +
confettiere
 +
 +
    Italian word for "confectioner."
  
 
===== Confirmación  =====
 
===== Confirmación  =====
Line 2,260: Line 2,229:
  
 
*A Portuguese word for confirmations.
 
*A Portuguese word for confirmations.
 +
 +
confirmatie
 +
 +
    Dutch word for "confirmation."
  
 
===== Confirmation record  =====
 
===== Confirmation record  =====
Line 2,269: Line 2,242:
 
*A church rite that allows an individual to become a member of a church.
 
*A church rite that allows an individual to become a member of a church.
  
Confirmation, Latter-day Saint: An ordinance of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in which an individual becomes a member of the Church and receives the gift of the Holy Ghost.
+
Confirmation, Latter-day Saint  
  
===== Conflict between Denmark and Sweden (1643-1645)  =====
+
    An ordinance of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in which an individual becomes a member of the Church and receives the gift of the Holy Ghost.
  
*A military action in which Sweden invaded and defeated Denmark and Jutland. In 1645 the Treaty of Christianopel forced Denmark to cede some of its possessions to Sweden.
+
confirmeraður
  
===== Confraternidades, Spain  =====
+
    Icelandic word for "confirmed, confirmand."
  
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
+
confirmerede
  
===== Congo  =====
+
    Norwegian word for "confirmed."
 +
 
 +
confirmeret
 +
 
 +
    Danish word for "confirmed."
 +
 
 +
===== Conflict between Denmark and Sweden (1643-1645)  =====
 +
 
 +
*A military action in which Sweden invaded and defeated Denmark and Jutland. In 1645 the Treaty of Christianopel forced Denmark to cede some of its possessions to Sweden.
 +
 
 +
===== Confraternidades, Spain  =====
 +
 
 +
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
 +
 
 +
confronta (cfr.)
 +
 
 +
    Italian word for "compare."
 +
 
 +
congestion cérébrale
 +
 
 +
    French word for "stroke."
 +
 
 +
congiunto
 +
 
 +
    Italian word for "related."
 +
 
 +
===== Congo  =====
  
 
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person who is from the Congo region of Africa. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person who is from the Congo region of Africa. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Line 2,295: Line 2,294:
 
*Land in Ohio that was owned by the United States government and sold by general acts of Congress. Congress lands included land sold to the Ohio Company and John Cleves Symmes. Much of the land was reserved for soldiers who had served in the Revolutionary War and refugees from Canada who had supported the colonies during the war. Much of the reserved land was not claimed, and it reverted back to being Congress land. Most of what is now the state of Ohio was Congress land. The term Congress land can also refer to any federal land disposed of by acts of Congress.
 
*Land in Ohio that was owned by the United States government and sold by general acts of Congress. Congress lands included land sold to the Ohio Company and John Cleves Symmes. Much of the land was reserved for soldiers who had served in the Revolutionary War and refugees from Canada who had supported the colonies during the war. Much of the reserved land was not claimed, and it reverted back to being Congress land. Most of what is now the state of Ohio was Congress land. The term Congress land can also refer to any federal land disposed of by acts of Congress.
  
===== Conscription  =====
+
Congress, USA
  
*Mandatory enrollment for military service.
+
    The legislative or law-making branch of the government. Congress is divided into two groups: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
  
===== Conscription list  =====
+
conhecido (a)
  
*A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as listas de quintas or conscripciones. These are lists of new recruits and, in some cases, all males eligible for military service. In many cases, these records are found in town or municipal archives. They can serve as a type of census of all the males who lived in a community at the time the list was compiled.
+
    Portuguese word for "known, acquaintance."
  
===== Conseil Superieur, French Louisiana  =====
+
conhecido (a) como
  
*The judicial arm of government in French Louisiana. It handled all judicial matters in the colony. The administrative arm of government was called the conseil de regie. These two branches often met together, and it is difficult to distinguish them. The conseil superieur is also called the French Superior Council.
+
    Portuguese word for "known as."
  
===== Consent papers  =====
+
coniugati
  
*A document signed by the parents of children who are legally too young to marry to give them permission to marry.
+
    Italian word for "married."
  
===== Consistory court, Church of England  =====
+
coniugi
  
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Consistory courts are also called episcopal, commissary, diocesan, exchequer, and bishop's courts.
+
    Italian word for "married couple."
  
===== Contents  =====
+
conjoint
  
*The information contained in a record.
+
    French word for "spouse, assistant."
  
===== Continental Line  =====
+
conjugatus
  
*Troops who were part of the regular Revolutionary War army raised by the Continental Congress. They were not part of state militia units.
+
    Latin word for "married."
  
===== Continental pedigree  =====
+
conjuges
  
*A table that lists the name and date and place of birth, marriage, and death for an individual and a specified number of his or her ancestors. This chart is also called an ahnentafel chart.
+
    Latin word for "married couple."
  
===== Contract  =====
+
conjugum
  
*A legally binding agreement between parties.
+
    Latin word for "of/from the married couple."
  
===== Contrat de mariage  =====
+
conjuncti sunt
  
*A French term for marriage contract, a document created to protect the legal rights and property of a couple who are to be married.
+
    Latin word for "they were joined (in marriage)."
  
===== Contrato de compra-venta  =====
+
conjux
  
*The Spanish term for a contract documenting the purchase and sale of goods.
+
    Latin word for "spouse."
  
===== Cook  =====
+
connaissance
  
*In the British military, an officer who prepares food. In the United States military, the cook is an enlisted man rather than an officer.
+
    French word for "acquaintance."
  
===== Cook County, Illinois  =====
+
connessione
  
*The county in Illinois of which Chicago is a part.
+
    Italian word for "relationship."
  
===== Copulerede  =====
+
conocido (a)
  
*A Danish word for marriages.
+
    Spanish word for "known, acquaintance."
  
===== Copyhold records, Denmark  =====
+
conocido (a) como
  
*Danish land contracts that document agreements between the landowner and farmers wishing to lease crown-held land. These contracts were made before 1850 and include the name of the former occupant, his reason for leaving the farm, the name and sometimes birthplace of the new leaseholder, the new leaseholder's relationship to the former leaseholder (if any), the date of transfer, and a description of the land. If there was no breach of contract, the landowner could not evict the leaseholder. In Danish these records are called fæsteprotokoller.
+
    Spanish word for "known as."
  
===== Copyright  =====
+
consanguinidad
  
*The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, and sell an original literary or artistic work that is granted for a specific time to the author or originator.
+
    Spanish word for "blood relationship, kinship."
  
===== Corbin Manuscript Collection, Massachusetts  =====
+
consanguinitatis
  
*A manuscript collection of information about people from central and western Massachusetts. It includes local histories, church records, town records, genealogies, and transcripts of Bible and cemetery records. It is helpful for the years 1650 to 1850.
+
    Latin word for "of blood relationship (such as cousins)."
  
===== Cornet, British  =====
+
consangüinidade
  
*The fifth-ranking commissioned officer in a British infantry. The cornet carries the colors. The rank is equal with the ensign in the cavalry.
+
    Portuguese word for "blood relationship, kinship."
  
===== Cornish  =====
+
<br>
  
*A member of the ethno-linguistic group which originated in Cornwall. A speaker of the Brythonic Celtic language of Cornwall.
+
===== Conscription  =====
  
===== Coroner  =====
+
*Mandatory enrollment for military service.
  
*A public official who inquires into deaths of people who did not die under the care of a physician or people whose deaths may not have been due to natural causes.
+
===== Conscription list  =====
  
===== Coroner's inquest  =====
+
*A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as listas de quintas or conscripciones. These are lists of new recruits and, in some cases, all males eligible for military service. In many cases, these records are found in town or municipal archives. They can serve as a type of census of all the males who lived in a community at the time the list was compiled.
  
*The records relating to a coroner's examination of a body to determine the cause of death.
+
conseil d'état civil
  
===== Corporation court, Virginia  =====
+
    French word for "civil registrar's."
  
*A court formed in 1850 in independent cities, such as Richmond, to handle minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. In 1902, the circuit courts assumed the duties of the corporation courts.
+
===== Conseil Superieur, French Louisiana  =====
  
===== Corrected record of birth  =====
+
*The judicial arm of government in French Louisiana. It handled all judicial matters in the colony. The administrative arm of government was called the conseil de regie. These two branches often met together, and it is difficult to distinguish them. The conseil superieur is also called the French Superior Council.
  
*A document showing a change or addition to a birth certificate.
+
conseiller
  
===== Correctional Institutions, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
+
    French word for "councilor."
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about jails, prisons, halfway houses, and other correctional institutions.
+
consejo
  
===== Correspondence  =====
+
    Spanish word for "council."
  
*The exchange of written communication, such as a letter and a response.
+
consenso
  
===== Council of probate, Rhode Island  =====
+
    Italian word for "consent."
  
*A probate court in Rhode Island. The council of probate is also known as the general council.
+
===== Consent papers  =====
  
===== Council of Trent  =====
+
*A document signed by the parents of children who are legally too young to marry to give them permission to marry.
  
*A series of conferences held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, Italy. The focus of the council was to define Catholic beliefs and counteract the Protestant Reformation. The council also formalized record-keeping practices that were being followed in much of the Catholic world.
+
consentement
  
Council, Virginia: The legislative body and court of appeals for the colony of Virginia during its earliest period.  
+
    French word for "consent."
  
===== Count  =====
+
conservato
  
*A title of nobility in continental Europe, equal in rank to a British earl. Generally, a count ranks below a marquess and above a viscount. In German, a count is called a Graf. In Spain, Portugal, and Latin America, a count is called a conde. In France, a count is called a comte.
+
    Italian word for "preserved."
  
===== Counter Reformation  =====
+
consigliere
  
*A religious movement that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s as the Catholic Church tried to unify its beliefs and stop the spread of Protestantism. It led to a series of wars that occurred when Catholic governments tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in their countries. These wars include civil war in France (1565–1648), rebellion in the Netherlands (1585–1604), conflicts between Spain and England (1585–1604), and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648).
+
    Italian word for "counselor."
  
===== Country of arrival =====
+
===== Consistory court, Church of England =====
  
*The country to which an immigrant moves.
+
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Consistory courts are also called episcopal, commissary, diocesan, exchequer, and bishop's courts.
  
===== Country of origin  =====
+
consobrina
  
*The country from which an individual moved.
+
    Latin word for "female cousin (usually on the mother's side)."
  
===== County  =====
+
consobrinus
  
*A division within a country, state, or province.
+
    Latin word for "male cousin (usually on the mother's side)."
  
===== County commissioner  =====
+
consors (consortis)
  
*An elected official who sits on the council that creates county laws and ordinances.
+
    Latin word for "wife."
  
===== County commissioner's court, Illinois  =====
+
consorte
  
*A court in Illinois with countywide jurisdiction over disputes concerning county roads, turnpikes, canals, taxes, and licenses. These courts have evolved into administrative rather than judicial bodies.
+
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "spouse, partner."
  
===== County commissioner's court, Maine  =====
+
constipación
  
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. From 1699 to 1831 county commissioner's courts were called courts of general sessions. They were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
+
    Spanish word for "constipation."
  
===== County court orders, Kentucky  =====
+
constipação
  
*Land grants sold by counties in Kentucky beginning in 1835.
+
    Portuguese word for "constipation."
  
===== County court, Alabama  =====
+
Constitution
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. These courts have also been called inferior courts, superior courts, chancery courts, intermediate courts, common pleas courts, civil courts, criminal courts, law and equity courts, general sessions courts, and law and juvenile courts.
+
    The document that lists the basic laws, powers, and duties of a state or nation and which guarantees certain rights of the people.
  
===== County court, Arkansas  =====
+
consumimiento
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over juvenile cases, taxes, claims, and county expenditures.
+
    Spanish word for "consumption."
  
===== County court, Canada  =====
+
consunção
  
*A provincial court in Canada that handles certain types of criminal cases and civil cases involving more than a specified amount of money. Also called a midlevel county court or judicial district court. Many provinces no longer use these courts.
+
    Portuguese word for "consumption."
  
===== County court, Colorado  =====
+
conta
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, preliminary hearings, the issuance of some warrants, some bail matters, minor civil cases, probates, and some appeals.
+
    Portuguese word for "account, bill."
  
===== County court, Connecticut  =====
+
contabile
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil, minor criminal, chancery, and divorce cases. These courts existed from 1666 to 1855.
+
    Italian word for "accountant."
  
County court, Florida: A court with countywide jurisdiction over probates, marriages, administration, and guardianships.
+
contadino, -a
  
===== County court, general  =====
+
    Italian word for "farm laborer, peasant."
  
*A court with jurisdiction over a county.
+
conte
  
===== County court, Illinois  =====
+
    Italian word for "count, earl."
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. In some counties, the county courts also have jurisdiction over probates.
+
contea
  
===== County court, Kansas  =====
+
    Italian word for "county."
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over some criminal cases, including traffic violations, and minor civil cases.
+
contenido
  
===== County court, Kentucky  =====
+
    Spanish word for "contents."
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, bonds, deeds, probates, and juvenile matters. After 1852 most criminal cases were heard by the circuit or quarterly courts.
+
<br>
  
===== County court, Maryland =====
+
===== Contents =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases. In 1851 the county courts were replaced by circuit courts.
+
*The information contained in a record.
  
===== County court, Massachusetts  =====
+
contenu
  
*A court in Massachusetts with countywide jurisdiction. County courts are also called quarter courts or inferior quarter courts.
+
    French word for "content."
  
===== County court, Michigan  =====
+
conteúdo
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction. Michigan abolished these courts in 1833. Few of the remaining records have genealogical value.
+
    Portuguese word for "contents."
  
