Difference between revisions of "C genealogical glossary terms"

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*An probate index that is arranged by first letter of the surname only and then by probate date. I may give the place of residence of a testator.
 
*An probate index that is arranged by first letter of the surname only and then by probate date. I may give the place of residence of a testator.
  
California Gold Rush  
+
===== California Gold Rush =====
  
    The movement of large numbers of people to the gold fields in California, especially in 1849.
+
*The movement of large numbers of people to the gold fields in California, especially in 1849.
  
 
===== caligator  =====
 
===== caligator  =====
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*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
cameranius  
+
===== cameranius =====
  
    Latin word for "chamberlain, valet, groom."
+
*Latin word for "chamberlain, valet, groom."
  
cameriera  
+
===== cameriera =====
  
    Italian word for "maid, servant girl."
+
*Italian word for "maid, servant girl."
  
cameriere  
+
===== cameriere =====
  
    Italian word for "waiter."
+
*Italian word for "waiter."
  
cameriere di casa  
+
===== cameriere di casa =====
  
    Italian word for "house steward."
+
*Italian word for "house steward."
  
camino  
+
===== camino =====
  
    Spanish word for "road."
+
*Spanish word for "road."
  
campagna  
+
===== campagna =====
  
    Italian word for "countryside, rural."
+
*Italian word for "countryside, rural."
  
campagnuolo, -a  
+
===== campagnuolo, -a =====
  
    Italian word for "countryman, countrywoman."
+
*Italian word for "countryman, countrywoman."
  
campesino (a)  
+
===== campesino (a) =====
  
    Spanish word for "peasant."
+
*Spanish word for "peasant."
  
campo, Portuguese  
+
===== campo, Portuguese =====
  
    Portuguese word for "field, plain."
+
*Portuguese word for "field, plain."
  
campo, Spanish  
+
===== campo, Spanish =====
  
    Spanish word for "field."
+
*Spanish word for "field."
  
camponês (a)  
+
===== camponês (a) =====
  
    Portuguese word for "peasant, small farmer."
+
*Portuguese word for "peasant, small farmer."
  
cana de açúcar  
+
===== cana de açúcar =====
  
    Portuguese word for "sugarcane.
+
*Portuguese word for "sugarcane.
  
 
===== Canada East  =====
 
===== Canada East  =====
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*A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
 
*A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
  
cancro  
+
===== cancro =====
  
    Italian word for "cancer."
+
*Italian word for "cancer."
  
cantante  
+
===== cantante =====
  
    Italian word for "singer."
+
*Italian word for "singer."
  
cantatrice  
+
===== cantatrice =====
  
    Italian word for "singer."
+
*Italian word for "singer."
  
 
===== Canton  =====
 
===== Canton  =====
Line 301: Line 301:
 
*The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
 
*The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
  
capela  
+
===== capela =====
  
    Portuguese word for "chapel."
+
*Portuguese word for "chapel."
  
capella  
+
===== capella =====
  
    Latin word for "chapel."
+
*Latin word for "chapel."
  
capellanus  
+
===== capellanus =====
  
    Latin word for "chaplain."
+
*Latin word for "chaplain."
  
 
===== Capellanías, military  =====
 
===== Capellanías, military  =====
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*A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
 
*A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
  
capilla  
+
===== capilla =====
  
    Spanish word for "chapel."
+
*Spanish word for "chapel."
  
 
===== Capital case  =====
 
===== Capital case  =====
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*A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
 
*A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
  
Capital, USA  
+
===== Capital, USA =====
  
    A city where the main offices of a government are located.
+
*A city where the main offices of a government are located.
  
capitis  
+
===== capitis =====
  
    Latin word for "head, chief."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "head, chief."<br>
  
capofamiglia  
+
===== capofamiglia =====
  
    Italian word for "family head."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "family head."<br>
  
capostipite  
+
===== capostipite =====
  
    Italian word for "family founder, earliest ancestor."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "family founder, earliest ancestor."<br>
  
cappellaio  
+
===== cappellaio =====
  
    Italian word for "hatter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "hatter."<br>
  
capt et jurat  
+
===== capt et jurat =====
  
    Latin word for "taken and sworn."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "taken and sworn."<br>
  
 
===== Captain  =====
 
===== Captain  =====
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*An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
 
*An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
  
Captain  
+
===== Captain =====
  
    An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.<br>
  
caput  
+
===== caput =====
  
    Latin word for "head, chief."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "head, chief."<br>
  
cara  
+
===== cara =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "face."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "face."<br>
  
carabiniere  
+
===== carabiniere =====
  
    Italian word for "policeman."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "policeman."<br>
  
carbonaio  
+
===== carbonaio =====
  
    Italian word for "coal dealer."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "coal dealer."<br>
  
carbonarius  
+
===== carbonarius =====
  
    Latin word for "collier, coal miner."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "collier, coal miner."<br>
  
 
===== Card index  =====
 
===== Card index  =====
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*A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
 
*A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
  
carecarius  
+
===== carecarius =====
  
    Latin word for "carter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "carter."<br>
  
 
===== Carey Act of 1894  =====
 
===== Carey Act of 1894  =====
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*A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
 
*A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
  
Cariboo Gold Rush  
+
===== Cariboo Gold Rush =====
  
    A gold mining boom in the Cariboo Mountains of south central British Columbia that lasted from 1860 to 1863.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A gold mining boom in the Cariboo Mountains of south central British Columbia that lasted from 1860 to 1863.<br>
  
carnarius  
+
===== carnarius =====
  
    Latin word for "butcher."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "butcher."<br>
  
carnicero  
+
===== carnicero =====
  
    Spanish word for "butcher."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "butcher."<br>
  
carpentarius  
+
===== carpentarius =====
  
    Latin word for "carpenter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "carpenter."<br>
  
 
===== Carpenter  =====
 
===== Carpenter  =====
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*A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
 
*A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
  
carpinteiro  
+
===== carpinteiro =====
  
    Portuguese word for "carpenter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "carpenter."<br>
  
carpintero  
+
===== carpintero =====
  
    Spanish word for "carpenter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "carpenter."<br>
  
carraio  
+
===== carraio =====
  
    Italian word for "wheelwright."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "wheelwright."<br>
  
carretera  
+
===== carretera =====
  
    Spanish word for "road."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "road."<br>
  
carta  
+
===== carta =====
  
    Latin word for "deed, charter, map."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "deed, charter, map."<br>
  
 
===== Cartas de dote  =====
 
===== Cartas de dote  =====
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*The Spanish term for dowry records.
 
*The Spanish term for dowry records.
  
carte, French  
+
===== carte, French =====
  
    French word for "map."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "map."<br>
  
carte, Italian  
+
===== carte, Italian =====
  
    Italian word for "maps, charts."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "maps, charts."<br>
  
cartório  
+
===== cartório =====
  
    Portuguese word for "archive."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "archive."<br>
  
casa  
+
===== casa =====
  
    Italian, Portuguese and Spanish word for "house."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian, Portuguese and Spanish word for "house."<br>
  
casado (a)  
+
===== casado (a) =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "married."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "married."<br>
  
casado con (c.c.)  
+
===== casado con (c.c.) =====
  
    Spanish word for "married to."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "married to."<br>
  
casale  
+
===== casale =====
  
    Latin word for "estate, village."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "estate, village."<br>
  
casamento  
+
===== casamento =====
  
    Portuguese word for "marriage."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "marriage."<br>
  
 
===== Casamentos  =====
 
===== Casamentos  =====
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*An identification number assigned to a case file.
 