===== County court, Mississippi =====
+
===== Continental Line =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, some law and equity cases, and appeals from other courts.
+
*Troops who were part of the regular Revolutionary War army raised by the Continental Congress. They were not part of state militia units.
  
===== County court, Nebraska =====
+
===== Continental pedigree =====
  
*A countywide court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and juvenile and probate actions.
+
*A table that lists the name and date and place of birth, marriage, and death for an individual and a specified number of his or her ancestors. This chart is also called an ahnentafel chart.
  
===== County court, New Jersey  =====
+
conto
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. County courts replaced the courts of common pleas, oyer and terminer, general quarter sessions, special sessions, and orphan's courts. In 1978 county courts were replaced by the superior courts.
+
    Italian word for "account, bill."
  
===== County court, New York  =====
+
contra, Latin
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases, minor equity cases, and some appeals. These are the major trial courts for each county in New York.
+
    Latin word for "against, opposite."
  
===== County court, North Carolina  =====
+
contra, Portuguese
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases, estate settlements, land entries, military pension declarations, and criminal cases. These courts were abolished in 1868.
+
    Portuguese word for "against."
  
===== County court, North Dakota  =====
+
<br>
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases, probates, and guardianships.
+
===== Contract  =====
  
===== County court, Ohio  =====
+
*A legally binding agreement between parties.
  
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and civil cases.
+
contractant
  
===== County court, Oregon  =====
+
    French word for "the groom (in a marriage record)."
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over probate, juvenile cases, and civil cases under $500.
+
contractante
  
===== County court, Pennsylvania  =====
+
    French word for "the bride (in a marriage record)."
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over equity and estate cases, civil cases, and criminal cases (except for capital crimes). The courts also performed many executive duties, such as laying out roads, registering marks and brands, levying taxes, supervising indentured servants, and so forth. The justices of county courts also met as an orphan's court to deal with orphan matters. County courts were used from 1682 to 1722.
+
contracti
  
===== County court, South Carolina  =====
+
    Latin word for "contracted, drawn together."
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts existed between 1785 to 1798.
+
contrada
  
County court, Texas: A court with countywide jurisdiction over major criminal cases, civil cases, and naturalizations.  
+
    Italian word for "town quarter."
  
===== County court, Virginia  =====
+
contraente
  
*A court in Virginia with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. County courts existed from 1618 to 1902, when they were replaced by circuit courts. Also called monthly courts (1618–1634) and courts of the shire.
+
    Portuguese word for "contracting party in a marriage."
  
===== County court, Wisconsin  =====
+
contrajó matrimonio con (c.m.c.)
  
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, probates, juvenile matters and dependency and neglect matters. From 1854 to 1913 the county courts handled probate matters but did not have criminal or civil jurisdiction.
+
    Spanish word for "contracted marriage with."
  
===== County courthouse, archive =====
+
===== Contrat de mariage =====
  
*A building that houses county offices and county records.
+
*A French term for marriage contract, a document created to protect the legal rights and property of a couple who are to be married.
  
===== County courthouse, court records =====
+
===== Contrato de compra-venta =====
  
*A building that houses a county-level court of law.
+
*The Spanish term for a contract documenting the purchase and sale of goods.
  
===== County directory  =====
+
contratto di matrimonio
  
*A list of the names and addresses of people living in a county.
+
    Italian word for "marriage contract."
  
===== County history  =====
+
contraxerunt
  
*A written account of the events that took place in a county. County histories often include biographical sketches of county residents.
+
    Latin word for "they contracted (marriage)."
  
===== County justice court, North Dakota  =====
+
contrayente
  
*A court in North Dakota with jurisdiction in counties that do not have county courts. They have jurisdiction over misdemeanors and civil cases.
+
    Spanish word for "contracting party in a marriage."
  
===== County map  =====
+
contre
  
*A map that shows the land in a county.
+
    French word for "against."
  
===== County probate court, Arizona  =====
+
contro
  
*A court in Arizona with countywide jurisdiction over paying a deceased person's debts and distributing his or her property. Since 1912 the superior courts have handled probates.
+
    Italian word for "against."
  
===== County probate court, Utah  =====
+
Conversion guide
  
*A court in Utah with countywide jurisdiction over probate actions. These courts were used from 1850 to 1896.
+
    A guide that lists two sets of microfilm numbers for the same set of microfilms. For example, the Archives of Ontario and the Family History Library both have copies of the same microfilms of vital records of births, marriages, and deaths from the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Archives of Ontario uses one numbering system for those records, and the Family History Library uses another numbering system. The Archives of Ontario has a conversion guide that lists both the Archives of Ontario and the Family History Library film numbers for each roll of microfilm in the set.
  
===== County record office  =====
+
conversione
  
*An archive that houses records for a particular county in England, Scotland, and Wales.
+
    Italian word for "conversion."
  
===== County records  =====
+
conversión
  
*Records, such as birth, marriage, death, and land records, kept by a county government.
+
    Spanish word for "conversion."
  
===== County registrar  =====
+
conversão
  
*A county official charged with keeping deed records.
+
    Portuguese word for "conversion."
  
===== County seat  =====
+
Conveyance
  
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county town.
+
    A title deed; a document drawn up to transfer property from one person to another.
  
===== County surrogate court indexes, New Jersey  =====
+
Convict records
  
*Indexes to probate records kept by the county surrogate courts in New Jersey.
+
    Records of convicts who were deported to colonies of their country. These include records made in the new colony or country while the people were still convicts.
  
===== County surrogate court, New Jersey  =====
+
Convict Records, FamilySearch
  
*A court that began handling New Jersey probate cases in 1804.
+
    A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records of convicts who were deported to colonies of their country. These include records made in the new colony or country while the people were still convicts.
  
===== County town  =====
+
convulsione, -i
  
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county seat.
+
    Italian word for "convulsion(s)."
  
===== Countywide index  =====
+
convulsionis
  
*An index to a group of records covering a single county. For example, a countywide index may cover one county of a state within a federal census.
+
    Latin word for "of convulsions."
  
===== Court calendar  =====
+
convulsión
  
*Lists of cases heard by a court. Court calendars may list the names of the plaintiff and defendant, the date the case was heard, the case file number, and all documents related to the case. They are also called dockets.
+
    Spanish word for "convulsion."
  
===== Court case file  =====
+
convulsão
  
*A packet or bundle of the loose documents relating to a court case, such as copies of evidence, testimonies, bonds, depositions, correspondence, and petitions.
+
    Portuguese word for "convulsion."
  
===== Court clerk =====
+
===== Cook =====
  
*An officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, and judgments and keeps records of court proceedings.
+
*In the British military, an officer who prepares food. In the United States military, the cook is an enlisted man rather than an officer.
  
===== Court decree =====
+
===== Cook County, Illinois =====
  
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court judgment or court order.
+
*The county in Illinois of which Chicago is a part.
  
===== Court directory  =====
+
cooperta
  
*A list of city officers, government officials, and private residents.
+
    Latin word for "married (of a woman)."
  
===== Court executions, New Jersey  =====
+
coopvaerdi
  
*Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
+
    Swedish word for "merchant marine."
  
===== Court for trial of Negroes, Pennsylvania  =====
+
Gilbert Cope's Collection of Family Data (Cope collection)
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over African-Americans who were accused of committing crimes. This court existed from 1700 to 1780.
+
    A collection of family history information about Quakers and others who lived in southeastern Pennsylvania and Burlington, Cumberland, Gloucester, and Salem counties in New Jersey.
  
===== Court judgment  =====
+
copie civili di registri parrocchiali
  
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court order.
+
    Italian word for "parish register transcripts."
  
===== Court minutes  =====
+
copulati sunt
  
*Brief daily accounts of all actions taken by a court. Minutes list the names of the plaintiff and defendant and briefly describe the action taken.
+
    Latin word for "they were married, joined."
  
===== Court of appeal, Ohio  =====
+
copulationis
  
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
+
    Latin word for "of marriage."
  
===== Court of appeals deed book, Kentucky  =====
+
copulatus
  
*A record of disputes and litigation that occurred over land rights in Kentucky.
+
    Latin word for "married, joined."
  
===== Court of appeals, California  =====
+
copulavit
  
*A statewide court in California that hears cases appealed from lower courts.
+
    Latin word for "he married (performed wedding)."
  
===== Court of appeals, Canada  =====
+
<br>
  
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears appeals of civil and criminal cases from the Trial Division (Court of Queens' Bench) and from lower courts.
+
===== Copulerede  =====
  
===== Court of appeals, Colorado  =====
+
*A Danish word for marriages.
  
*An intermediate court in Colorado with statewide jurisdiction over appeals from district courts, the Denver Superior Court, probate courts, and juvenile courts.
+
copuleret
  
===== Court of appeals, Maryland  =====
+
    Danish word for "married."
  
*The highest court in Maryland. It has statewide jurisdiction over criminal, civil, and probate appeals.
+
copulieren
  
===== Court of appeals, Oklahoma  =====
+
    German word for "to marry."
  
*An intermediate court in Oklahoma with statewide jurisdiction to hear appeals from lower courts.
+
Copyhold land, England
  
===== Court of arches, England  =====
+
    Land held subject to the will of the lord of a manor. Title to the land was recorded in the manor court rolls, and the tenant was given a copy. A copyhold could not be inherited unless the heir released the land to the lord and was confirmed by the lord on payment of a fee. The same applied to other copyhold land transfers.
  
*A court that heard appeals from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.
+
===== Copyhold records, Denmark  =====
  
===== Court of assistants, Connecticut  =====
+
*Danish land contracts that document agreements between the landowner and farmers wishing to lease crown-held land. These contracts were made before 1850 and include the name of the former occupant, his reason for leaving the farm, the name and sometimes birthplace of the new leaseholder, the new leaseholder's relationship to the former leaseholder (if any), the date of transfer, and a description of the land. If there was no breach of contract, the landowner could not evict the leaseholder. In Danish these records are called fæsteprotokoller.
  
*The main court of jurisdiction in Connecticut for all matters of law, including appeals from town and borough courts. The court of assistants lasted from 1665 to 1711.
+
===== Copyright  =====
  
===== Court of assizes, New York  =====
+
*The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, and sell an original literary or artistic work that is granted for a specific time to the author or originator.
  
*The highest provincial court in New York from 1665 to 1683. It was located in New York City and heard civil, criminal, and probate cases.
+
coqueluche
  
===== Court of chancery, New Jersey  =====
+
    French and Portuguese word for "whooping cough."
  
*A court in New Jersey with statewide jurisdiction that gradually received jurisdiction over civil and equity cases, mortgage foreclosures, lis pendens, land partitions, payment of debt, probate suits, lunacy inquisitions, naturalizations, divorces, and child custody. These functions are now handled by the superior courts.
+
coquus
  
===== Court of chancery, New York  =====
+
    Latin word for "cook."
  
*A court in New York with statewide jurisdiction over civil equity matters such as mortgage foreclosures, real property proceedings, sales of estates in dower and curtesy, naturalizations, matrimonial disputes, divorces, guardianships, and child custody. It absorbed the court of probate and had appellate jurisdiction over surrogates' courts. After 1847 equity responsibilities were assigned to the state's supreme court.
+
coram
  
===== Court of chancery, Ontario, Canada  =====
+
    Latin word for "in the presence of."
  
*A court with jurisdiction over equity cases in Ontario. (Equity cases are court cases in which parties are disputing over a matter that is not a violation of law, and the court is asked to make a fair decision.) This court was established in 1837.
+
===== Corbin Manuscript Collection, Massachusetts  =====
  
===== Court of chancery, South Carolina  =====
+
*A manuscript collection of information about people from central and western Massachusetts. It includes local histories, church records, town records, genealogies, and transcripts of Bible and cemetery records. It is helpful for the years 1650 to 1850.
  
*A type of court used in South Carolina from 1671 to the 1790s. It handled land and inheritance matters for the entire colony.
+
cordaio
  
===== Court of chancery/equity, Pennsylvania  =====
+
    italian word for "rope maker."
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with jurisdiction over equity cases.
+
cordelero
  
===== Court of civil appeals, Alabama  =====
+
    Spanish word for "rope maker."
  
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over civil cases appealed from lower courts.
+
cordier
  
Court of common law: A court with jurisdiction over criminal cases.  
+
    French word for "rope maker."
  
===== Court of common pleas, Delaware  =====
+
cordoeiro
  
*A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil suits, minor criminal cases, appeals from lesser courts, adoption cases, and cases to terminate parental rights. Courts of common pleas operated from 1701 to 1831, when the authority of the court of common pleas was given to the superior courts. Before 1792 the courts of common pleas also heard cases now handled by the chancery courts.
+
    Portuguese word for "rope maker."
  
===== Court of common pleas, England  =====
+
cordonnier
  
*One of the four superior courts at Westminster. It heard civil cases between commoners. In 1873 it became the Common Pleas division of the High Court of Justice, which was merged with the Queen's Bench division in 1880.
+
    French word for "shoemaker."
  
Court of common pleas, general: A countywide court, usually having civil and criminal jurisdiction.
+
coriarius
  
===== Court of common pleas, Indiana  =====
+
    Latin word for "tanner, leather worker."
  
*A court that existed from 1790 to 1817 and from 1853 to 1873. It heard insanity, guardianship, probate, naturalization, equity, criminal, and civil cases.
+
<br>
  
===== Court of common pleas, Missouri =====
+
===== Cornet, British =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases before the 1880s. Not all counties in Missouri had courts of common pleas.
+
*The fifth-ranking commissioned officer in a British infantry. The cornet carries the colors. The rank is equal with the ensign in the cavalry.
  