*An identification number assigned to a case file.
  
casar, casarse  
+
===== casar, casarse =====
  
    Spanish word for "to marry."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "to marry."<br>
  
casar-se  
+
===== casar-se =====
  
    Portuguese word for "to marry."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "to marry."<br>
  
casaro  
+
===== casaro =====
  
    Italian word for "dairy farmer."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "dairy farmer."<br>
  
casatus  
+
===== casatus =====
  
    Latin word for "cottager."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "cottager."<br>
  
Case file number  
+
===== Case file number =====
  
    An identification number assigned to a case file.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An identification number assigned to a case file.<br>
  
 
===== Case file, court records  =====
 
===== Case file, court records  =====
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*The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
 
*The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
  
cassa  
+
===== cassa =====
  
    Italian word for "chest, cash, cashier."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "chest, cash, cashier."<br>
  
cassetta  
+
===== cassetta =====
  
    Italian word for "chest."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "chest."<br>
  
casta  
+
===== casta =====
  
    Spanish word for "caste, racial lineage."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "caste, racial lineage."<br>
  
castaldo  
+
===== castaldo =====
  
    Italian word for "land agent."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "land agent."<br>
  
castello  
+
===== castello =====
  
    Italian word for "castle."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "castle."<br>
  
castelo  
+
===== castelo =====
  
    Portuguese word for "castle."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "castle."<br>
  
castillo  
+
===== castillo =====
  
    Spanish word for "castle."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "castle."<br>
  
 
===== Castizo, Puerto Rico  =====
 
===== Castizo, Puerto Rico  =====
Line 561: Line 561:
 
*A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
 
*A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
  
cataster  
+
===== cataster =====
  
    Latin word for "land, property record."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "land, property record."<br>
  
catasto  
+
===== catasto =====
  
    Italian word for "land register."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "land register."<br>
  
catastro  
+
===== catastro =====
  
    Spanish word for "land census."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "land census."<br>
  
catedral  
+
===== catedral =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "cathedral."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "cathedral."<br>
 +
 
 +
===== Catholic diocese, Ireland  =====
 +
 
 +
An ecclesiastical division headed by a bishop, made up of many parishes within the Bishop's jurisdiction, which parishes may be in more than one county. Both the Church of Ireland and the Catholic Church had dioceses, but neither the name of the diocese nor its boundaries are the same between the two churches.
  
 
===== Catholic mission  =====
 
===== Catholic mission  =====
  
 
*A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
 
*A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
 +
 +
===== Catholic parish, Ireland  =====
 +
 +
*A parish of the Catholic Church, whose name, boundaries, members, diocese, and records are different than that of the [[C_genealogical_glossary_terms#Civil_parish.2C_Ireland|civil parish]]. The Catholic parish has no civil jurisdiction.
  
 
===== Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada  =====
 
===== Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada  =====
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*A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
 
*A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
  
catholicus  
+
===== catholicus =====
  
    Latin word for "Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "Catholic."<br>
  
catholique romaine  
+
===== catholique romaine =====
  
    French word for "Roman Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "Roman Catholic."<br>
  
catorce  
+
===== catorce =====
  
    Spanish word for "fourteen."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "fourteen."<br>
  
catorze  
+
===== catorze =====
  
    Portuguese word for "fourteen."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "fourteen."<br>
  
cattolico, -a  
+
===== cattolico, -a =====
  
    Italian word for "Roman Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "Roman Catholic."<br>
  
católico (a)  
+
===== católico (a) =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "Catholic."<br>
  
caupo (cauponis)  
+
===== caupo (cauponis) =====
  
    Latin word for "innkeeper."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "innkeeper."<br>
  
causa  
+
===== causa =====
  
    Latin word for "cause, sake, because of." Ex causa means "on account of, for the sake of."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "cause, sake, because of." Ex causa means "on account of, for the sake of."<br>
  
cavalheiro  
+
===== cavalheiro =====
  
    Portuguese word for "gentleman, knight, nobleman."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "gentleman, knight, nobleman."<br>
  
cavaliere  
+
===== cavaliere =====
  
    Italian word for "knight."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "knight."<br>
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
Line 635: Line 643:
 
*A warning notice issued by an interested person to a probate court that no action is to be taken in granting a probate without his case being heard.
 
*A warning notice issued by an interested person to a probate court that no action is to be taken in granting a probate without his case being heard.
  
<br> cazador  
+
===== <br> cazador =====
  
    Spanish word for "hunter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "hunter."<br>
  
caçador  
+
===== caçador =====
  
    Portuguese word for "hunter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "hunter."<br>
  
caña de azúcar  
+
===== caña de azúcar =====
  
    Spanish word for "sugar cane."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "sugar cane."<br>
  
CC  
+
===== CC =====
  
    Roman numeral for "two-hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Roman numeral for "two-hundred."<br>
  
CCC  
+
===== CCC =====
  
    Roman numeral for "three-hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Roman numeral for "three-hundred."<br>
  
CD  
+
===== CD =====
  
    Roman numeral for "four-hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Roman numeral for "four-hundred."<br>
  
ce  
+
===== ce =====
  
    Italian word for "us."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "us."<br>
  
ce, c'  
+
===== ce, c' =====
  
    French word for "it."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "it."<br>
  
ce, cet, cette  
+
===== ce, cet, cette =====
  
    French word for "this, that."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "this, that."<br>
  
cech  
+
===== cech =====
  
    Czech word for "guild."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Czech word for "guild."<br>
  
Ceded  
+
===== Ceded =====
  
    Transfer, give up control. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States, it gave up control of the area.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Transfer, give up control. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States, it gave up control of the area.<br>
  
cedo  
+
===== cedo =====
  
    Portuguese word for "early."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "early."<br>
  
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)  
+
===== Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) =====
 
 
    The Canadian army that served in World War I.
 
  
ceglarz
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; The Canadian army that served in World War I.<br>
  
    Polish word for "brick maker."
+
===== ceglarz  =====
  
cego (a)
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Polish word for "brick maker."<br>
  
    Portuguese word for "blind."
+
===== cego (a)  =====
  
cejourd'hier
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "blind."<br>
  
    French word for "yesterday."
+
===== cejourd'hier  =====
  
cejourd'hui
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "yesterday."<br>
  
    French word for "today."
+
===== cejourd'hui  =====
  
celator
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "today."<br>
  
    Latin word for "turner."
+
===== celator  =====
  
celebrare il matrimonio
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "turner."<br>
  
    Italian word for "solemnize a marriage."
+
===== celebrare il matrimonio  =====
  
celebraverunt
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "solemnize a marriage."<br>
  
    Latin word for "they celebrated, were married."
+
===== celebraverunt  =====
  
celibe
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "they celebrated, were married."<br>
  
    Italian word for "bachelor, bachelorette, single, unmarried."
+
===== celibe  =====
  
celle
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "bachelor, bachelorette, single, unmarried."<br>
  
    French word for "this one, she."
+
===== celle  =====
  
celle-ci
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "this one, she."<br>
  
    French word for "the latter (f.)."
+
===== celle-ci  =====
  
celle-là
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the latter (f.)."<br>
  
    French word for "the former (f.)."
+
===== celle-là  =====
  
celui
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the former (f.)."<br>
  
    French word for "this one, he."
+
===== celui  =====
  
celui-ci
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "this one, he."<br>
  
    French word for "the latter (m.)."
+
===== celui-ci  =====
  
celui-là
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the latter (m.)."<br>
  
    French word for "the former (m.)."
+
===== celui-là  =====
  
celý
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the former (m.)."<br>
  
    Czech word for "entire."
+
===== celý  =====
  
cem
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Czech word for "entire."<br>
  
    Portuguese word for "one hundred."
+
===== cem  =====
  
cementerio
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "one hundred."<br>
  
    Spanish word for "cemetery."
+
===== cementerio  =====
  
<br>  
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "cemetery."<br>
  
 
===== Cementerios  =====
 
===== Cementerios  =====
Line 781: Line 787:
 
*An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
 
*An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
  
cemitério  
+
===== cemitério =====
  
    Portuguese word for "cemetery."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "cemetery."<br>
  
censimento  
+
===== censimento =====
  
    Italian word for "census."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "census."<br>
  
 
===== Censo  =====
 
===== Censo  =====
Line 793: Line 799:
 
*The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
 
*The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
  
Census  
+
===== Census =====
  
    An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.<br>
  
Census Birthplace Index, 1881 British Census  
+
===== Census Birthplace Index, 1881 British Census =====
  
    An index to the 1881 census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by place of birth, first name, and age in descending order.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An index to the 1881 census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by place of birth, first name, and age in descending order.<br>
  
Census bundle number  
+
===== Census bundle number, England<br> =====
  
    A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a piece number.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a piece number.<br>
 
 
<br>  
 
  
 
===== Census district  =====
 
===== Census district  =====
Line 813: Line 817:
 
*In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
 
*In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
  
Census district, British  
+
===== Census district, British =====
  
    A civil boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. The boundary of a census district was determined by the government and was based on the population in the area. Each district was divided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict was divided into enumeration districts.
+
A civil boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. The boundary of a census district was determined by the government and was based on the population in the area. Each district was divided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict was divided into enumeration districts.
  