===== Court of common pleas, New Hampshire =====
+
===== Cornish =====
  
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil matters from 1769 to 1820 and from 1824 to 1859.
+
*A member of the ethno-linguistic group which originated in Cornwall. A speaker of the Brythonic Celtic language of Cornwall.
  
===== Court of common pleas, New Jersey =====
+
===== Coroner =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases and appeals from the justice and small cause courts.
+
*A public official who inquires into deaths of people who did not die under the care of a physician or people whose deaths may not have been due to natural causes.
  
===== Court of common pleas, New York =====
+
===== Coroner's inquest =====
  
*A court established in each city or county in New York to handle civil cases such as marriages, naturalizations, name changes, probates, exemptions from military duty, lunacy cases, tavern licenses, insolvency cases, old age assistance, manumissions, the laying of roads, settlements of boundary disputes, and child support and custody. These courts also handled appeals from the justices of the peace. These courts existed from 1691 to 1847, when they were replaced by county courts.
+
*The records relating to a coroner's examination of a body to determine the cause of death.
  
===== Court of common pleas, Ohio =====
+
===== Corporation court, Virginia =====
  
*A court in Ohio with districtwide jurisdiction over felonies, marriages, major civil cases, juvenile matters, probates (until 1852), naturalizations (until 1860 and after 1906), chancery matters (until 1900), and divorces (until 1894).
+
*A court formed in 1850 in independent cities, such as Richmond, to handle minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. In 1902, the circuit courts assumed the duties of the corporation courts.
  
===== Court of common pleas, Pennsylvania  =====
+
corpus (corporis)
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases including real estate, bankruptcy, tax collection, naturalization, and divorce. The court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
+
    Latin word for "body."
  
===== Court of common pleas, Rhode Island =====
+
===== Corrected record of birth =====
  
*A court in Rhode Island with countywide jurisdiction over most criminal and civil matters. These courts were established in 1730 and continue today.
+
*A document showing a change or addition to a birth certificate.
  
===== Court of common pleas, South Carolina =====
+
===== Correctional Institutions, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A court that had statewide jurisdiction over guardianship and civil cases until 1790, when district courts assumed these cases. Courts of common pleas continue to operate today.
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about jails, prisons, halfway houses, and other correctional institutions.
  
===== Court of common pleas, West Virginia  =====
+
corrente
  
*A court established in some counties. The court has limited jurisdiction over civil and domestic cases. It also hears appeals from municipal and justice courts. These courts have also been called criminal courts, intermediate courts, and statutory courts.
+
    Italian and Portuguese word for "current."
  
===== Court of criminal appeals, Alabama =====
+
===== Correspondence =====
  
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases appealed from lower courts.
+
*The exchange of written communication, such as a letter and a response.
  
===== Court of criminal appeals, Oklahoma  =====
+
corriente
  
*A court in Oklahoma that hears appeals of criminal cases from lower courts.
+
    Spanish word for "current."
  
===== Court of delegates, England  =====
+
corriere
  
*A court that heard final appeals from the court of arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases.
+
    Italian word for "couier."
  
===== Court of equity, South Carolina  =====
+
corte
  
*A court in South Carolina with countywide jurisdiction over property matters. Courts of equity were used from 1791 to 1900.
+
    Italian and Portuguese word for "court."
  
===== Court of First Instance, Philippines  =====
+
cortiça
  
*A court in the Philippines with jurisdiction over land records, wills, etc.
+
    Portuguese word for "cork."
  
===== Court of general quarter session, New Hampshire  =====
+
cosecha
  
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters from 1769 to 1794 and from 1820 to 1824.
+
    Spanish word for "harvest."
  
===== Court of general quarter sessions, Delaware  =====
+
costruttore
  
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over all criminal cases except capital crimes. These courts have existed since 1676 and continue to operate today.
+
    Italian word for "builder."
  
===== Court of general sessions of the peace, New York  =====
+
così
  
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases such as desertions, apprenticeship disputes, bastardy, and other violations of vice and immorality laws. These courts existed from 1665 to 1962, handling probate matters from 1665 to 1683 and then only criminal cases after 1691. Their jurisdiction was transferred to the county court in 1847, except in New York County, where they continued until 1962.
+
    Italian word for "thus, so."
  
===== Court of general sessions, Maine  =====
+
cotarius
  
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts became the county commissioner's courts in 1831 and were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
+
    Latin word for "cottager."
  
===== Court of general sessions, South Carolina  =====
+
couches
  
*A court in South Carolina with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases. This court was used from 1769 to 1790.
+
    French word for "bed, marital bed." Morte en couches means "died in childbirth."
  
===== Court of ordinary, Georgia =====
+
===== Council of probate, Rhode Island =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over homesteads, land warrants, licenses, indentures, paupers, voting registers, and marriages. From 1777 to 1798 and after 1852 these courts also had jurisdiction over probates.
+
*A probate court in Rhode Island. The council of probate is also known as the general council.
  
===== Court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, New York =====
+
===== Council of Trent =====
  
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over capital crimes such as treason and murder. These courts were used from 1683 to 1895.
+
*A series of conferences held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, Italy. The focus of the council was to define Catholic beliefs and counteract the Protestant Reformation. The council also formalized record-keeping practices that were being followed in much of the Catholic world.
  
===== Court of oyer and terminer, Delaware  =====
+
Council, Virginia
  
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over capital cases. These courts have existed since 1746 and continue to operate today.
+
    The legislative body and court of appeals for the colony of Virginia during its earliest period.  
  
===== Court of oyer and terminer, New Jersey =====
+
===== Count =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over all crimes committed within the county except for capital offenses of treason and murder. These courts were abolished in 1947.
+
*A title of nobility in continental Europe, equal in rank to a British earl. Generally, a count ranks below a marquess and above a viscount. In German, a count is called a Graf. In Spain, Portugal, and Latin America, a count is called a conde. In France, a count is called a comte.
  
===== Court of probates, New York =====
+
===== Counter Reformation =====
  
*A court in New York that had jurisdiction over probates from 1778 to 1823. Until 1783, the prerogative court also handled probates in British-occupied New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island.
+
*A religious movement that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s as the Catholic Church tried to unify its beliefs and stop the spread of Protestantism. It led to a series of wars that occurred when Catholic governments tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in their countries. These wars include civil war in France (1565–1648), rebellion in the Netherlands (1585–1604), conflicts between Spain and England (1585–1604), and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648).
  
===== Court of quarter sessions of the peace, Pennsylvania  =====
+
Country
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and other cases. This court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
+
    The highest level of government in a given area.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, England and Ireland =====
+
===== Country of arrival =====
  
*A countywide court that met quarterly in England and Ireland to hear criminal cases such as murder, riot, theft, assault, poaching, and so forth. The court did not hear civil cases or criminal cases involving treason or forgery. Starting in 1531 these courts also administered the poor law.
+
*The country to which an immigrant moves.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, general =====
+
===== Country of origin =====
  
*A court that meets four times a year.
+
*The country from which an individual moved.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Georgia =====
+
===== County =====
  
*A court used in colonial Georgia. No records exist from these courts.
+
*A division within a country, state, or province.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Indiana =====
+
===== County commissioner =====
  
*A statewide court with jurisdiction over all criminal and civil cases and probate matters between 1796 and 1813.
+
*An elected official who sits on the council that creates county laws and ordinances.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Kentucky =====
+
===== County commissioner's court, Illinois =====
  
*A court with jurisdiction over suits involving large amounts of money. This court existed between 1787 and 1802.
+
*A court in Illinois with countywide jurisdiction over disputes concerning county roads, turnpikes, canals, taxes, and licenses. These courts have evolved into administrative rather than judicial bodies.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Tennessee =====
+
===== County commissioner's court, Maine =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and estate matters.
+
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. From 1699 to 1831 county commissioner's courts were called courts of general sessions. They were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
  
===== Court of Queen's Bench, Canada =====
+
===== County court orders, Kentucky =====
  
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears serious civil and criminal cases and has the authority to grant divorces. Also called Court of King's Bench if the reigning monarch is a king and also called Trial Division.
+
*Land grants sold by counties in Kentucky beginning in 1835.
  
===== Court of schouts and schepens, New Netherland =====
+
===== County court, Alabama =====
  
*A court in New Netherland, which later became the state of New York, that had jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases from 1653 to 1674. These courts were replaced by mayor's courts.
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. These courts have also been called inferior courts, superior courts, chancery courts, intermediate courts, common pleas courts, civil courts, criminal courts, law and equity courts, general sessions courts, and law and juvenile courts.
  
===== Court of Session, Scotland =====
+
===== County court, Arkansas =====
  
*The highest court in Scotland. It handles cases that deal with revenue, including debt to the Crown, and cases that lower courts refer to it.
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over juvenile cases, taxes, claims, and county expenditures.
  
===== Court of the Exchequer, England =====
+
===== County court, Canada =====
  
*A court in England that originally had charge over keeping the king's accounts and collecting taxes. It began hearing cases between subjects, but this ended in 1290. After 1290 its jurisdiction was limited to cases regarding people who were withholding taxes or who refused to repay debts to the Crown. It later regained its jurisdiction over suits between subjects.
+
*A provincial court in Canada that handles certain types of criminal cases and civil cases involving more than a specified amount of money. Also called a midlevel county court or judicial district court. Many provinces no longer use these courts.
  
===== Court of the Exchequer, Scotland =====
+
===== County court, Colorado =====
  
*A national court in Scotland that dealt with revenue issues, including debt to the Crown. This court existed from 1708 to 1856, when its jurisdiction was transferred to the Court of Session.
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, preliminary hearings, the issuance of some warrants, some bail matters, minor civil cases, probates, and some appeals.
  
===== Court of the general quarter session, Upper Canada =====
+
===== County court, Connecticut =====
  
*A court with jurisdiction over criminal matters in Upper Canada (Ontario). These courts operated from 1777 to 1868. They met four times a year.
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil, minor criminal, chancery, and divorce cases. These courts existed from 1666 to 1855.
  
===== Court of the general quarter sessions of the peace, New Jersey  =====
+
County court, Florida
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases, such as desertions, vice, apprenticeship disputes, and bastardy. Before 1704 these courts also had jurisdiction over civil cases. These courts were dissolved in 1947. They are also called county courts.
+
    A court with countywide jurisdiction over probates, marriages, administration, and guardianships.  
  
===== Court order =====
+
===== County court, general =====
  
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court judgment.
+
*A court with jurisdiction over a county.
  
===== Court Records, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== County court, Illinois =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records, such as dockets and court minutes, kept by courts.
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. In some counties, the county courts also have jurisdiction over probates.
  
===== Court records, general =====
+
===== County court, Kansas =====
  
*Records kept by courts of law.
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over some criminal cases, including traffic violations, and minor civil cases.
  
Court, PERiodical Source Index: A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about court records.
+
===== County court, Kentucky  =====
  
===== Courthouse, archive  =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, bonds, deeds, probates, and juvenile matters. After 1852 most criminal cases were heard by the circuit or quarterly courts.
  
*A building that houses a court of law or county offices and county records.
+
===== County court, Maryland  =====
  
===== Coûtume de Paris  =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases. In 1851 the county courts were replaced by circuit courts.
  
*An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
+
===== County court, Massachusetts  =====
  
===== Covenant, general  =====
+
*A court in Massachusetts with countywide jurisdiction. County courts are also called quarter courts or inferior quarter courts.
  
*A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
+
===== County court, Michigan  =====
  
===== Coyote  =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction. Michigan abolished these courts in 1833. Few of the remaining records have genealogical value.
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
===== County court, Mississippi  =====
  
===== Creek War (1836-1837)  =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, some law and equity cases, and appeals from other courts.
  
*A disturbance in eastern Alabama caused by the impending removal of the Creek tribe of Native Americans according to a treaty signed in 1832.
+
===== County court, Nebraska  =====
  
===== Creek, Native Americans  =====
+
*A countywide court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and juvenile and probate actions.
  
*Tribes of Native Americans who originally lived in Alabama and Georgia. In 1832 they were forced to sign a treaty that required them to move to the Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi River.
+
===== County court, New Jersey  =====
  
===== Creole  =====
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. County courts replaced the courts of common pleas, oyer and terminer, general quarter sessions, special sessions, and orphan's courts. In 1978 county courts were replaced by the superior courts.
  
*A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.
+
===== County court, New York  =====
  
===== Crimean War (1854-1856)  =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases, minor equity cases, and some appeals. These are the major trial courts for each county in New York.
  
*A war fought over religious, commercial, and strategic issues between Russia and the combined forces of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Russia was defeated and forced to give up some of the land it had taken from the Ottoman Empire.
+
===== County court, North Carolina  =====
  
===== Criminal case  =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases, estate settlements, land entries, military pension declarations, and criminal cases. These courts were abolished in 1868.
  
*A proceeding against an individual charged with a violation of law that harmed or could have harmed society. Criminal cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
+
===== County court, North Dakota  =====
  
===== Criminal court =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases, probates, and guardianships.
  
*A court that hears criminal cases (cases in which a violation of law harmed or could have harmed society). Such cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
+
===== County court, Ohio  =====
  
===== Criminal court, West Virginia  =====
+
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and civil cases.
  
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. The jurisdiction of these courts varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
+
===== County court, Oregon  =====
  
===== Criminal jurisdiction =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over probate, juvenile cases, and civil cases under $500.
  
*The authority of a court to hear criminal cases that involve violations of law in which society was harmed or could have been harmed.
+
===== County court, Pennsylvania  =====
  
===== Criminal law  =====
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over equity and estate cases, civil cases, and criminal cases (except for capital crimes). The courts also performed many executive duties, such as laying out roads, registering marks and brands, levying taxes, supervising indentured servants, and so forth. The justices of county courts also met as an orphan's court to deal with orphan matters. County courts were used from 1682 to 1722.
  
*The laws in a country that define criminal offences (offences that harm society), set the rules for the arrest and possibly for the trial of those accused of crimes, and define punishment for crimes. Offences range in seriousness from disorderly conduct to murder.
+
===== County court, South Carolina  =====
  
===== Criollo  =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts existed between 1785 to 1798.
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Spain (a pure-blooded Spaniard born in Latin America).
+
County court, Texas: A court with countywide jurisdiction over major criminal cases, civil cases, and naturalizations.  
  
===== Crioulo =====
+
===== County court, Virginia =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Europe.
+
*A court in Virginia with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. County courts existed from 1618 to 1902, when they were replaced by circuit courts. Also called monthly courts (1618–1634) and courts of the shire.
  
===== Crismas =====
+
===== County court, Wisconsin =====
  
*A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.
+
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, probates, juvenile matters and dependency and neglect matters. From 1854 to 1913 the county courts handled probate matters but did not have criminal or civil jurisdiction.
  
===== Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England =====
+
===== County courthouse, archive =====
  
*The period in English history when Oliver Cromwell ruled England. After the Civil War, Parliament refused to reform the English government as much as Cromwell and his Puritan supporters desired. As a result, Cromwell dismissed Parliament and established himself as lord protector of England. During this time, Cromwell severely limited freedom of the press and enforced strict moral standards. He also strengthened England's navy, brought Scotland and Ireland under English control, and helped in the development of English colonies in North America and Asia.
+
*A building that houses county offices and county records.
  
===== Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts =====
+
===== County courthouse, court records =====
  
*An index that lists street addresses and the corresponding enumeration district in the 1910 census for many large cities in the United States.
+
*A building that houses a county-level court of law.
  
===== Crossing the Ocean Index  =====
+
<br>
  
*A list of Latter-day Saints who left Great Britain and Europe between 1840 and 1925 to settle in the western United States. Its official name is the European Emigration Card Index.
+
====== ===============  ======
  
===== Crossing the Plains Index =====
+
===== County directory =====
  
*An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.
+
*A list of the names and addresses of people living in a county.
  
===== Crown colony land grants =====
+
===== County history =====
  
*Land grants issued by Kings George II and III between 1735 and 1775. North Carolina became a Crown colony in 1729 when seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their land to King George II.
+
*A written account of the events that took place in a county. County histories often include biographical sketches of county residents.
  
===== Crown grant =====
+
===== County justice court, North Dakota =====
  
*A land grant issued by the British or French monarch.
+
*A court in North Dakota with jurisdiction in counties that do not have county courts. They have jurisdiction over misdemeanors and civil cases.
  
===== Crown land =====
+
===== County map =====
  
*Land that is held (owned) in the name of a monarch.
+
*A map that shows the land in a county.
  
===== Crown Lands Administration, Canada =====
+
===== County probate court, Arizona =====
  
*A branch of the government in Newfoundland, Canada, that manages public lands.
+
*A court in Arizona with countywide jurisdiction over paying a deceased person's debts and distributing his or her property. Since 1912 the superior courts have handled probates.
  
===== Crown Lands Registry, Canada =====
+
===== County probate court, Utah =====
  
*A branch of the government in Manitoba, Canada, that houses land records made before 1930.
+
*A court in Utah with countywide jurisdiction over probate actions. These courts were used from 1850 to 1896.
  
===== Crown lease, British =====
+
===== County record office =====
  
*A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.
+
*An archive that houses records for a particular county in England, Scotland, and Wales.
  
===== Cuarteado =====
+
===== County records =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
*Records, such as birth, marriage, death, and land records, kept by a county government.
  
===== Cuarterón =====
+
===== County registrar =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of African (1/4) and Spanish Caucasian (3/4). Also spelled quarterón. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
*A county official charged with keeping deed records.
  
===== Cuarterón de Chino, Peru =====
+
===== County seat =====
  
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county town.
  
===== Cuarterón de Mestizo, Peru =====
+
===== County surrogate court indexes, New Jersey =====
  
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
*Indexes to probate records kept by the county surrogate courts in New Jersey.
  
===== Cuarterón de Mulato, Peru =====
+
===== County surrogate court, New Jersey =====
  
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
*A court that began handling New Jersey probate cases in 1804.
  
===== Cuatrero =====
+
===== County town =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county seat.
  
===== Cumberland Gap =====
+
===== Countywide index =====
  
*A natural mountain pass in the Appalachian Mountains. It is located near where the boundaries of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia intersect. It was a major passage into lands west of Virginia. During the American Civil War, the Cumberland Gap was held at different times by the Union and the Confederacy.
+
*An index to a group of records covering a single county. For example, a countywide index may cover one county of a state within a federal census.
  
===== Cumberland Plateau  =====
+
coup de sang
  
*A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
+
    French word for "paralytic stroke."
  
===== Curation  =====
+
cour
  
*Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.
+
    French word for "court."
  
===== Curtesy  =====
+
courant
  
*The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.
+
    French word for "current."
  
===== Customs passenger list  =====
+
===== Court calendar  =====
 +
 
 +
*Lists of cases heard by a court. Court calendars may list the names of the plaintiff and defendant, the date the case was heard, the case file number, and all documents related to the case. They are also called dockets.
 +
 
 +
===== Court case file  =====
 +
 
 +
*A packet or bundle of the loose documents relating to a court case, such as copies of evidence, testimonies, bonds, depositions, correspondence, and petitions.
 +
 
 +
===== Court clerk  =====
 +
 
 +
*An officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, and judgments and keeps records of court proceedings.
 +
 
 +
===== Court decree  =====
 +
 
 +
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court judgment or court order.
 +
 
 +
===== Court directory  =====
 +
 
 +
*A list of city officers, government officials, and private residents.
 +
 
 +
Court district
 +
 
 +
    The area of land over which a court has authority.
 +
 
 +
Court executions, New Jersey
 +
 
 +
    Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
 +
 
 +
===== Court executions, New Jersey  =====
 +
 
 +
*Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
 +
 
 +
===== Court for trial of Negroes, Pennsylvania  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over African-Americans who were accused of committing crimes. This court existed from 1700 to 1780.
 +
 
 +
===== Court judgment  =====
 +
 
 +
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court order.
 +
 
 +
===== Court minutes  =====
 +
 
 +
*Brief daily accounts of all actions taken by a court. Minutes list the names of the plaintiff and defendant and briefly describe the action taken.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of appeal, Ohio  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of appeals deed book, Kentucky  =====
 +
 
 +
*A record of disputes and litigation that occurred over land rights in Kentucky.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of appeals, California  =====
 +
 
 +
*A statewide court in California that hears cases appealed from lower courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of appeals, Canada  =====
 +
 
 +
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears appeals of civil and criminal cases from the Trial Division (Court of Queens' Bench) and from lower courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of appeals, Colorado  =====
 +
 
 +
*An intermediate court in Colorado with statewide jurisdiction over appeals from district courts, the Denver Superior Court, probate courts, and juvenile courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of appeals, Maryland  =====
 +
 
 +
*The highest court in Maryland. It has statewide jurisdiction over criminal, civil, and probate appeals.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of appeals, Oklahoma  =====
 +
 
 +
*An intermediate court in Oklahoma with statewide jurisdiction to hear appeals from lower courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of arches, England  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court that heard appeals from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of assistants, Connecticut  =====
 +
 
 +
*The main court of jurisdiction in Connecticut for all matters of law, including appeals from town and borough courts. The court of assistants lasted from 1665 to 1711.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of assizes, New York  =====
 +
 
 +
*The highest provincial court in New York from 1665 to 1683. It was located in New York City and heard civil, criminal, and probate cases.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of chancery, New Jersey  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New Jersey with statewide jurisdiction that gradually received jurisdiction over civil and equity cases, mortgage foreclosures, lis pendens, land partitions, payment of debt, probate suits, lunacy inquisitions, naturalizations, divorces, and child custody. These functions are now handled by the superior courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of chancery, New York  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New York with statewide jurisdiction over civil equity matters such as mortgage foreclosures, real property proceedings, sales of estates in dower and curtesy, naturalizations, matrimonial disputes, divorces, guardianships, and child custody. It absorbed the court of probate and had appellate jurisdiction over surrogates' courts. After 1847 equity responsibilities were assigned to the state's supreme court.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of chancery, Ontario, Canada  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court with jurisdiction over equity cases in Ontario. (Equity cases are court cases in which parties are disputing over a matter that is not a violation of law, and the court is asked to make a fair decision.) This court was established in 1837.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of chancery, South Carolina  =====
 +
 
 +
*A type of court used in South Carolina from 1671 to the 1790s. It handled land and inheritance matters for the entire colony.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of chancery/equity, Pennsylvania  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Pennsylvania with jurisdiction over equity cases.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of civil appeals, Alabama  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over civil cases appealed from lower courts.
 +
 
 +
Court of common law
 +
 
 +
    A court with jurisdiction over criminal cases.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, Delaware  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil suits, minor criminal cases, appeals from lesser courts, adoption cases, and cases to terminate parental rights. Courts of common pleas operated from 1701 to 1831, when the authority of the court of common pleas was given to the superior courts. Before 1792 the courts of common pleas also heard cases now handled by the chancery courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, England  =====
 +
 
 +
*One of the four superior courts at Westminster. It heard civil cases between commoners. In 1873 it became the Common Pleas division of the High Court of Justice, which was merged with the Queen's Bench division in 1880.
 +
 
 +
Court of common pleas, general
 +
 
 +
    A countywide court, usually having civil and criminal jurisdiction.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, Indiana  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court that existed from 1790 to 1817 and from 1853 to 1873. It heard insanity, guardianship, probate, naturalization, equity, criminal, and civil cases.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, Missouri  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases before the 1880s. Not all counties in Missouri had courts of common pleas.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, New Hampshire  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil matters from 1769 to 1820 and from 1824 to 1859.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, New Jersey  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases and appeals from the justice and small cause courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, New York  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court established in each city or county in New York to handle civil cases such as marriages, naturalizations, name changes, probates, exemptions from military duty, lunacy cases, tavern licenses, insolvency cases, old age assistance, manumissions, the laying of roads, settlements of boundary disputes, and child support and custody. These courts also handled appeals from the justices of the peace. These courts existed from 1691 to 1847, when they were replaced by county courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, Ohio  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Ohio with districtwide jurisdiction over felonies, marriages, major civil cases, juvenile matters, probates (until 1852), naturalizations (until 1860 and after 1906), chancery matters (until 1900), and divorces (until 1894).
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, Pennsylvania  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases including real estate, bankruptcy, tax collection, naturalization, and divorce. The court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, Rhode Island  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Rhode Island with countywide jurisdiction over most criminal and civil matters. These courts were established in 1730 and continue today.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, South Carolina  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court that had statewide jurisdiction over guardianship and civil cases until 1790, when district courts assumed these cases. Courts of common pleas continue to operate today.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of common pleas, West Virginia  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court established in some counties. The court has limited jurisdiction over civil and domestic cases. It also hears appeals from municipal and justice courts. These courts have also been called criminal courts, intermediate courts, and statutory courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of criminal appeals, Alabama  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases appealed from lower courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of criminal appeals, Oklahoma  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Oklahoma that hears appeals of criminal cases from lower courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of delegates, England  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court that heard final appeals from the Court of Arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases. The High Court of Delegates was established by law during the reign of Henry VIII. No permanent judges were appointed, but in every case of appeal a special commission usually appointed three judges to hear the case.<br>
 +
 
 +
===== Court of equity, South Carolina  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in South Carolina with countywide jurisdiction over property matters. Courts of equity were used from 1791 to 1900.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of First Instance, Philippines  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in the Philippines with jurisdiction over land records, wills, etc.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of general quarter session, New Hampshire  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters from 1769 to 1794 and from 1820 to 1824.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of general quarter sessions, Delaware  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over all criminal cases except capital crimes. These courts have existed since 1676 and continue to operate today.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of general sessions of the peace, New York  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases such as desertions, apprenticeship disputes, bastardy, and other violations of vice and immorality laws. These courts existed from 1665 to 1962, handling probate matters from 1665 to 1683 and then only criminal cases after 1691. Their jurisdiction was transferred to the county court in 1847, except in New York County, where they continued until 1962.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of general sessions, Maine  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts became the county commissioner's courts in 1831 and were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of general sessions, South Carolina  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in South Carolina with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases. This court was used from 1769 to 1790.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of ordinary, Georgia  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over homesteads, land warrants, licenses, indentures, paupers, voting registers, and marriages. From 1777 to 1798 and after 1852 these courts also had jurisdiction over probates.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, New York  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over capital crimes such as treason and murder. These courts were used from 1683 to 1895.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of oyer and terminer, Delaware  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over capital cases. These courts have existed since 1746 and continue to operate today.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of oyer and terminer, New Jersey  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over all crimes committed within the county except for capital offenses of treason and murder. These courts were abolished in 1947.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of probates, New York  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New York that had jurisdiction over probates from 1778 to 1823. Until 1783, the prerogative court also handled probates in British-occupied New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of quarter sessions of the peace, Pennsylvania  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and other cases. This court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of quarter sessions, England and Ireland  =====
 +
 
 +
*A countywide court that met quarterly in England and Ireland to hear criminal cases such as murder, riot, theft, assault, poaching, and so forth. The court did not hear civil cases or criminal cases involving treason or forgery. Starting in 1531 these courts also administered the poor law.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of quarter sessions, general  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court that meets four times a year.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of quarter sessions, Georgia  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court used in colonial Georgia. No records exist from these courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of quarter sessions, Indiana  =====
 +
 