Census district, Scotland  
+
===== Census district, Scotland =====
  
    A geographic boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. In Scotland, this area is the same as the civil or ecclesiastical boundary.
+
A geographic boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. In Scotland, this area is the same as the civil or ecclesiastical boundary.
  
Census division, Canada  
+
===== Census division, Canada =====
  
    In Canadian national censuses, the smallest area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. Only sometimes are the subdistricts divided into two or more divisions.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; In Canadian national censuses, the smallest area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. Only sometimes are the subdistricts divided into two or more divisions.<br>
  
<br> Census enumeration district, England  
+
===== Census enumeration district, England =====
  
    The geographic area assigned to one census taker, who was known as an enumerator. The size of the enumeration district depended on the number of people living in the area. The enumerator was responsible to collect information about every person in the district on a specific night.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; The geographic area assigned to one census taker, who was known as an enumerator. The size of the enumeration district depended on the number of people living in the area. The enumerator was responsible to collect information about every person in the district on a specific night. Several enumeration districts make up a section of the census known as a census piece or bundle.<br>
    Several enumeration districts make up a section of the census known as a census piece or bundle.
 
  
Census folio number  
+
===== Census folio number =====
  
    A census folio is a two-sided sheet of paper used for recording the census. The folio number is stamped in the top right corner of the front of the sheet. Folio numbers run consecutively through a section of the census known as a piece or bundle.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A census folio is a two-sided sheet of paper used for recording the census. The folio number is stamped in the top right corner of the front of the sheet. Folio numbers run consecutively through a section of the census known as a piece or bundle.<br>
  
 
===== Census index  =====
 
===== Census index  =====
Line 842: Line 845:
 
*A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
 
*A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
  
Census page number  
+
===== Census page number =====
  
    A number printed on a page in an enumerator's book. The number appears in the top middle or a top corner of each page. Page numbers run consecutively through one enumeration district only.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A number printed on a page in an enumerator's book. The number appears in the top middle or a top corner of each page. Page numbers run consecutively through one enumeration district only.<br>
  
Census piece number  
+
===== Census piece number =====
  
    A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a bundle number.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a bundle number.<br>
  
 
===== Census Place Index, 1881 British Census  =====
 
===== Census Place Index, 1881 British Census  =====
Line 854: Line 857:
 
*An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
 
*An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
  
Census Record-As-Enumerated, 1881 British Census  
+
===== Census Record-As-Enumerated, 1881 British Census =====
  
    An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged in the same order as the original census, with individuals listed by the household in which they were enumerated. Use this index after using the Surname Index, Birthplace Index, or Census Place Index.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged in the same order as the original census, with individuals listed by the household in which they were enumerated. Use this index after using the Surname Index, Birthplace Index, or Census Place Index.<br>
  
 
===== Census schedule  =====
 
===== Census schedule  =====
Line 876: Line 879:
 
Census street index  
 
Census street index  
  
    An alphabetical list of streets appearing in the census record of a geographic area. The index shows the name of the street and a set of reference numbers that are helpful in finding the street in a census record of most large cities.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An alphabetical list of streets appearing in the census record of a geographic area. The index shows the name of the street and a set of reference numbers that are helpful in finding the street in a census record of most large cities.<br>
  
Census subdistrict, Canada  
+
===== Census subdistrict, Canada =====
  
    In Canadian national censuses, an area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. In some provinces, townships are census subdistricts. A political ward in a city may also be a census subdistrict. Only sometimes are the subdistricts further divided into two or more divisions.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; In Canadian national censuses, an area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. In some provinces, townships are census subdistricts. A political ward in a city may also be a census subdistrict. Only sometimes are the subdistricts further divided into two or more divisions.<br>
  
Census substitutes  
+
===== Census substitutes =====
  
    Records which can be used instead of a census. The substitutes are lists of people in an area, such as tax lists.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Records which can be used instead of a census. The substitutes are lists of people in an area, such as tax lists.<br>
  
Census Surname Index, 1881 British Census  
+
===== Census Surname Index, 1881 British Census =====
  
    An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by first name and age in descending order.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by first name and age in descending order.<br>
  
Census, PERiodical Source Index  
+
===== Census, PERiodical Source Index =====
  
    A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.<br>
  
census, Latin and Czech  
+
===== Census, Latin and Czech =====
  
    Latin and Czech word for "census."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin and Czech word for "census."<br>
  
cent  
+
===== cent =====
  
    French word for "hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "hundred."<br>
  
centenario  
+
===== centenario =====
  
    Spanish word for "centennial."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "centennial."<br>
  
centenarius  
+
===== centenarius =====
  
    Latin word for "a person one hundred years of age."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "a person one hundred years of age."<br>
  
centenário  
+
===== centenário =====
  
    Portuguese word for "centennial."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "centennial."<br>
  
centesimo, -a  
+
===== centesimo, -a =====
  
    Italian word for "hundredth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "hundredth."<br>
  
centesimus  
+
===== centesimus =====
  
    Latin word for "hundredth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "hundredth."<br>
  
centesimus primus  
+
===== centesimus primus =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-first."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-first."<br>
  
centesimus quinquagesimus  
+
===== centesimus quinquagesimus =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-fiftieth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-fiftieth."<br>
  
centième  
+
===== centième =====
  
    French word for "hundredth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "hundredth."<br>
  
cento  
+
===== cento =====
  
    Italian and Portuguese word for "one hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian and Portuguese word for "one hundred."<br>
 
 
<br>  
 
  
 
===== Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden  =====
 
===== Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden  =====
Line 952: Line 953:
 
*A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
 
*A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
  
<br> centum  
+
===== centum =====
  
    Latin word for "hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "hundred."<br>
  
centum quinquaginta  
+
===== centum quinquaginta =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-fifty."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-fifty."<br>
  
centum unus  
+
===== centum unus =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-one."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-one."<br>
  
Century Farm Applications, Iowa  
+
===== Century Farm Applications, Iowa =====
 
 
    A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.
 
 
 
centésimo
 
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "one-hundredth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.<br>
  
centésimo primero
+
===== centésimo =====
  
    Spanish word for "one-hundred-first."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "one-hundredth."<br>
  
<br>
+
===== centésimo primero  =====
  
===== Century Farm Applications, Iowa  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "one-hundred-first."
  
*A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.
+
===== cerca =====
  
cerca
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "near, approximate."<br>
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "near, approximate."
+
===== cerdo (cerdonis)  =====
  
cerdo (cerdonis)
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "handworker."<br>
  
    Latin word for "handworker."
+
===== cerrajero  =====
  
cerrajero
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "locksmith."<br>
  
    Spanish word for "locksmith."
+
===== certidão  =====
  
certidão
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "certificate."<br>
  
    Portuguese word for "certificate."
+
===== certificado  =====
  
certificado
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "certificate."<br>
 
 
    Spanish word for "certificate."
 
  
 
===== Certificate of arrival  =====
 
===== Certificate of arrival  =====
Line 1,018: Line 1,013:
 
*A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
 
*A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
  
certificato  
+
===== certificato =====
  
    Italian word for "certificate."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "certificate."<br>
  
 
===== Certificats  =====
 
===== Certificats  =====
Line 1,026: Line 1,021:
 
*A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
 
*A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
  
certifichiamo  
+
;certifichiamo: Italian word for "we certify."
 
 
    Italian word for "we certify."
 
 
 
cervecero
 
 
 
    Spanish word for "brewer."
 
 
 
cervejeiro
 
 
 
    Portuguese word for "brewer."
 
 
 
cesarski
 
  
    Polish word for "imperial."
+
;cervecero: Spanish word for "brewer."
  
cesarstwo
+
;cervejeiro: Portuguese word for "brewer."
  
    Polish word for "empire."
+
;cesarski: Polish word for "imperial."
  
cesta
+
;cesarstwo: Polish word for "empire."
  
    Czech word for "road."
+
;cesta: Czech word for "road."
  
cestovní pas  
+
;cestovní pas: Czech word for "passport."
  
    Czech word for "passport."
+
;ceux: French word for "those."
  
ceux
+
;confronta (cfr.): Italian word for "compare."
  
    French word for "those."
+
;chalupnik: Polish word for "cottager, poor peasant."
  
confronta (cfr.)
+
;chalupník: Czech word for "cottager, poor peasant."
 
 
    Italian word for "compare."
 
 
 
chalupnik
 
 
 
    Polish word for "cottager, poor peasant."
 
 
 
chalupník  
 
 
 
    Czech word for "cottager, poor peasant."
 