 +
*A statewide court with jurisdiction over all criminal and civil cases and probate matters between 1796 and 1813.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of quarter sessions, Kentucky  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court with jurisdiction over suits involving large amounts of money. This court existed between 1787 and 1802.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of quarter sessions, Tennessee  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and estate matters.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of Queen's Bench, Canada  =====
 +
 
 +
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears serious civil and criminal cases and has the authority to grant divorces. Also called Court of King's Bench if the reigning monarch is a king and also called Trial Division.
 +
 
 +
Court of Requests, England
 +
 
 +
    A court used to recover small debts, intended originally for use by the poor. It was abolished in 1642, and its function was taken over by county Quarter Sessions courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of schouts and schepens, New Netherland  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New Netherland, which later became the state of New York, that had jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases from 1653 to 1674. These courts were replaced by mayor's courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of Session, Scotland  =====
 +
 
 +
*The highest court in Scotland. It handles cases that deal with revenue, including debt to the Crown, and cases that lower courts refer to it.
 +
 
 +
Court of Star Chamber, England
 +
 
 +
    A high court, under the direct authority of the king, that mostly handled cases involving riots, perjury, and serious misdemeanors. It was abolished in 1642.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of the Exchequer, England  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in England that originally had charge over keeping the king's accounts and collecting taxes. It began hearing cases between subjects, but this ended in 1290. After 1290 its jurisdiction was limited to cases regarding people who were withholding taxes or who refused to repay debts to the Crown. It later regained its jurisdiction over suits between subjects.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of the Exchequer, Scotland  =====
 +
 
 +
*A national court in Scotland that dealt with revenue issues, including debt to the Crown. This court existed from 1708 to 1856, when its jurisdiction was transferred to the Court of Session.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of the general quarter session, Upper Canada  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court with jurisdiction over criminal matters in Upper Canada (Ontario). These courts operated from 1777 to 1868. They met four times a year.
 +
 
 +
===== Court of the general quarter sessions of the peace, New Jersey  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases, such as desertions, vice, apprenticeship disputes, and bastardy. Before 1704 these courts also had jurisdiction over civil cases. These courts were dissolved in 1947. They are also called county courts.
 +
 
 +
Court of the King's Bench, England
 +
 
 +
    A court of Common Law that handled matters of direct interest to the King or which were to be tried by his court. It was one of three courts that evolved from the earlier Curia Regis.
 +
 
 +
Court of Ward and Liveries, England
 +
 
 +
    A high court, under the direct authority of the king, which handled cases of inheritance of land. It was abolished in 1646.
 +
 
 +
===== Court order  =====
 +
 
 +
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court judgment.
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
===== Court Records, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
 +
 
 +
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records, such as dockets and court minutes, kept by courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Court records, general  =====
 +
 
 +
*Records kept by courts of law.
 +
 
 +
Court, PERiodical Source Index
 +
 
 +
    A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about court records.
 +
 
 +
===== Courthouse, archive  =====
 +
 
 +
*A building that houses a court of law or county offices and county records.
 +
 
 +
cousin(e)
 +
 
 +
    French word for "cousin."
 +
 
 +
cousin(e) germain(e)
 +
 
 +
    French word for "first cousin."
 +
 
 +
===== Coûtume de Paris  =====
 +
 
 +
*An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
 +
 
 +
couvreur
 +
 
 +
    French word for "roofer."
 +
 
 +
cova
 +
 
 +
    Portuguese word for "grave."
 +
 
 +
===== Covenant, general  =====
 +
 
 +
*A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
 +
 
 +
coxo (a),
 +
 
 +
    Portuguese word for "lame."
 +
 
 +
===== Coyote  =====
 +
 
 +
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 +
 
 +
Coûtume de Paris
 +
 
 +
    An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
 +
 
 +
cras
 +
 
 +
    Latin word for "tomorrow."
 +
 
 +
Creator (of a record)
 +
 
 +
    The person, church, or government official or agency who made an original document or record. The "author" of a record.
 +
 
 +
creatura dei
 +
 
 +
    Latin word for "foundling (creature of God)."
 +
 
 +
===== Creek War (1836-1837)  =====
 +
 
 +
*A disturbance in eastern Alabama caused by the impending removal of the Creek tribe of Native Americans according to a treaty signed in 1832.
 +
 
 +
===== Creek, Native Americans  =====
 +
 
 +
*Tribes of Native Americans who originally lived in Alabama and Georgia. In 1832 they were forced to sign a treaty that required them to move to the Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi River.
 +
 
 +
===== Creole  =====
 +
 
 +
*A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.
 +
 
 +
cresima
 +
 
 +
    Italian word for "confirmation."
 +
 
 +
cresimato, -i
 +
 
 +
    Italian word for "confirmee(s)."
 +
 
 +
criada
 +
 
 +
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "maid."
 +
 
 +
criança
 +
 
 +
    Portuguese word for "child."
 +
 
 +
criatura
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "infant, child."
 +
 
 +
===== Crimean War (1854-1856)  =====
 +
 
 +
*A war fought over religious, commercial, and strategic issues between Russia and the combined forces of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Russia was defeated and forced to give up some of the land it had taken from the Ottoman Empire.
 +
 
 +
===== Criminal case  =====
 +
 
 +
*A proceeding against an individual charged with a violation of law that harmed or could have harmed society. Criminal cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
 +
 
 +
===== Criminal court  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court that hears criminal cases (cases in which a violation of law harmed or could have harmed society). Such cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
 +
 
 +
===== Criminal court, West Virginia  =====
 +
 
 +
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. The jurisdiction of these courts varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
 +
 
 +
===== Criminal jurisdiction  =====
 +
 
 +
*The authority of a court to hear criminal cases that involve violations of law in which society was harmed or could have been harmed.
 +
 
 +
===== Criminal law  =====
 +
 
 +
*The laws in a country that define criminal offences (offences that harm society), set the rules for the arrest and possibly for the trial of those accused of crimes, and define punishment for crimes. Offences range in seriousness from disorderly conduct to murder.
 +
 
 +
===== Criollo  =====
 +
 
 +
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Spain (a pure-blooded Spaniard born in Latin America).
 +
 
 +
===== Crioulo  =====
 +
 
 +
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Europe.
 +
 
 +
===== Crismas  =====
 +
 
 +
*A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.
 +
 
 +
cristiano (a)
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "Christian."
 +
 
 +
cristiano, -a
 +
 
 +
    Italian word for Christian (or Catholic)."
 +
 
 +
cristão (ã)
 +
 
 +
    Portuguese word for "Christian."
 +
 
 +
===== Croato =====
 +
 
 +
*Italian word for "Croat".
 +
 
 +
===== Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England  =====
 +
 
 +
*The period in English history when Oliver Cromwell ruled England. After the Civil War, Parliament refused to reform the English government as much as Cromwell and his Puritan supporters desired. As a result, Cromwell dismissed Parliament and established himself as lord protector of England. During this time, Cromwell severely limited freedom of the press and enforced strict moral standards. He also strengthened England's navy, brought Scotland and Ireland under English control, and helped in the development of English colonies in North America and Asia.
 +
 
 +
===== Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts  =====
 +
 
 +
*An index that lists street addresses and the corresponding enumeration district in the 1910 census for many large cities in the United States.
 +
 
 +
===== Crossing the Ocean Index  =====
 +
 
 +
*A list of Latter-day Saints who left Great Britain and Europe between 1840 and 1925 to settle in the western United States. Its official name is the European Emigration Card Index.
 +
 
 +
===== Crossing the Plains Index  =====
 +
 
 +
*An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.
 +
 
 +
Crown colony
 +
 
 +
    A colony that was governed under the direction of the King of England, who appointed a governor over the colony and provided instructions on how the governor was to exercise his authority. All undisposed land was owned by the king, but the governor had the authority to dispose of it through the grant process.
 +
 
 +
===== Crown colony land grants  =====
 +
 
 +
*Land grants issued by Kings George II and III between 1735 and 1775. North Carolina became a Crown colony in 1729 when seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their land to King George II.
 +
 
 +
===== Crown grant  =====
 +
 
 +
*A land grant issued by the British or French monarch.
 +
 
 +
===== Crown land  =====
 +
 
 +
*Land that is held (owned) in the name of a monarch.
 +
 
 +
===== Crown Lands Administration, Canada  =====
 +
 
 +
*A branch of the government in Newfoundland, Canada, that manages public lands.
 +
 
 +
===== Crown Lands Registry, Canada  =====
 +
 
 +
*A branch of the government in Manitoba, Canada, that houses land records made before 1930.
 +
 
 +
===== Crown lease, British  =====
 +
 
 +
*A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.
 +
 
 +
csak
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "only, but, just."
 +
 
 +
család
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "family, clan."
 +
 
 +
családfa
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "pedigree, family tree."
 +
 
 +
családi állapota
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "marital status of."
 +
 
 +
családikönyv
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "family book."
 +
 
 +
családinév
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "family name, surname."
 +
 
 +
családtag
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "family member."
 +
 
 +
családtörténet
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "genealogy, family history."
 +
 
 +
cseh
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "czech."
 +
 
 +
Csehország
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "Bohemia."
 +
 
 +
cseléd
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "servant."
 +
 
 +
csikós
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "horseherder."
 +
 
 +
csizmadia
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "bootmaker."
 +
 
 +
csütörtök
 +
 
 +
    Hungarian word for "Thursday."
 +
 
 +
cuadragésimo
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "fortieth."
 +
 
 +
cuadringéntesimo
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "four-hundredth."
 +
 
 +
cuarenta
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "forty."
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
===== Cuarteado  =====
 +
 
 +
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 +
 
 +
===== Cuarterón  =====
 +
 
 +
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of African (1/4) and Spanish Caucasian (3/4). Also spelled quarterón. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 +
 
 +
===== Cuarterón de Chino, Peru  =====
 +
 
 +
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 +
 
 +
===== Cuarterón de Mestizo, Peru  =====
 +
 
 +
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 +
 
 +
===== Cuarterón de Mulato, Peru  =====
 +
 
 +
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 +
 
 +
cuarto
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "room, fourth."
 +
 
 +
cuarto (a)
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "fourth."
 +
 
 +
cuate
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "twin."
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
===== Cuatrero  =====
 +
 
 +
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 +
 
 +
cuatro
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "four."
 +
 
 +
cuatrocientos
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "four hundred."
 +
 
 +
cucitrice
 +
 
 +
    Italian word for "seamstress."
 +
 
 +
cudzoziemski
 +
 
 +
    Polish word for "foreign."
 +
 
 +
cuenta
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "account."
 +
 
 +
cugino, -a
 +
 
 +
    Italian word for "cousin."
 +
 
 +
cuius
 +
 
 +
    Latin word for "whose."
 +
 
 +
cuiusdam
 +
 
 +
    Latin word for "of a certain."
 +
 
 +
cujo (a)
 +
 
 +
    Portuguese word for "whose."
 +
 
 +
cukrovka
 +
 
 +
    Czech word for "diabetes."
 +
 
 +
cukrzyca
 +
 
 +
    Polish word for "diabetes."
 +
 
 +
culte
 +
 
 +
    French word for "religion."
 +
 
 +
cultellarius
 +
 
 +
    Latin word for "cutler."
 +
 
 +
cultivateur
 +
 
 +
    French word for "farmer, cultivator."
 +
 
 +
cum
 +
 
 +
    Latin word for "with."
 +
 
 +
===== Cumberland Gap  =====
 +
 
 +
*A natural mountain pass in the Appalachian Mountains. It is located near where the boundaries of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia intersect. It was a major passage into lands west of Virginia. During the American Civil War, the Cumberland Gap was held at different times by the Union and the Confederacy.
 +
 
 +
===== Cumberland Plateau  =====
 +
 
 +
*A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
 +
 
 +
===== Cumberland Plateau  =====
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.<br>
 +
 
 +
===== cumpleaños  =====
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "birthday."<br>
 +
 
 +
===== cunhado (a)  =====
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."<br>
 +
 
 +
===== cuoco  =====
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "cook."<br>
 +
 
 +
===== cuore  =====
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "heart."<br>
 +
 
 +
===== cuprifaber  =====
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "coppersmith."<br>
 +
 
 +
===== cur  =====
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "why."<br>
 +
 
 +
===== cura  =====
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."<br>
 +
 
 +
===== curateur  =====
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "guardian".<br>
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
===== Curation  =====
 +
 
 +
*Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.
 +
 
 +
curato
 +
 
 +
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "parish."
 +
 
 +
curia, Latin
 +
 
 +
    Latin word for "court."
 +
 
 +
curia, Spanish
 +
 
 +
    Spanish word for "ecclesiastical tribunal."
 +
 
 +
currarius
 +
 
 +
    Latin word for "carriage builder."
 +
 
 +
===== Curtesy  =====
 +
 
 +
*The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.
 +
 
 +
curtidor
 +
 
 +
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "tanner."
 +
 
 +
curé
 +
 
 +
    French word for "parish minister, pastor, priest, clergyman."
 +
 
 +
===== Customs passenger list  =====
  
 
*Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.
 
*Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.
 +
 +
custos (custodis)
 +
 +
    Latin word for "custodian, guard."
 +
 +
cuyo (a)
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "whose."
 +
 +
cuál
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "which."
 +
 +
cuándo
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "when."
 +
 +
cuñada
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "sister-in-law."
 +
 +
cuñado
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "brother-in-law."
 +
 +
cyrkul
 +
 +
    Polish word for "district (of a city), ward."
 +
 +
cyrulnik
 +
 +
    Polish word for "barber-surgeon."
 +
 +
czarny
 +
 +
    Polish word for "black."
 +
 +
czas
 +
 +
    Polish word for "time."
 +
 +
czasopismo
 +
 +
    Polish word for "magazine, periodical."
 +
 +
czasowo
 +
 +
    Polish word for "temporarily."
 +
 +
czemu
 +
 +
    Polish word for "why."
 +
 +
czerwca (VI.)
 +
 +
    Polish word for "of June."
 +
 +
czerwony
 +
 +
    Polish word for "red."
 +
 +
czesc
 +
 +
    Polish word for "part, portion."
 +
 +
czeski
 +
 +
    Polish word for "Czech."
 +
 +
czesto
 +
 +
    Polish word for "often."
 +
 +
czlonek
 +
 +
    Polish word for "member."
 +
 +
czterdziesci
 +
 +
    Polish word for "forty."
 +
 +
czterdziesty
 +
 +
    Polish word for "fortieth."
 +
 +
czterechsetny
 +
 +
    Polish word for "four hundredth."
 +
 +
czternascie
 +
 +
    Polish word for "fourteen."
 +
 +
czternasty
 +
 +
    Polish word for "fourteenth."
 +
 +
cztery
 +
 +
    Polish word for "four."
 +
 +
czterysetny
 +
 +
    Polish word for "four hundredth."
 +
 +
czterysta
 +
 +
    Polish word for "four hundred."
 +
 +
czwartek
 +
 +
    Polish word for "Thursday."
 +
 +
czwarty
 +
 +
    Polish word for "fourth."
 +
 +
czy
 +
 +
    Polish word for "whether (introduces a question)."
 +
 +
czyli
 +
 +
    Polish word for "or."
 +
 +
czynszownik
 +
 +
    Polish word for "renter."
 +
 +
cáncer
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "cancer."
 +
 +
cárcel
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "jail."
 +
 +
câncer
 +
 +
    Portuguese word for "cancer."
 +
 +
céans
 +
 +
    French word for "here within."
 +
 +
cédula
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "royal decree."
 +
 +
cél
 +
 +
    Hungarian word for "purpose."
 +
 +
célibataire
 +
 +
    French word for "bachelor, unmarried, single."
 +
 +
célèbre
 +
 +
    French word for "famous."
 +
 +
cím
 +
 +
    Hungarian word for "title, address."
 +
 +
címer
 +
 +
    Hungarian word for "coat of arms."
 +
 +
címtár
 +
 +
    Hungarian word for "directory."
 +
 +
církev
 +
 +
    Czech word for "church."
 +
 +
cónyuge
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "spouse."
 +
 +
córka
 +
 +
    Polish word for "daughter."
 +
 +
cônjuge
 +
 +
    Portuguese word for "spouse."
 +
 +
cônjuges
 +
 +
    Portuguese word for "partners, couple."
 +
 +
côte
 +
 +
    French word for "hill."
 +
 +
cúria, Portuguese
 +
 +
    Portuguese word for "religious tribunal."
  
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Glossary]]

Revision as of 16:42, 19 April 2013


C

C
  • Roman numeral for "one-hundred."
circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))
  • Swedish word for "about, approximately."
contrajó matrimonio con (c.m.c.)
  • Spanish word for "contracted marriage with."
circa, German (ca.)
  • German word for "about."
caballero
  • Spanish word for "nobleman, knight, gentleman."
cabaretier
  • French word for "barkeeper."
cabeza
  • Spanish word for "head."
cabeça
  • Portuguese word for "head."
cabildo
  • Spanish word for "town council."
Cabinda, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from the Cabinda region of Angola. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cabo-verde, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Caboclo, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cabra, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
cacciatore
  • Italian word for "hunter."
Cadastral map
  • Map that shows the people who own land in an area. Also called land ownership map.
cadastro
  • Portuguese word for "land census."
cadaver
  • Latin word for "dead body, cadaver."
cadeia
  • Portuguese word for "jail."
Cadency
  • A mark on a coat of arms showing a younger son's birth order.
caduto
  • Italian word for "fallen."
caelebs
  • Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
caelum
  • Latin word for "heaven, sky."
caementarius
  • Latin word for "stonemason."
cafezal
  • Portuguese word for "coffee plantation."
cafone
  • Italian word for "peasant."
café
  • Portuguese word for "coffee."
Cafuzo, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cajun
  • A descendant of French settlers who came from the Acadia region of Canada, or present-day New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, to the United States. They settled in Louisiana in the swamps and slow-moving streams called bayous. They still maintain a unique cultural identity and speak both English and a dialect of French. Most are Roman Catholic.
calcearius
  • Latin word for "shoemaker."
calciator
  • Latin word for "shoemaker."
Calculated date
  • An event date that is derived from the date of another event in a person's life. For example, if the United States 1860 census lists a person as being 20 years old, a calculated birth date would be 1839 or 1840.
calderaio
  • Italian word for "tinker."
caledonia
  • Latin word for "Scotland."
Frank T. Calef collection (Calef collection)
  • A manuscript collection of genealogical information about people who are descended from Puritans or Mayflower passengers.
Calendar
  • An probate index that is arranged by first letter of the surname only and then by probate date. I may give the place of residence of a testator.
California Gold Rush
  • The movement of large numbers of people to the gold fields in California, especially in 1849.
caligator
  • Latin word for "shoemaker."
Call number
  • The number used to identify a book, microfilm, microfiche, or other source in a library or archive. Library materials are stored and retrieved by call number.
calle
  • Spanish word for "street."
Calpamulato
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Calvert Papers
  • A manuscript collection of land and other records compiled by the Calvert family, who were proprietors of the Colony of Maryland until the Revolutionary War. The Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore, Maryland, has this collection.
Calvin M. McClung Collection
  • A collection of biographical material about residents of Tennessee. It consists of 15,000 published volumes and 300,000 manuscripts arranged in surname folders. These contain correspondence, pedigrees, and abstracts of records.
Calvinistic Methodists, Wales
  • A religion that began to spread throughout Wales during the late 1730s. At first leaders advocated reforming the Church of England but not separating from it. Members would meet weekly for singing and preaching but attend their local parishes for communion. In 1811, however, the Methodists began ordaining their own ministers and keeping their own records. Their beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. Today the religion is known as the Presbyterian Church of Wales.
caly
  • Polish word for "entire."
calzolaio
  • Italian word for "shoemaker."
cambria
  • Latin word for "Wales."
Cambujo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and African (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cambur
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
cameranius
  • Latin word for "chamberlain, valet, groom."
cameriera
  • Italian word for "maid, servant girl."
cameriere
  • Italian word for "waiter."
cameriere di casa
  • Italian word for "house steward."
camino
  • Spanish word for "road."
campagna
  • Italian word for "countryside, rural."
campagnuolo, -a
  • Italian word for "countryman, countrywoman."
campesino (a)
  • Spanish word for "peasant."
campo, Portuguese
  • Portuguese word for "field, plain."
campo, Spanish
  • Spanish word for "field."
camponês (a)
  • Portuguese word for "peasant, small farmer."
cana de açúcar
  • Portuguese word for "sugarcane.
Canada East
  • An area that comprises modern-day Québec. Before 1841 it was called Lower Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada East and Canada West (modern-day Ontario) formed the Province of Canada.
Canada GenWeb
  • A computer term for a site on the World Wide Web that lists genealogical databases, libraries, bulletin boards, and resources available on the Internet for people interested in doing genealogical research about Canadians.
Canada West
  • An area that comprises modern-day Ontario. Before 1841 it was called Upper Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada West and Canada East (modern-day Québec) formed the Province of Canada.
Canadian border crossing lists, Canada
  • Lists of passengers being transported from Canada into the United States. Canadian shipping companies began keeping these records in 1895. There are two type of manifests: lists of people traveling by train and lists of people traveling by boat. The manifests may include the person's name, port or station of entry, date of entry, age, literacy, last residence, previous visits to the United States, and birthplace. Sometimes officials only recorded the information on the index card rather than on the manifest. Beginning in 1908 the companies began keeping similar records of people arriving in Canada from the United States. These records are not indexed and are not available through the Family History Library™. Also called border crossing manifests, passenger lists, or manifests.
Canadian border crossing lists, United States
  • Lists, or manifests, kept by Canada and the United States to document all people who crossed the border from Canada into the United States for any purpose. These lists began in 1895 and are on microfilm up to 1954.
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)
  • The Canadian army that served in World War I.
Canadian Pacific Railroad
  • A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
cancro
  • Italian word for "cancer."
cantante
  • Italian word for "singer."
cantatrice
  • Italian word for "singer."
Canton
  • A division of a place in France, Québec (Canada), and Switzerland. In France cantons are divisions of a district (arrondissement). In Québec cantons are townships. In Switzerland cantons are the major divisions of the country, similar to states in the United States or provinces in Canada.
Cantons de l'Est, Canada
  • Townships in eastern Québec, located directly north of the state of Vermont. Cantons de l'Est is a direct French translation of the English term Eastern Townships. These townships were originally settled by English-speaking Protestants, many of whom had connections to American Loyalists.
Cape Breton, Canada
  • A large island off of the coast of Nova Scotia. In the early 1600s it became a French colony, but in 1763 France ceded it to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War (French and Indian War). Britain made the island part of Nova Scotia. In 1784 the island separated from Nova Scotia, but the two areas reunited in 1820. Thousands of Scots moved to the island from the 1790s to the 1830s.
Cape Fear Valley
  • The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
capela
  • Portuguese word for "chapel."
capella
  • Latin word for "chapel."
capellanus
  • Latin word for "chaplain."
Capellanías, military
  • A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as military parish records. These are records that military chaplains kept of sacraments performed for soldiers and their families.
Capellanías,land
  • A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
capilla
  • Spanish word for "chapel."
Capital case
  • A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
Capital, USA
  • A city where the main offices of a government are located.
capitis

   Latin word for "head, chief."

capofamiglia

   Italian word for "family head."

capostipite

   Italian word for "family founder, earliest ancestor."

cappellaio

   Italian word for "hatter."

capt et jurat

   Latin word for "taken and sworn."

Captain
  • An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
Captain

   An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.

caput

   Latin word for "head, chief."

cara

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "face."

carabiniere

   Italian word for "policeman."

carbonaio

   Italian word for "coal dealer."

carbonarius

   Latin word for "collier, coal miner."

Card index
  • An index to a set of records. In a card index, each index entry appears on a separate card, and the cards are arranged alphabetically or by some other method. Many United States censuses have card indexes.
Card Membership, Latter-day Saint
  • A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
carecarius

   Latin word for "carter."

Carey Act of 1894
  • A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
Cariboo Gold Rush

   A gold mining boom in the Cariboo Mountains of south central British Columbia that lasted from 1860 to 1863.

carnarius

   Latin word for "butcher."

carnicero

   Spanish word for "butcher."

carpentarius

   Latin word for "carpenter."

Carpenter
  • A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
carpinteiro

   Portuguese word for "carpenter."

carpintero

   Spanish word for "carpenter."

carraio

   Italian word for "wheelwright."

carretera

   Spanish word for "road."

carta

   Latin word for "deed, charter, map."

Cartas de dote
  • The Spanish term for dowry records.
carte, French

   French word for "map."

carte, Italian

   Italian word for "maps, charts."

cartório

   Portuguese word for "archive."

casa

   Italian, Portuguese and Spanish word for "house."

casado (a)

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "married."

casado con (c.c.)

   Spanish word for "married to."

casale

   Latin word for "estate, village."

casamento

   Portuguese word for "marriage."

Casamentos
  • A Portuguese word for marriages.
Casamiento
  • A Spanish term for marriage. Also used in the Philippines.
Case file number
  • An identification number assigned to a case file.
casar, casarse

   Spanish word for "to marry."

casar-se

   Portuguese word for "to marry."

casaro

   Italian word for "dairy farmer."

casatus

   Latin word for "cottager."

Case file number

   An identification number assigned to a case file.

Case file, court records
  • A file containing the documentation related to a specific court case.
Case file, land
  • A file of records related to an individual’s acquisition of land. The case file may contain the individual’s application, records of payment, or certification that he or she has completed all requirements for owning the land. These are the most helpful land records for family history researchers.
Case file, probate
  • A file of all documents relating to the settlement of an individual’s estate. Also called estate file, estate packet, loose papers, probate estate papers, or probate packet.
Cash entry
  • The process of purchasing land from the federal government.
Cash entry files
  • The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
cassa

   Italian word for "chest, cash, cashier."

cassetta

   Italian word for "chest."

casta

   Spanish word for "caste, racial lineage."

castaldo

   Italian word for "land agent."

castello

   Italian word for "castle."

castelo

   Portuguese word for "castle."

castillo

   Spanish word for "castle."

Castizo, Puerto Rico
  • In Puerto Rico, a term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. In Guatemala, the term refers to a person who is a mix of Caucasian and Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Catalog
  • A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
cataster

   Latin word for "land, property record."

catasto

   Italian word for "land register."

catastro

   Spanish word for "land census."

catedral

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "cathedral."

Catholic diocese, Ireland

An ecclesiastical division headed by a bishop, made up of many parishes within the Bishop's jurisdiction, which parishes may be in more than one county. Both the Church of Ireland and the Catholic Church had dioceses, but neither the name of the diocese nor its boundaries are the same between the two churches.

Catholic mission
  • A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
Catholic parish, Ireland
  • A parish of the Catholic Church, whose name, boundaries, members, diocese, and records are different than that of the civil parish. The Catholic parish has no civil jurisdiction.
Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada
  • A card index to Catholic Church records in Montréal, Canada.
Catholic Relief Acts, Ireland
  • A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
catholicus

   Latin word for "Catholic."

catholique romaine

   French word for "Roman Catholic."

catorce

   Spanish word for "fourteen."

catorze

   Portuguese word for "fourteen."

cattolico, -a

   Italian word for "Roman Catholic."

católico (a)

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "Catholic."

caupo (cauponis)

   Latin word for "innkeeper."

causa

   Latin word for "cause, sake, because of." Ex causa means "on account of, for the sake of."

cavalheiro

   Portuguese word for "gentleman, knight, nobleman."

cavaliere

   Italian word for "knight."


Caveat
  • A warning notice issued by an interested person to a probate court that no action is to be taken in granting a probate without his case being heard.

cazador

   Spanish word for "hunter."

caçador

   Portuguese word for "hunter."

caña de azúcar

   Spanish word for "sugar cane."

CC

   Roman numeral for "two-hundred."

CCC

   Roman numeral for "three-hundred."

CD

   Roman numeral for "four-hundred."

ce

   Italian word for "us."

ce, c'

   French word for "it."

ce, cet, cette

   French word for "this, that."

cech

   Czech word for "guild."

Ceded

   Transfer, give up control. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States, it gave up control of the area.

cedo

   Portuguese word for "early."

Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)

   The Canadian army that served in World War I.

ceglarz

   Polish word for "brick maker."

cego (a)

   Portuguese word for "blind."

cejourd'hier

   French word for "yesterday."

cejourd'hui

   French word for "today."

celator

   Latin word for "turner."

celebrare il matrimonio

   Italian word for "solemnize a marriage."

celebraverunt

   Latin word for "they celebrated, were married."

celibe

   Italian word for "bachelor, bachelorette, single, unmarried."

celle

   French word for "this one, she."

celle-ci

   French word for "the latter (f.)."

celle-là

   French word for "the former (f.)."

celui

   French word for "this one, he."

celui-ci

   French word for "the latter (m.)."

celui-là

   French word for "the former (m.)."

celý

   Czech word for "entire."

cem

   Portuguese word for "one hundred."

cementerio

   Spanish word for "cemetery."

Cementerios
  • A Spanish term for cemeteries and cemetery records. Also used in the Philippines.
Cemeteries, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize cemetery records (records that contain information about where people are buried).
Cemeteries, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about cemeteries and cemetery records.
Cemetery
  • A place where deceased individuals are buried.
Cemetery Inscription Card Index, North Carolina
  • A project completed by the federal government as part of the Historical Records Survey to index North Carolina cemetery records.
Cemetery Locator File, Indiana
  • An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
cemitério

   Portuguese word for "cemetery."

censimento

   Italian word for "census."

Censo
  • The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
Census

   An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.

Census Birthplace Index, 1881 British Census

   An index to the 1881 census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by place of birth, first name, and age in descending order.

Census bundle number, England

   A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a piece number.

Census district
  • A geographical area in which a supervisor or marshal was required to take a census. Before 1880 in the United States, census districts were called subdivisions. Starting in 1880 they were called enumeration districts.
  • In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
Census district, British

A civil boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. The boundary of a census district was determined by the government and was based on the population in the area. Each district was divided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict was divided into enumeration districts.

Census district, Scotland

A geographic boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. In Scotland, this area is the same as the civil or ecclesiastical boundary.

Census division, Canada

   In Canadian national censuses, the smallest area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. Only sometimes are the subdistricts divided into two or more divisions.

Census enumeration district, England

   The geographic area assigned to one census taker, who was known as an enumerator. The size of the enumeration district depended on the number of people living in the area. The enumerator was responsible to collect information about every person in the district on a specific night. Several enumeration districts make up a section of the census known as a census piece or bundle.

Census folio number

   A census folio is a two-sided sheet of paper used for recording the census. The folio number is stamped in the top right corner of the front of the sheet. Folio numbers run consecutively through a section of the census known as a piece or bundle.

Census index
  • An alphabetical list of some or all of the people on a census that identifies where within the census an individual can be found.
Census of Confederate Veterans, Arkansas
  • A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
Census page number

   A number printed on a page in an enumerator's book. The number appears in the top middle or a top corner of each page. Page numbers run consecutively through one enumeration district only.

Census piece number

   A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a bundle number.

Census Place Index, 1881 British Census
  • An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
Census Record-As-Enumerated, 1881 British Census

   An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged in the same order as the original census, with individuals listed by the household in which they were enumerated. Use this index after using the Surname Index, Birthplace Index, or Census Place Index.

Census schedule
  • A type of list in a census. A census can have many types of schedules, such as a population or mortality schedule.
Census, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize censuses (official counts and descriptions of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city).
Census, general
  • An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.
Census, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.

Census street index

   An alphabetical list of streets appearing in the census record of a geographic area. The index shows the name of the street and a set of reference numbers that are helpful in finding the street in a census record of most large cities.

Census subdistrict, Canada

   In Canadian national censuses, an area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. In some provinces, townships are census subdistricts. A political ward in a city may also be a census subdistrict. Only sometimes are the subdistricts further divided into two or more divisions.

Census substitutes

   Records which can be used instead of a census. The substitutes are lists of people in an area, such as tax lists.

Census Surname Index, 1881 British Census

   An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by first name and age in descending order.

Census, PERiodical Source Index

   A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.

Census, Latin and Czech

   Latin and Czech word for "census."

cent

   French word for "hundred."

centenario

   Spanish word for "centennial."

centenarius

   Latin word for "a person one hundred years of age."

centenário

   Portuguese word for "centennial."

centesimo, -a

   Italian word for "hundredth."

centesimus

   Latin word for "hundredth."

centesimus primus

   Latin word for "one-hundred-first."

centesimus quinquagesimus

   Latin word for "one-hundred-fiftieth."

centième

   French word for "hundredth."

cento

   Italian and Portuguese word for "one hundred."

Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden
  • An office that keeps statistics about the Swedish population. Swedish ministers were required to send extracts of their records to this office. The Swedish term for the bureau is Statistika Centralbyrån.
Central Estadística, Philippines
  • A government office, translated as the Central Office of Statistics, established by the Spanish in the Philippines in 1899. It was charged with gathering birth, marriage, and death information from parish priests.
Central provinces, Canada
  • A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
centum

   Latin word for "hundred."

centum quinquaginta

   Latin word for "one-hundred-fifty."

centum unus

   Latin word for "one-hundred-one."

Century Farm Applications, Iowa

   A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.

centésimo

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "one-hundredth."

centésimo primero

   Spanish word for "one-hundred-first."

cerca

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "near, approximate."

cerdo (cerdonis)

   Latin word for "handworker."

cerrajero

   Spanish word for "locksmith."

certidão

   Portuguese word for "certificate."

certificado

   Spanish word for "certificate."

Certificate of arrival
  • A document given to immigrants upon their arrival in the United States. The certificate is proof of how long they have been living in the United States and is a required part of the naturalization process. It is kept in the case file with the petition for citizenship.
Certificate of Naturalization (Form 2207)
  • A form given to a former alien as proof that he or she has become a citizen of the United States.
Certificate, general
  • A record that documents an individual's or group's accomplishment or participation in an event.
Certificate, immigration
  • A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
certificato

   Italian word for "certificate."

Certificats
  • A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
certifichiamo
Italian word for "we certify."
cervecero
Spanish word for "brewer."
cervejeiro
Portuguese word for "brewer."
cesarski
Polish word for "imperial."
cesarstwo
Polish word for "empire."
cesta
Czech word for "road."
cestovní pas
Czech word for "passport."
ceux
French word for "those."
confronta (cfr.)
Italian word for "compare."
chalupnik
Polish word for "cottager, poor peasant."
chalupník
Czech word for "cottager, poor peasant."
Chamizo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Chancery case
  • A court case in which parties disputing over a matter that does not involve a violation of law ask a court to make a fair decision. Chancery cases commonly involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity case.
Chancery court, Arkansas
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity, divorce, probate, and adoption cases.
Chancery court, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over equity matters.
Chancery court, England
  • A court in England that hears equity cases. Records from this court include disputes over land and property rights, debts, inheritance, trusts, and fraud. The court began operating in 1199 and continues today.
Chancery court, general
  • A court that administers justice and decides controversies in accordance with the rules of equity as opposed to the rules of law. These courts commonly hear cases that involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity court.
Chancery court, Maryland
  • A court in Maryland with statewide jurisdiction over equity cases, such as divorces, name changes, mortgage foreclosures, civil damage suits, and guardianships. This court existed from 1668 to 1851.
Chancery court, Mississippi
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity cases, divorce, land grants, probates, and guardianships.
Chancery court, Tennessee
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over property title disputes.
Chancery register
  • A record kept by a court of chancery.
Chapel of ease, Church of England
  • A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapel of ease has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapels of ease often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapelry.
Chapelry, Church of England
  • A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapelry has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapelries often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapel of ease.
Chaplain
  • A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
charbonnier
French word for "charcoal burner."
charcutier
French word for "pork merchant."
Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey
  • Several collections of information about families from northeastern New Jersey, especially those from Essex County.
Charles D. Parkhurst manuscripts
  • A collection of compiled genealogies about people from New London, Connecticut.
Charles R. Hale Collection, Connecticut
  • A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
charretier
French word for "cart or carriage man."
charron
French word for "cartwright, wheelwright."
chartarius
Latin word for "paper miller."
chasseur
French word for "hunter."
chaudronnier
French word for "cooper, barrel maker."
chce
Polish and Czech word for "he wants."
che
Italian word for "which, than, what, who, that, whom."
Cherokee
  • A powerful tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in the southeastern United States. In 1838 United States troops forced the Cherokee tribe to move to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. This forced exodus became known as the Trail of Tears. About 1,000 Cherokee escaped into the Great Smoky Mountains. They eventually bought land, and the government allowed them to stay. This group became the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Most Cherokee now live in northeastern Oklahoma, though some still live in North Carolina. The Cherokee were considered part of the Five Civilized Tribes.
Cherokee Outlet
  • A section of land allocated to the Cherokees by treaty. Treaties made in 1828 and 1833 guaranteed this land to the tribe. The tribe could not place homes on it. It was to be used as an "outlet." The tribe sold the land to the United States in 1891, and it became part of Oklahoma Territory. Also called Cherokee Strip.
Cherokee Removal (1838)
  • A forced exodus that occurred when the United States government forced the Cherokee to move from their lands in the southeastern United States to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. The Cherokee called this march the Trail of Tears because so many people died along the way.
Cherokee War (1760-1761)
  • A war between the Cherokee and white settlers in South Carolina. The treaty that ended the war opened up much of frontier South Carolina for settlement.
Chevalier
  • The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
Cheyenne Indians
A tribe of Native Americans that lived on the western plains in the United States.
chez
French word for "at the home of."
chi
Italian word for "who, whom."
Chicago fire, USA
  • A fire that started on the Southwest side of Chicago on 8 October 1871. The fire burned for over 24 hours, destroying downtown Chicago and many Northside homes. Many of Chicago’s public records were also burned. At least three hundred people died, and 98,500 were left homeless. The fire caused an estimated $200 million in damage.
Chicago, Illinois
  • A city in Cook County, Illinois.
Chicago Road
The military highway that ran between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, after the 1820s. It was a major route for settlers moving to the Northwest.
Chickasaw
  • A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
chiesa
Italian word for "church."
chiesa ortodossa
Italian word for "Greek Catholic."
chilometro
Italian word for "kilometer."
chimico
Italian word for "chemist."
China
  • A term used in Brazilian and Argentinean Catholic Church registers to describe a female Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Chinese
  • Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
Chino
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
hirotherarus
Latin word for "glover."
Chirurg
German word for "surgeon."
chirurgien
French word for "surgeon."
chirurgo
Italian word for "surgeon."
chirurgus
Latin word for "surgeon."
chiunque
Italian word for "whoever."
chlap
Czech word for "peasant, country fellow."
chlapec
Czech word for "boy."
chlop
Polish word for "peasant, country fellow."
chlopiec
Polish word for "boy."
Choctaw
  • A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
Cholo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
choroba
Polish and Czech word for "disease."
Christening (chr)
An ordinance performed on a baby by the minister of the local parish in the Church of England, Wales, and Ireland. The child is baptized, given a name, and received into the church.
chramarius
Latin word for "merchant."
Christelik
Afrikaans word for "Christianlike, religious."
Christen
Afrikaans word for "Christian."
Christen, religious
  • To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
Christen, shipping
  • To name a new ship on its first voyage.

Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).

Christening records
Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
Christian Church
  • A Protestant religion formed in Kentucky in 1809 by Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and Barton W. Stone. Its full name is the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The church practices baptism by immersion, but most congregations will accept people as members if they were baptized into another church.
Christian name
  • A first name, often from the Bible, used to identify an individual. Also called first name or given name.
Christian Reformed Church
  • A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
Christmonat
German word for "December."
chrzczony
Polish word for "christened."
chrzest
Polish word for "christening."
chrzestna, chrzestny
Polish word for "godparent(s)."


Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint
  • A book currently published every other year by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that gives information about Church leaders, historical events related to the Church, and statistics related to Church members around the world.
Church archive
  • An archive where a church stores its records and documents.
Church cemetery
  • A church-owned cemetery where that church's members, leaders, and others are buried.
Church census
  • A list and description of members of a church that is taken to track growth and update membership records. Church censuses are a major source of family history information for members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Church Directories, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize lists of churches' organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served.
Church directory
  • A list of a church's organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served. A church directory may also contain historical information about the local congregations, complete addresses of the churches, and the address of the church headquarters where additional records may be kept.
Church History, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about the history of various churches.
Church history, general
  • An account of the events surrounding a specific church or the events related to all of the religions and religious developments in an area.
Church marriage register
  • A record kept by a church of marriages performed by a priest or other church authority.
Church of England
  • The state church of England. It was established in 1534 by King Henry VIII who, when Pope Clement VII refused to grant him a divorce, compelled Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy. This act made the king of England, not the pope, the head of the church in England. Doctrines of the church are based on the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds and the Book of Common Prayer. The clergy are divided into bishops, priests, and deacons. The Church of England is now part of the Anglican Communion.
Church of Ireland
  • An independent Anglican Church in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It is the largest Protestant church in Ireland. The Church of Ireland separated from the Church of England in 1871.
Church of Scotland
  • The Presbyterian Church in Scotland. The Church of Scotland was once the state church.
Church of the Brethren
  • A religion that developed in 1708 in Germany under Alexander Mack. Persecution in Germany led many members to immigrate to Germantown, Pennsylvania. The Brethren stress obedience to Christ and living the gospel according to the New Testament. They practice trine baptism (baptism by immersion in which an individual is immersed three times, once for each member of the Trinity) and refuse to take oaths or serve in the military. They are also called Dunkards or Dunkers.
Church of the Nazarene
  • A Protestant religion established in Texas in 1908. The church follows the early teachings of Methodism and sponsors many schools, liberal arts colleges, and theological seminaries.
Church Records, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records kept by churches, such as baptism records, marriage records, and burial records.
Church records, general
  • Records kept by religious institutions.
Church unit boundaries, Latter-day Saint
  • The jurisdictions of various congregations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Church, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about church records.
Churchwarden account
  • Records kept by a churchwarden.
Churchwarden, Church of England
  • A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
chwilowo
Polish word for "temporarily."
château
French word for "castle."
châtelain
French word for "owner of a castle."
ci
Italian word for "there, us, to us."
CI
Roman numeral for "one-hundred-one."
ci-dessous
French word for "below here."
ci-dessus
French word for "above here."
ciabattino
Italian word for "cobbler."
cidade
Portuguese word for "city."
cidadão (ã)
Portuguese word for "citizen."
ciego (a)
Spanish word for "blind."
ciento
Spanish word for "one hundred."
ciento uno
Spanish word for "one hundred one."
cigány
Hungarian word for "gypsy."
cikán
Czech word for "gypsy."
Cimarrón
A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
cimeterium
Latin word for "cemetery."
cimetière
French word for "cemetery."
cimitero
Italian word for "cemetery."
cinco
Portuguese and Spanish word for "five."
cincuenta
Spanish word for "fifty."
cingarus
Latin word for "gypsy."
cinq
French word for "five."
cinquanta
Italian word for "fifty."
cinquante
French word for "fifty."
cinquantesimo, -a
Italian word for "fiftieth."
cinquantième
French word for "fiftieth."
cinque
Italian word for "five."
cinquième
French word for "fifth."
cinqüenta
Portuguese word for "fifty."
cinterem
Hungarian word for "burial ground."
ciocia (ciotka)
Polish word for "aunt."
cioè
Italian word for "that is, namely."
cipész
Hungarian word for "shoemaker."
circa, Danish
Danish word for "approximately."
circa, German (ca.)
German word for "about."
circa, Italian
Italian word for "about, approximately."
circa, Latin
Latin word for "about, around, round about."
circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))
Swedish word for "about, approximately."
circiter
Latin word for "about, approximately."
Circuit court guardian docket
  • A list of guardian judgments made by the circuit court.
Circuit court of appeals
  • The former name of the United States Court of Appeals. The court of appeals may review and revise decisions made by federal district courts. The United States Supreme Court may review and revise decisions made by the circuit courts of appeals.
Circuit court, Alabama
  • A court in Alabama with countywide jurisdiction over felonies, major criminal and civil cases, and appeals from inferior courts.
Circuit court, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and equity cases such as mortgage foreclosures, name changes, marriages, adoptions, estate partitions, naturalizations, debts, and probate suits. Circuit courts were replaced by superior courts in 1947.
Circuit court, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
Circuit court, USA
  • A court used in many states of the United States. The court generally has jurisdiction over several towns, counties, or districts in the state. Circuit courts have jurisdiction over both criminal and civil matters.
Circuit court, Virginia
  • A court in Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit courts were created in 1851 and continue today.
Circuit court, Wisconsin
  • A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and some appeals.

Circuit superior court of law and chancery, Virginia

  • A court in Virginia with districtwide jurisdiction. In 1851 these courts were replaced by circuit courts.
Circuit superior court of law, West Virginia
  • A court in West Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit superior courts of law were used from 1809 to 1852.
Circumcision register, Jewish
  • A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
cirka
Norwegian word for "approximately."


Citizen, early England and Wales
  • A freeman who lived in a city.
Citizenship
  • The allegiance of an individual to a government and its laws and customs. In return, the individual is granted all rights allowed by the government.
Citizenship book, Danish
  • A list of people who received the rights to citizenship extended by a city. Citizenship rights included the right to engage in business in the city, protection under the law, and permission to live in the city without being expelled. Citizenship books include the names of the people granted citizenship and their age, social and economic status, occupation and training, and sometimes birthplace and names of relatives. Until the twentieth century, only males of the middle or upper class, usually merchants and tradesmen, were granted citizenship. The Danish citizenship books are called borgerskabprotokoller.
Citizenship book, Germany
  • A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
Citizenship record
Citizenship records document the process of a person becoming a member of a country.
The records may give the name, age, country of birth, ethnic background, date and port of arrival, name of the ship, previous residences, or current address. Each of the various types of records created during the citizenship process can give different details about the person.
In the United States, records for earlier years usually contain less information than those after 1906, when the names, birth dates, and birth places of the spouse and children are given.
Citizenship records are found in town, county, state, and federal court records.
citoyen(ne)
French word for "citizen."
cittadinanze
Italian word for "citizenship."
cittadino, -a
Italian word for "citizen."
città
Italian word for "city, town."
City
An inhabited place that has more people than a town or village. Different countries have different requirements for what is considered a city. In some countries, for example, a city must be an incorporated entity. In others, it must have a charter from the government.
City census
  • A census taken by a city rather than a state or federal government.
City court, Kansas
  • A court in Kansas with citywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and traffic matters. Also called magistrate court.

City court, Utah

  • A court used in Utah between 1906 and 1977. City courts had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases in a county. They were replaced by the circuit court system in 1977.
City directory
  • A list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers (if applicable) of the people living in a city. City directories may also provide other information about individuals such as their profession, trade, or place of employment.
City livery company, England
  • A craft or trade association in London that is descended from the medieval trade guilds. The term livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform that each guild (or company) used on special occasions. Eventually the term was used to refer to the collective membership of the company.
City map
  • A map that shows the streets and sometimes political divisions of a large city.
City records
  • Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
ciudad
Spanish word for "city."
ciudadano (a)
Spanish word for "citizen."
Civil authorities
Authorities in charge of a country or other non-church unit.
Civil case
  • A lawsuit involving a violation of laws when an individual (but not society) is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel. Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement on private rights.
Civil court, Florida
  • A court in Florida that exists in counties with more than 100,000 residents. In these counties, civil courts take the place of county courts.
Civil court, general
  • A court that hears civil cases (lawsuits involving a violation of laws when an individual but not society is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel). Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement of private rights.
Civil district, Denmark
  • An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
Civil division
The part of a governmental unit which oversees noncriminal matters.
Civil government
  • A government that has authority over a country or other non-church unit.
Civil law
  • The laws in a country that define the rights and obligations that people owe one another. Civil law covers issues such as the borrowing and lending of money, contracts, land and property ownership, marriage, divorce, adoption, and injury due to the actions of another person. In the Canadian province of Québec civil law is based on a French code of laws. In other provinces, civil law is based on English common law.
Civil marriage register
  • A government record of marriages performed by various civil and religious officials. A register is usually a record in a bound book.
Civil parish, Ireland
  • An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.
Civil Registration District
  • The geographic area of a country in which the birth, marriage, divorce, and death records of the citizens are kept. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
Civil registration office
  • A local government office that keeps the government's local birth, marriage, and death records. Some civil registration offices may also have records regarding divorces.
Civil Registration, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by civil governments. Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records from the United States and all Canadian provinces except Québec are cataloged under the subject heading "Vital Records."
Civil registration, general
  • Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by a government. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
Civil Secretary, Canada
  • A government official in Upper Canada (Ontario) who served as a private secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the province. He received letters and petitions. This position does not exist in modern-day Ontario.
Civil War, American
  • A term for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Also called the War between the States and the War of Secession.
Civil war, general
  • A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
civilregistret
  • Swedish word for "civil registrar."
civis
  • Latin word for "citizen."
cizozemský
  • Czech word for "foreign."
cizí
  • Czech word for "foreign, strange."
ciò
  • Italian word for "that."
CL
  • Roman numeral for "one-hundred-fifty."
Claim
  • A request made in a court of law.
Claim registers
  • Records of claims made against a deceased person's estate.
Claims docket
  • A list of court cases.
Clarence Torrey Collection, New England
  • A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Its proper name is New England Marriages Prior to 1700.
Class 1 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas before 1 March 1836 and received headright land grants from Spain and Mexico.
Class 2 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 2 March 1836 to 1 October 1837 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
Class 3 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 October 1837 to 1 January 1840 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
Class 4 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
clausit
Latin word for "he/she finished, closed." Diem clausit extremem means "(died) he/she finished the last day."
claustrarius
Latin word for "locksmith."
clausum
Latin word for "closed, finished."
Clergy directory
  • A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
clergé
French word for "clergymen."
Clerical register of souls, Norway
  • A census taken by the Lutheran clergy in Norway during the mid-1700s. It lists all members of a family and all persons living with the family. In Norwegian this census is called a sjeleregister.
Clerical survey records, Sweden
  • A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
clericus
Latin word for "clergyman."
Clerk
  • An individual charged with keeping records.
Clerk of the court
  • A government official who keeps the records of a court.
clero
Portuguese word for "clergy."
Clipping file
  • A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
clostrarius
Latin word for "locksmith."
clérigo
Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."
CM
Roman numeral for "nine-hundred."
cmentarz
Polish word for "cemetery, churchyard."
co
Polish and Czech word for "what."
Coast Guard
  • The branch of a nation's armed forces that is employed to protect and police a nation's coastline. In Great Britain, the Coast Guard was originally formed to prevent smuggling.
Coat of arms
  • An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
cocchiere
Italian word for "coachman."
Codicil
  • A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
oelebs
Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
coemeterium
Latin word for "cemetery."
Coextensive (District of Columbia)
Having the same boundaries. Washington is coextensive with the District of Columbia which means that the City of Washington occupies the same space and has the same boundaries as the District of Columbia.
cofradía
Spanish word for "religious brotherhood, guild."
Cofradías, Spain
  • An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
cognationis
Latin word for "blood relationship."
cognato, -a
Italian word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."
cognome, -i
Italian word for "surname(s)."
cognomen
Latin word for "name, family name, surname."
Cohabitation certificates
  • A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
cojo
Spanish word for "lame."
col consenso
Italian word for "with the consent."
colera
Italian word for "cholera."
colheita
Portuguese word for "harvest."
colina
Portuguese and Spanish word for "hill."
Collaboration Lists
A feature on the FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service that allows people to type in information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Each collaboration list focuses on a particular place, surname, or topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
Collateral (genealogy)
A member of a family but not in the direct line, such as an aunt, uncle, or cousin.
Collection Fabien, Canada
  • A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada
    Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
Collection Gagnon, Canada
A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
Collection Rhode Island Family Records
  • A collection of will abstracts and family records created by Martha A. Benns. The collection is available at the Rhode Island Historical Society and the Family History Library™.
Collections, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize collections of genealogical or historical information gathered by a person or group and then made available for public research.
Collective biography
  • A group of biographies about a specific group of people, such as merchants, students of an academy, or prominent citizens in an area.
Collective naturalization, USA
  • The process of granting a group of people United States citizenship. This happened in 1803 for residents of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1845 for residents of Texas, in 1868 for African-Americans, in 1898 for residents of Hawaii, and in 1924 for Native Americans. No individual naturalization records were made for people granted collective naturalization.
Collectors' roll
  • A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
collina
Italian word for "hill."
colline
French word for "hill."
collis
Latin word for "hill."
Colonel
  • Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
colonia
Spanish word for "colony."
Colonial census
  • A list and description of the population of a colony.
Colonial government
The government of any of the Thirteen Colonies, such as Delaware, before it became a state of the United States.
Colonial land records
  • Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
Colonial legislature
A legislature (law-making group of people) that existed while an area was a colony of some "mother" country.
Colonial naturalization
  • A naturalization that occurred during a country's colonial period.
Colonial period, Latin America
  • The period of time from 1492 to the 1820s when Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America. During this period, the Spanish and Portuguese exploited native resources, suppressed native cultures, imported slaves from Africa, and established Catholic missions that oversaw the conversion (sometimes forced) of the native peoples to Catholicism. The native-born Spanish controlled the local governments, even pure-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the New World had little influence. The colonial period ended as the various countries in Latin America won their independence and established their own governments.
Colonial records
  • Records kept about a colony or by a colonial government.
Colonial Wars
  • Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
Colonist
German word for "settler, tenant farmer."
Colonization Policy
  • Agreements made by the Mexican government during the 1820s to allow Americans to colonize Texas. Moses Austin was the first American to receive permission to form a colony, but he died before he could establish it. Stephen F. Austin, his son, organized the first colony at Washington-on-the-Bravos. Other colonies soon formed. By 1830 the Mexican government was alarmed at the number of American colonists in Mexico and halted the immigration.
Colonizer
  • A person who moves from an established area to a colony.

Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.

colono
Italian word for "farmer, colonist."
colonus
Latin word for "colonist, settler, resident, farmer, peasant."
Colony of New York
An English colo