  
 
===== Chamizo  =====
 
===== Chamizo  =====
Line 1,122: Line 1,095:
 
*A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
 
*A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
  
charbonnier  
+
;charbonnier: French word for "charcoal burner."
 
 
    French word for "charcoal burner."
 
  
charcutier  
+
;charcutier: French word for "pork merchant."
 
 
    French word for "pork merchant."
 
  
 
===== Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey  =====
 
===== Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey  =====
Line 1,142: Line 1,111:
 
*A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
 
*A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
  
charretier  
+
;charretier: French word for "cart or carriage man."
  
    French word for "cart or carriage man."
+
;charron: French word for "cartwright, wheelwright."
  
charron
+
;chartarius: Latin word for "paper miller."
  
    French word for "cartwright, wheelwright."
+
;chasseur: French word for "hunter."
  
chartarius
+
;chaudronnier: French word for "cooper, barrel maker."
  
    Latin word for "paper miller."
+
;chce: Polish and Czech word for "he wants."
  
chasseur
+
;che: Italian word for "which, than, what, who, that, whom."
 
 
    French word for "hunter."
 
 
 
chaudronnier
 
 
 
    French word for "cooper, barrel maker."
 
 
 
chce
 
 
 
    Polish and Czech word for "he wants."
 
 
 
che  
 
 
 
    Italian word for "which, than, what, who, that, whom."
 
  
 
===== Cherokee  =====
 
===== Cherokee  =====
Line 1,190: Line 1,145:
 
*The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
 
*The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
  
Cheyenne Indians  
+
;Cheyenne Indians: A tribe of Native Americans that lived on the western plains in the United States.
 
 
    A tribe of Native Americans that lived on the western plains in the United States.
 
 
 
chez
 
 
 
    French word for "at the home of."
 
  
chi
+
;chez: French word for "at the home of."
  
    Italian word for "who, whom."
+
;chi: Italian word for "who, whom."
  
 
===== Chicago fire, USA  =====
 
===== Chicago fire, USA  =====
Line 1,210: Line 1,159:
 
*A city in Cook County, Illinois.
 
*A city in Cook County, Illinois.
  
Chicago Road  
+
;Chicago Road: The military highway that ran between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, after the 1820s. It was a major route for settlers moving to the Northwest.
 
 
    The military highway that ran between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, after the 1820s. It was a major route for settlers moving to the Northwest.
 
  
 
===== Chickasaw  =====
 
===== Chickasaw  =====
Line 1,218: Line 1,165:
 
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
 
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
  
chiesa  
+
;chiesa: Italian word for "church."
  
    Italian word for "church."
+
;chiesa ortodossa: Italian word for "Greek Catholic."
  
chiesa ortodossa
+
;chilometro: Italian word for "kilometer."
  
    Italian word for "Greek Catholic."
+
;chimico: Italian word for "chemist."
 
 
chilometro
 
 
 
    Italian word for "kilometer."
 
 
 
chimico  
 
 
 
    Italian word for "chemist."
 
  
 
===== China  =====
 
===== China  =====
Line 1,241: Line 1,180:
  
 
*Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
 
*Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
  
 
===== Chino  =====
 
===== Chino  =====
Line 1,252: Line 1,185:
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
hirotherarus  
+
;hirotherarus: Latin word for "glover."
  
    Latin word for "glover."
+
;Chirurg: German word for "surgeon."
  
Chirurg
+
;chirurgien: French word for "surgeon."
  
    German word for "surgeon."
+
;chirurgo: Italian word for "surgeon."
  
chirurgien
+
;chirurgus: Latin word for "surgeon."
  
    French word for "surgeon."
+
;chiunque: Italian word for "whoever."
  
chirurgo
+
;chlap: Czech word for "peasant, country fellow."
  
    Italian word for "surgeon."
+
;chlapec: Czech word for "boy."
  
chirurgus
+
;chlop: Polish word for "peasant, country fellow."
  
    Latin word for "surgeon."
+
;chlopiec: Polish word for "boy."
  
chiunque
+
===== Choctaw  =====
  
    Italian word for "whoever."
+
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
  
chlap
+
===== Cholo  =====
  
    Czech word for "peasant, country fellow."
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
chlapec
+
;choroba: Polish and Czech word for "disease."
  
    Czech word for "boy."
+
;Christening (chr): An ordinance performed on a baby by the minister of the local parish in the Church of England, Wales, and Ireland. The child is baptized, given a name, and received into the church.
  
chlop
+
;chramarius: Latin word for "merchant."
  
    Polish word for "peasant, country fellow."
+
;Christelik: Afrikaans word for "Christianlike, religious."
  
chlopiec
+
;Christen: Afrikaans word for "Christian."
  
    Polish word for "boy."
+
===== Christen, religious  =====
  
<br>
+
*To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
  
===== Choctaw =====
+
===== Christen, shipping =====
  
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
+
*To name a new ship on its first voyage.
  
===== Cholo  =====
+
Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
;Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
  
choroba
+
===== Christian Church  =====
 
 
    Polish and Czech word for "disease."
 
 
 
Christening (chr)
 
 
 
    An ordinance performed on a baby by the minister of the local parish in the Church of England, Wales, and Ireland. The child is baptized, given a name, and received into the church.
 
 
 
chramarius
 
 
 
    Latin word for "merchant."
 
 
 
Christelik
 
 
 
    Afrikaans word for "Christianlike, religious."
 
 
 
Christen
 
 
 
    Afrikaans word for "Christian."
 
 
 
===== Christen, religious  =====
 
 
 
*To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
 
 
 
===== Christen, shipping  =====
 
 
 
*To name a new ship on its first voyage.
 
 
 
Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
 
 
 
Christening records
 
 
 
    Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
 
 
 
===== Christian Church  =====
 
  
 
*A Protestant religion formed in Kentucky in 1809 by Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and Barton W. Stone. Its full name is the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The church practices baptism by immersion, but most congregations will accept people as members if they were baptized into another church.
 
*A Protestant religion formed in Kentucky in 1809 by Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and Barton W. Stone. Its full name is the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The church practices baptism by immersion, but most congregations will accept people as members if they were baptized into another church.
Line 1,348: Line 1,247:
 
*A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
 
*A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
  
Christmonat  
+
;Christmonat: German word for "December."
 
 
    German word for "December."
 
 
 
chrzczony
 
 
 
    Polish word for "christened."
 
 
 
chrzest
 
  
    Polish word for "christening."
+
;chrzczony: Polish word for "christened."
  
chrzestna, chrzestny
+
;chrzest: Polish word for "christening."
  
    Polish word for "godparent(s)."
+
;chrzestna, chrzestny: Polish word for "godparent(s)."
  
<br>
 
  
 
===== Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint  =====
 
===== Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint  =====
Line 1,446: Line 1,336:
 
*A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
 
*A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
  
chwilowo  
+
;chwilowo: Polish word for "temporarily."
  
    Polish word for "temporarily."
+
;château: French word for "castle."
  
château
+
;châtelain: French word for "owner of a castle."
  
    French word for "castle."
+
;ci: Italian word for "there, us, to us."
  
châtelain
+
;CI: Roman numeral for "one-hundred-one."
  
    French word for "owner of a castle."
+
;ci-dessous: French word for "below here."
  
ci  
+
;ci-dessus: French word for "above here."
  
    Italian word for "there, us, to us."
+
;ciabattino: Italian word for "cobbler."
  
CI
+
;cidade: Portuguese word for "city."
  
    Roman numeral for "one-hundred-one."
+
;cidadão (ã): Portuguese word for "citizen."
  
ci-dessous
+
;ciego (a):Spanish word for "blind."
  
    French word for "below here."
+
;ciento: Spanish word for "one hundred."
  
ci-dessus
+
;ciento uno: Spanish word for "one hundred one."
  
    French word for "above here."
+
;cigány: Hungarian word for "gypsy."
  
ciabattino
+
;cikán: Czech word for "gypsy."
  
    Italian word for "cobbler."
+
;Cimarrón: A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
cidade
+
;cimeterium: Latin word for "cemetery."
  
    Portuguese word for "city."
+
;cimetière: French word for "cemetery."
  
cidadão (ã)
+
;cimitero: Italian word for "cemetery."
  
    Portuguese word for "citizen."
+
;cinco: Portuguese and Spanish word for "five."
  
ciego (a)
+
;cincuenta: Spanish word for "fifty."
  
    Spanish word for "blind."
+
;cingarus: Latin word for "gypsy."
  
ciento
+
;cinq: French word for "five."
  
    Spanish word for "one hundred."
+
;cinquanta: Italian word for "fifty."
  
ciento uno
+
;cinquante: French word for "fifty."
  
    Spanish word for "one hundred one."
+
;cinquantesimo, -a: Italian word for "fiftieth."
  
cigány
+
;cinquantième: French word for "fiftieth."
  
    Hungarian word for "gypsy."
+
;cinque: Italian word for "five."
  
cikán
+
;cinquième: French word for "fifth."
  
    Czech word for "gypsy."
+
;cinqüenta: Portuguese word for "fifty."
  
<br>
+
;cinterem: Hungarian word for "burial ground."
  
===== Cimarrón  =====
+
;ciocia (ciotka): Polish word for "aunt."
  
*A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
;cioè: Italian word for "that is, namely."
  
cimeterium
+
;cipész: Hungarian word for "shoemaker."
  
    Latin word for "cemetery."
+
;circa, Danish: Danish word for "approximately."
  
cimetière
+
;circa, German (ca.): German word for "about."
  
    French word for "cemetery."
+
;circa, Italian: Italian word for "about, approximately."
  
cimitero
+
;circa, Latin: Latin word for "about, around, round about."
  
    Italian word for "cemetery."
+
;circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin)): Swedish word for "about, approximately."
  
cinco
+
;circiter: Latin word for "about, approximately."
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "five."
+
===== Circuit court guardian docket  =====
  
cincuenta
+
*A list of guardian judgments made by the circuit court.
  
    Spanish word for "fifty."
+
===== Circuit court of appeals  =====
  
cingarus
+
*The former name of the United States Court of Appeals. The court of appeals may review and revise decisions made by federal district courts. The United States Supreme Court may review and revise decisions made by the circuit courts of appeals.
  
    Latin word for "gypsy."
+
===== Circuit court, Alabama  =====
  
cinq
+
*A court in Alabama with countywide jurisdiction over felonies, major criminal and civil cases, and appeals from inferior courts.
  
    French word for "five."
+
===== Circuit court, New Jersey  =====
  
cinquanta
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and equity cases such as mortgage foreclosures, name changes, marriages, adoptions, estate partitions, naturalizations, debts, and probate suits. Circuit courts were replaced by superior courts in 1947.
  
    Italian word for "fifty."
+
===== Circuit court, Ohio  =====
  
cinquante
+
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
  
    French word for "fifty."
+
===== Circuit court, USA  =====
  
cinquantesimo, -a
+
*A court used in many states of the United States. The court generally has jurisdiction over several towns, counties, or districts in the state. Circuit courts have jurisdiction over both criminal and civil matters.
  
    Italian word for "fiftieth."
+
===== Circuit court, Virginia  =====
  
cinquantième
+
*A court in Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit courts were created in 1851 and continue today.
  
    French word for "fiftieth."
+
===== Circuit court, Wisconsin  =====
  
cinque
+
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and some appeals.
  
    Italian word for "five."
+
Circuit superior court of law and chancery, Virginia
  
cinquième
+
*A court in Virginia with districtwide jurisdiction. In 1851 these courts were replaced by circuit courts.
  
    French word for "fifth."
+
===== Circuit superior court of law, West Virginia  =====
  
cinqüenta
+
*A court in West Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit superior courts of law were used from 1809 to 1852.
  
    Portuguese word for "fifty."
+
===== Circumcision register, Jewish  =====
  
cinterem
+
*A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
  
    Hungarian word for "burial ground."
+
;cirka: Norwegian word for "approximately."
 +
  
ciocia (ciotka)
+
===== Citizen, early England and Wales  =====
  
    Polish word for "aunt."
+
*A freeman who lived in a city.
  
cioè
+
===== Citizenship  =====
  
    Italian word for "that is, namely."
+
*The allegiance of an individual to a government and its laws and customs. In return, the individual is granted all rights allowed by the government.
  
cipész
+
===== Citizenship book, Danish  =====
  
    Hungarian word for "shoemaker."
+
*A list of people who received the rights to citizenship extended by a city. Citizenship rights included the right to engage in business in the city, protection under the law, and permission to live in the city without being expelled. Citizenship books include the names of the people granted citizenship and their age, social and economic status, occupation and training, and sometimes birthplace and names of relatives. Until the twentieth century, only males of the middle or upper class, usually merchants and tradesmen, were granted citizenship. The Danish citizenship books are called borgerskabprotokoller.
  
circa, Danish
+
===== Citizenship book, Germany  =====
  
    Danish word for "approximately."
+
*A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
  
circa, German (ca.)
+
;Citizenship record: Citizenship records document the process of a person becoming a member of a country.  
  
    German word for "about."
+
:The records may give the name, age, country of birth, ethnic background, date and port of arrival, name of the ship, previous residences, or current address. Each of the various types of records created during the citizenship process can give different details about the person.
  
circa, Italian
+
:In the United States, records for earlier years usually contain less information than those after 1906, when the names, birth dates, and birth places of the spouse and children are given.
  
    Italian word for "about, approximately."
+
:Citizenship records are found in town, county, state, and federal court records.
  
circa, Latin
+
;citoyen(ne): French word for "citizen."
  
    Latin word for "about, around, round about."
+
;cittadinanze: Italian word for "citizenship."
  
circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))
+
;cittadino, -a: Italian word for "citizen."
  
    Swedish word for "about, approximately."
+
;città: Italian word for "city, town."
  
circiter
+
;City: An inhabited place that has more people than a town or village. Different countries have different requirements for what is considered a city. In some countries, for example, a city must be an incorporated entity. In others, it must have a charter from the government.
  
    Latin word for "about, approximately."
+
===== City census  =====
  
<br>
+
*A census taken by a city rather than a state or federal government.
  
===== Circuit court guardian docket =====
+
===== City court, Kansas =====
  
*A list of guardian judgments made by the circuit court.
+
*A court in Kansas with citywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and traffic matters. Also called magistrate court.
  
===== Circuit court of appeals  =====
+
City court, Utah
  
*The former name of the United States Court of Appeals. The court of appeals may review and revise decisions made by federal district courts. The United States Supreme Court may review and revise decisions made by the circuit courts of appeals.
+
*A court used in Utah between 1906 and 1977. City courts had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases in a county. They were replaced by the circuit court system in 1977.
  
===== Circuit court, Alabama =====
+
===== City directory =====
  
*A court in Alabama with countywide jurisdiction over felonies, major criminal and civil cases, and appeals from inferior courts.
+
*A list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers (if applicable) of the people living in a city. City directories may also provide other information about individuals such as their profession, trade, or place of employment.
  
===== Circuit court, New Jersey =====
+
===== City livery company, England =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and equity cases such as mortgage foreclosures, name changes, marriages, adoptions, estate partitions, naturalizations, debts, and probate suits. Circuit courts were replaced by superior courts in 1947.
+
*A craft or trade association in London that is descended from the medieval trade guilds. The term livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform that each guild (or company) used on special occasions. Eventually the term was used to refer to the collective membership of the company.
  
===== Circuit court, Ohio =====
+
===== City map =====
  
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
+
*A map that shows the streets and sometimes political divisions of a large city.
  
===== Circuit court, USA =====
+
===== City records =====
  
*A court used in many states of the United States. The court generally has jurisdiction over several towns, counties, or districts in the state. Circuit courts have jurisdiction over both criminal and civil matters.
+
*Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
  
===== Circuit court, Virginia  =====
+
;ciudad: Spanish word for "city."
  
*A court in Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit courts were created in 1851 and continue today.
+
;ciudadano (a): Spanish word for "citizen."
  
===== Circuit court, Wisconsin  =====
+
;Civil authorities: Authorities in charge of a country or other non-church unit.
  
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and some appeals.
+
===== Civil case  =====
  
Circuit superior court of law and chancery, Virginia
+
*A lawsuit involving a violation of laws when an individual (but not society) is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel. Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement on private rights.
  
*A court in Virginia with districtwide jurisdiction. In 1851 these courts were replaced by circuit courts.
+
===== Civil court, Florida  =====
  
===== Circuit superior court of law, West Virginia  =====
+
*A court in Florida that exists in counties with more than 100,000 residents. In these counties, civil courts take the place of county courts.
  
*A court in West Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit superior courts of law were used from 1809 to 1852.
+
===== Civil court, general  =====
  
===== Circumcision register, Jewish  =====
+
*A court that hears civil cases (lawsuits involving a violation of laws when an individual but not society is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel). Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement of private rights.
  
*A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
+
===== Civil district, Denmark  =====
  
<br> cirka
+
*An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
  
    Norwegian word for "approximately."
+
;Civil division: The part of a governmental unit which oversees noncriminal matters.
 
  
===== Citizen, early England and Wales =====
+
===== Civil government =====
  
*A freeman who lived in a city.
+
*A government that has authority over a country or other non-church unit.
  
===== Citizenship =====
+
===== Civil law =====
  
*The allegiance of an individual to a government and its laws and customs. In return, the individual is granted all rights allowed by the government.
+
*The laws in a country that define the rights and obligations that people owe one another. Civil law covers issues such as the borrowing and lending of money, contracts, land and property ownership, marriage, divorce, adoption, and injury due to the actions of another person. In the Canadian province of Québec civil law is based on a French code of laws. In other provinces, civil law is based on English common law.
  
===== Citizenship book, Danish =====
+
===== Civil marriage register =====
  
*A list of people who received the rights to citizenship extended by a city. Citizenship rights included the right to engage in business in the city, protection under the law, and permission to live in the city without being expelled. Citizenship books include the names of the people granted citizenship and their age, social and economic status, occupation and training, and sometimes birthplace and names of relatives. Until the twentieth century, only males of the middle or upper class, usually merchants and tradesmen, were granted citizenship. The Danish citizenship books are called borgerskabprotokoller.
+
*A government record of marriages performed by various civil and religious officials. A register is usually a record in a bound book.
  
===== Citizenship book, Germany =====
+
===== Civil parish, Ireland =====
  
*A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
+
*An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.
  
Citizenship record
+
===== Civil Registration District  =====
 +
*The geographic area of a country in which the birth, marriage, divorce, and death records of the citizens are kept. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
  
    Citizenship records document the process of a person becoming a member of a country.
+
===== Civil registration office  =====
  
    The records may give the name, age, country of birth, ethnic background, date and port of arrival, name of the ship, previous residences, or current address. Each of the various types of records created during the citizenship process can give different details about the person.
+
*A local government office that keeps the government's local birth, marriage, and death records. Some civil registration offices may also have records regarding divorces.
  
    In the United States, records for earlier years usually contain less information than those after 1906, when the names, birth dates, and birth places of the spouse and children are given.
+
===== Civil Registration, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
  
    Citizenship records are found in town, county, state, and federal court records.
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by civil governments. Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records from the United States and all Canadian provinces except Québec are cataloged under the subject heading "Vital Records."
  
citoyen(ne)
+
===== Civil registration, general  =====
  
    French word for "citizen."
+
*Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by a government. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
  
cittadinanze
+
===== Civil Secretary, Canada  =====
  
    Italian word for "citizenship."
+
*A government official in Upper Canada (Ontario) who served as a private secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the province. He received letters and petitions. This position does not exist in modern-day Ontario.
  
cittadino, -a
+
===== Civil War, American  =====
  
    Italian word for "citizen."
+
*A term for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Also called the War between the States and the War of Secession.
  
città
+
===== Civil war, general  =====
  
    Italian word for "city, town."
+
*A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
  
City
+
;civilregistret
 +
*Swedish word for "civil registrar."
  
    An inhabited place that has more people than a town or village. Different countries have different requirements for what is considered a city. In some countries, for example, a city must be an incorporated entity. In others, it must have a charter from the government.
+
;civis
 +
*Latin word for "citizen."
  
<br>
+
;cizozemský
 +
*Czech word for "foreign."
  
===== City census  =====
+
;cizí
 +
*Czech word for "foreign, strange."
  
*A census taken by a city rather than a state or federal government.
+
;ciò
 +
*Italian word for "that."
  
===== City court, Kansas  =====
+
;CL
 +
*Roman numeral for "one-hundred-fifty."
  
*A court in Kansas with citywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and traffic matters. Also called magistrate court.
+
===== Claim  =====
  
City court, Utah
+
*A request made in a court of law.
  
*A court used in Utah between 1906 and 1977. City courts had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases in a county. They were replaced by the circuit court system in 1977.
+
===== Claim registers  =====
  
===== City directory  =====
+
*Records of claims made against a deceased person's estate.
  
*A list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers (if applicable) of the people living in a city. City directories may also provide other information about individuals such as their profession, trade, or place of employment.
+
===== Claims docket  =====
  
===== City livery company, England  =====
+
*A list of court cases.
  
*A craft or trade association in London that is descended from the medieval trade guilds. The term livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform that each guild (or company) used on special occasions. Eventually the term was used to refer to the collective membership of the company.
+
===== Clarence Torrey Collection, New England  =====
  
===== City map  =====
+
*A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Its proper name is New England Marriages Prior to 1700.
  
*A map that shows the streets and sometimes political divisions of a large city.
+
===== Class 1 settler  =====
  
===== City records  =====
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas before 1 March 1836 and received headright land grants from Spain and Mexico.
  
*Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
+
===== Class 2 settler  =====
  
ciudad
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 2 March 1836 to 1 October 1837 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
    Spanish word for "city."
+
===== Class 3 settler  =====
  
ciudadano (a)
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 October 1837 to 1 January 1840 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
    Spanish word for "citizen."
+
===== Class 4 settler  =====
  
Civil authorities
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
    Authorities in charge of a country or other non-church unit.
+
;clausit: Latin word for "he/she finished, closed." Diem clausit extremem means "(died) he/she finished the last day."
  
<br>
+
;claustrarius: Latin word for "locksmith."
  
===== Civil case  =====
+
;clausum:Latin word for "closed, finished."
  
*A lawsuit involving a violation of laws when an individual (but not society) is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel. Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement on private rights.
+
===== Clergy directory  =====
  
===== Civil court, Florida  =====
+
*A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
  
*A court in Florida that exists in counties with more than 100,000 residents. In these counties, civil courts take the place of county courts.
+
;clergé: French word for "clergymen."
  
===== Civil court, general =====
+
===== Clerical register of souls, Norway =====
  
*A court that hears civil cases (lawsuits involving a violation of laws when an individual but not society is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel). Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement of private rights.
+
*A census taken by the Lutheran clergy in Norway during the mid-1700s. It lists all members of a family and all persons living with the family. In Norwegian this census is called a sjeleregister.
  
===== Civil district, Denmark =====
+
===== Clerical survey records, Sweden =====
  
*An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
+
*A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
  
Civil division
+
;clericus: Latin word for "clergyman."
  
    The part of a governmental unit which oversees noncriminal matters.
+
===== Clerk  =====
  
===== Civil government  =====
+
*An individual charged with keeping records.
  
*A government that has authority over a country or other non-church unit.
+
===== Clerk of the court  =====
  
===== Civil law  =====
+
*A government official who keeps the records of a court.
  
*The laws in a country that define the rights and obligations that people owe one another. Civil law covers issues such as the borrowing and lending of money, contracts, land and property ownership, marriage, divorce, adoption, and injury due to the actions of another person. In the Canadian province of Québec civil law is based on a French code of laws. In other provinces, civil law is based on English common law.
+
;clero: Portuguese word for "clergy."
  
===== Civil marriage register =====
+
===== Clipping file =====
  
*A government record of marriages performed by various civil and religious officials. A register is usually a record in a bound book.
+
*A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
  
===== Civil parish, Ireland  =====
+
;clostrarius: Latin word for "locksmith."
  
*An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.
+
;clérigo: Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."
  
<br>
+
;CM: Roman numeral for "nine-hundred."
  
Civil Registration District
+
;cmentarz: Polish word for "cemetery, churchyard."
  
    The geographic area of a country in which the birth, marriage, divorce, and death records of the citizens are kept. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
+
;co: Polish and Czech word for "what."
  
===== Civil registration office =====
+
===== Coast Guard =====
  
*A local government office that keeps the government's local birth, marriage, and death records. Some civil registration offices may also have records regarding divorces.
+
*The branch of a nation's armed forces that is employed to protect and police a nation's coastline. In Great Britain, the Coast Guard was originally formed to prevent smuggling.
  
===== Civil Registration, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== Coat of arms =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by civil governments. Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records from the United States and all Canadian provinces except Québec are cataloged under the subject heading "Vital Records."
+
*An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
  
===== Civil registration, general  =====
+
;cocchiere: Italian word for "coachman."
  
*Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by a government. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
+
===== Codicil  =====
  
===== Civil Secretary, Canada  =====
+
*A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
  
*A government official in Upper Canada (Ontario) who served as a private secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the province. He received letters and petitions. This position does not exist in modern-day Ontario.
+
;oelebs: Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
  
===== Civil War, American  =====
+
;coemeterium: Latin word for "cemetery."
  
*A term for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Also called the War between the States and the War of Secession.
+
;Coextensive (District of Columbia): Having the same boundaries. Washington is coextensive with the District of Columbia which means that the City of Washington occupies the same space and has the same boundaries as the District of Columbia.
  
===== Civil war, general  =====
+
;cofradía: Spanish word for "religious brotherhood, guild."
  
*A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
+
===== Cofradías, Spain  =====
  
civilregistret
+
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
  
    Swedish word for "civil registrar."
+
;cognationis: Latin word for "blood relationship."
  
civis
+
;cognato, -a: Italian word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."
  
    Latin word for "citizen."
+
;cognome, -i: Italian word for "surname(s)."
  
cizozemský
+
;cognomen: Latin word for "name, family name, surname."
  
    Czech word for "foreign."
+
===== Cohabitation certificates  =====
  
cizí
+
*A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
  
    Czech word for "foreign, strange."
+
;cojo: Spanish word for "lame."
  
ciò
+
;col consenso: Italian word for "with the consent."
  
    Italian word for "that."
+
;colera: Italian word for "cholera."
  
CL
+
;colheita: Portuguese word for "harvest."
  
    Roman numeral for "one-hundred-fifty."
+
;colina: Portuguese and Spanish word for "hill."
  
<br>
+
;Collaboration Lists: A feature on the FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service that allows people to type in information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Each collaboration list focuses on a particular place, surname, or topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
  
===== Claim  =====
+
;Collateral (genealogy): A member of a family but not in the direct line, such as an aunt, uncle, or cousin.
  
*A request made in a court of law.
+
===== Collection Fabien, Canada  =====
  
===== Claim registers  =====
+
*A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada<br>Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
  
*Records of claims made against a deceased person's estate.
+
;Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
  
===== Claims docket =====
+
===== Collection Rhode Island Family Records =====
  
*A list of court cases.
+
*A collection of will abstracts and family records created by Martha A. Benns. The collection is available at the Rhode Island Historical Society and the Family History Library™.
  
===== Clarence Torrey Collection, New England =====
+
===== Collections, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Its proper name is New England Marriages Prior to 1700.
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize collections of genealogical or historical information gathered by a person or group and then made available for public research.
  
===== Class 1 settler =====
+
===== Collective biography =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas before 1 March 1836 and received headright land grants from Spain and Mexico.
+
*A group of biographies about a specific group of people, such as merchants, students of an academy, or prominent citizens in an area.
  
===== Class 2 settler =====
+
===== Collective naturalization, USA =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 2 March 1836 to 1 October 1837 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
+
*The process of granting a group of people United States citizenship. This happened in 1803 for residents of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1845 for residents of Texas, in 1868 for African-Americans, in 1898 for residents of Hawaii, and in 1924 for Native Americans. No individual naturalization records were made for people granted collective naturalization.
  
===== Class 3 settler =====
+
===== Collectors' roll =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 October 1837 to 1 January 1840 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
+
*A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
  
===== Class 4 settler  =====
+
;collina: Italian word for "hill."
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
+
;colline: French word for "hill."
  
clausit
+
;collis: Latin word for "hill."
  
    Latin word for "he/she finished, closed." Diem clausit extremem means "(died) he/she finished the last day."
+
===== Colonel  =====
  
claustrarius
+
*Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
  
    Latin word for "locksmith."
+
;colonia: Spanish word for "colony."
  
clausum
+
===== Colonial census  =====
  
    Latin word for "closed, finished."
+
*A list and description of the population of a colony.
  
===== Clergy directory  =====
+
;Colonial government: The government of any of the Thirteen Colonies, such as Delaware, before it became a state of the United States.
  
*A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
+
===== Colonial land records  =====
  
clergé
+
*Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
  
    French word for "clergymen."
+
;Colonial legislature: A legislature (law-making group of people) that existed while an area was a colony of some "mother" country.
  
===== Clerical register of souls, Norway =====
+
===== Colonial naturalization =====
  
*A census taken by the Lutheran clergy in Norway during the mid-1700s. It lists all members of a family and all persons living with the family. In Norwegian this census is called a sjeleregister.
+
*A naturalization that occurred during a country's colonial period.
  
===== Clerical survey records, Sweden =====
+
===== Colonial period, Latin America =====
  
*A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
+
*The period of time from 1492 to the 1820s when Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America. During this period, the Spanish and Portuguese exploited native resources, suppressed native cultures, imported slaves from Africa, and established Catholic missions that oversaw the conversion (sometimes forced) of the native peoples to Catholicism. The native-born Spanish controlled the local governments, even pure-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the New World had little influence. The colonial period ended as the various countries in Latin America won their independence and established their own governments.
  
clericus
+
===== Colonial records  =====
  
    Latin word for "clergyman."
+
*Records kept about a colony or by a colonial government.
  
===== Clerk =====
+
===== Colonial Wars =====
  
*An individual charged with keeping records.
+
*Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
  
===== Clerk of the court  =====
+
;Colonist: German word for "settler, tenant farmer."
  
*A government official who keeps the records of a court.
+
===== Colonization Policy  =====
  
<br> clero
+
*Agreements made by the Mexican government during the 1820s to allow Americans to colonize Texas. Moses Austin was the first American to receive permission to form a colony, but he died before he could establish it. Stephen F. Austin, his son, organized the first colony at Washington-on-the-Bravos. Other colonies soon formed. By 1830 the Mexican government was alarmed at the number of American colonists in Mexico and halted the immigration.
  
    Portuguese word for "clergy."
+
===== Colonizer  =====
  
===== Clipping file  =====
+
*A person who moves from an established area to a colony.
  
*A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
+
Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.  
  
clostrarius
+
;colono: Italian word for "farmer, colonist."
  
    Latin word for "locksmith."
+
;colonus: Latin word for "colonist, settler, resident, farmer, peasant."
  
clérigo
+
;Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."
+
;colorado (a): Spanish word for "red."
  
CM
+
===== Colorado Territory  =====
  
    Roman numeral for "nine-hundred."
+
*A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.
  
cmentarz
+
;colorator: Latin word for "dyer."
  
    Polish word for "cemetery, churchyard."
+
;coltivatore: Italian word for "cultivator, farmer."
  
co
+
;colônia: Portuguese word for "colony."
  
    Polish and Czech word for "what."
+
;come: Italian word for "as, like, how."
  
===== Coast Guard  =====
+
;come sopra: Italian word for "as above."
  
*The branch of a nation's armed forces that is employed to protect and police a nation's coastline. In Great Britain, the Coast Guard was originally formed to prevent smuggling.
+
;comerciante: Portuguese and Spanish word for "merchant."
  
===== Coat of arms  =====
+
;comercio : Spanish word for "business, commerce."
  
*An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
+
;comes: Latin word for "count."
  
cocchiere
+
;comitas : Latin word for "county."
  
    Italian word for "coachman."
+
;comitatus : Latin word for "county."
  
===== Codicil  =====
+
;comitissa : Latin word for "countess."
  
*A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
+
===== Commander  =====
  
<br> oelebs
+
*An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.
  
    Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
+
;commater: Latin word for "godmother."
  
coemeterium
+
===== Commercial directory  =====
  
    Latin word for "cemetery."
+
*An alphabetical list of craftsmen, tradesmen, merchants, and others in business within a given area.
  
Coextensive (District of Columbia)
+
===== Commercial on-line service  =====
  
    Having the same boundaries. Washington is coextensive with the District of Columbia which means that the City of Washington occupies the same space and has the same boundaries as the District of Columbia.
+
*A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.
  
cofradía
+
;commerciante di vino: Italian word for "wine merchant."
  
    Spanish word for "religious brotherhood, guild."
+
===== Commissariat court, Scotland  =====
  
<br>
+
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissary court.
  
===== Cofradías, Spain =====
+
===== Commissary court, Church of England =====
  
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
+
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Commissary courts are also called episcopal, bishop's, diocesan, exchequer, and consistory courts.
  
cognationis
+
===== Commissary court, Scotland  =====
  
    Latin word for "blood relationship."
+
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.
  
cognato, -a
+
;commissionario: Italian word for "broker."
  
    Italian word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."
+
===== Commissioned officer  =====
  
cognome, -i
+
*A military officer who holds the rank of second lieutenant, ensign, or above.
  
    Italian word for "surname(s)."
+
===== Commissioners court, Texas  =====
  
cognomen
+
*A court in Texas with countywide jurisdiction.
  
    Latin word for "name, family name, surname."
+
===== Commodore, British  =====
  
<br>
+
*An officer in the British navy who commands a squadron.
  
===== Cohabitation certificates =====
+
===== Common pleas court, West Virginia =====
  
*A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
+
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. Its jurisdiction varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
  
<br> cojo (a)
+
===== Commonwealth, USA  =====
  
    Spanish word for "lame."
+
*A term used in the official names of four states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Virginia.
  
col consenso
+
commorantes
  
     Italian word for "with the consent."
+
     Latin word for "living, residing."
  
colera
+
Commot
  
     Italian word for "cholera."
+
     An early Welsh administrative division that was part of a cantrev.
  
colheita
+
Commstock Load
  
     Portuguese word for "harvest."
+
     Named for Henry Comstock (nicknamed "Old Pancake"). In 1859 he held the rights to a large silver deposit in the mines of Virginia City, Nevada, but later sold the rights for almost nothing.
  
colina
+
communauté
  
     Portuguese and Spanish word for "hill."
+
     French word for "community (of goods), religious community."
  
Collaboration Lists
+
===== Commune  =====
  
    A feature on the FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service that allows people to type in information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Each collaboration list focuses on a particular place, surname, or topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
+
*The French word for community.
  
Collateral (genealogy)
+
communicanten
  
     A member of a family but not in the direct line, such as an aunt, uncle, or cousin.
+
     Dutch word for "members, communicants."
  
===== Collection Fabien, Canada  =====
+
communion
  
*A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada<br>Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
+
    French and Norwegian word for "communion."
  
Collection Gagnon, Canada
+
communionsbog
  
     A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
+
     Danish word for "communion book."
  
<br>
+
===== Community cemetery  =====
  
===== Collection Rhode Island Family Records  =====
+
*A cemetery owned by a civil government.
  
*A collection of will abstracts and family records created by Martha A. Benns. The collection is available at the Rhode Island Historical Society and the Family History Library™.
+
Compact disc: A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.  
  
===== Collections, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
+
como
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize collections of genealogical or historical information gathered by a person or group and then made available for public research.
+
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "as, how."
  
===== Collective biography  =====
+
Compact disc
  
*A group of biographies about a specific group of people, such as merchants, students of an academy, or prominent citizens in an area.
+
    A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.
  
===== Collective naturalization, USA =====
+
===== Compact disc catalog =====
  
*The process of granting a group of people United States citizenship. This happened in 1803 for residents of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1845 for residents of Texas, in 1868 for African-Americans, in 1898 for residents of Hawaii, and in 1924 for Native Americans. No individual naturalization records were made for people granted collective naturalization.
+
*The Family History Library Catalog™ on compact disc.
  
===== Collectors' roll =====
+
===== Compact disc index =====
  
*A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
+
*A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.
  
collina
+
===== compagnon =====
  
    Italian word for "hill."
+
*French word for "journeyman, partner."<br>
  
colline
+
===== comparant =====
  
    French word for "hill."
+
*Dutch word for "one who appeared."<br>
  
collis
+
===== comparatio =====
  
    Latin word for "hill."
+
*Latin word for "presence, appearance."<br>
  
===== Colonel  =====
+
===== compareerde =====
  
*Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
+
*Dutch word for "appeared before."<br>
  
<br>
+
===== comparu =====
  
<br>  
+
*French word for "appeared."<br>
  
<br>
+
===== comparuit  =====
  
<br> colonia
+
*Latin word for "he/she appeared, was present."<br>
  
    Spanish word for "colony."
+
===== compater  =====
  
<br>  
+
*Latin word for "godfather."<br>
  
===== Colonial census  =====
+
<br>
  
*A list and description of the population of a colony.
+
===== Compendium  =====
  
Colonial government
+
*A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.
  
    The government of any of the Thirteen Colonies, such as Delaware, before it became a state of the United States.
+
===== compenso  =====
  
<br>  
+
*Italian word for "fee."<br>
  
===== Colonial land records  =====
+
<br>
  
*Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
+
===== Compiled biography  =====
  
Colonial legislature
+
*A compilation of the histories of people’s lives. The people selected for a compiled biography usually have something in common, such as an occupation, place of origin or residence, or experience in a historical event. Also called a biographical encyclopedia or biographical dictionary.
  
    A legislature (law-making group of people) that existed while an area was a colony of some "mother" country.
+
===== Compiled record:  =====
  
===== Colonial naturalization  =====
+
*collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
  
*A naturalization that occurred during a country's colonial period.
+
===== Compiled service records  =====
  
===== Colonial period, Latin America  =====
+
*All of the records concerning people who served in the military. These records are usually indexed.
  
*The period of time from 1492 to the 1820s when Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America. During this period, the Spanish and Portuguese exploited native resources, suppressed native cultures, imported slaves from Africa, and established Catholic missions that oversaw the conversion (sometimes forced) of the native peoples to Catholicism. The native-born Spanish controlled the local governments, even pure-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the New World had little influence. The colonial period ended as the various countries in Latin America won their independence and established their own governments.
+
===== Compiled source  =====
  
===== Colonial records  =====
+
*A collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
  
*Records kept about a colony or by a colonial government.
+
===== Complete record  =====
  
===== Colonial Wars  =====
+
*A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.
  
*Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
+
===== compos  =====
  
Colonist
+
*Latin word for "in possession of."<br>
  
    German word for "settler, tenant farmer."
+
===== Compound surname  =====
  
<br>
+
*A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.
  
===== Colonization Policy =====
+
===== comprare =====
  
*Agreements made by the Mexican government during the 1820s to allow Americans to colonize Texas. Moses Austin was the first American to receive permission to form a colony, but he died before he could establish it. Stephen F. Austin, his son, organized the first colony at Washington-on-the-Bravos. Other colonies soon formed. By 1830 the Mexican government was alarmed at the number of American colonists in Mexico and halted the immigration.
+
*Italian word for "to buy."<br>
  
===== Colonizer =====
+
===== comprend =====
  
*A person who moves from an established area to a colony.
+
*French word for "includes."<br>
  
Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.
+
===== Computer bulletin board system  =====
  
<br> colono
+
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many bulletin boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer message board or computer news group.
  
    Italian word for "farmer, colonist."
+
===== Computer chat session  =====
  
colonus
+
*A computer resource that allows people to send messages to each other in real time. This may also be called a conference.
  
    Latin word for "colonist, settler, resident, farmer, peasant."
+
===== Computer interest group  =====
  
Colony of New York
+
*A group of people who share a common interest and use computer on-line services to share information, learn about the particular topic, promote projects, or publish newsletters.
  
    An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.
+
===== Computer lecture session  =====
  
colorado (a)
+
*A computer program that allows an individual to conduct a “classroom lecture” through a computer network or on-line service.
  
    Spanish word for "red."
+
===== Computer message board  =====
  
<br>
+
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many computer message boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer news group.
  
===== Colorado Territory =====
+
===== Computer network =====
  
*A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.
+
*A group of computers electronically connected to each other so they can share information and programs.
  
colorator
+
===== Computer news group  =====
  
    Latin word for "dyer."
+
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many news groups focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
  
coltivatore
+
===== Computer number  =====
  
    Italian word for "cultivator, farmer."
+
*A number used to identify each entry in the Family History Library Catalog™. Using the Computer Number search is the fastest way to find a record in the catalog.
  
colônia
+
===== Computer on-line services  =====
  
    Portuguese word for "colony."
+
*The various features available to computer users through networks and modems, such as E-mail and Internet access. Computer on-line services usually refer to commercial organizations, such as America On-line or CompuServe, that provide such services for a fee.
  
come
+
===== Computer record  =====
  
    Italian word for "as, like, how."
+
*A record that is stored in a computer-readable format.
  
come sopra
+
===== Computerized phone directory  =====
  
    Italian word for "as above."
+
*A list of people's names, addresses, and telephone numbers that can be searched by computer.
  
comerciante
+
===== Comstock Lode  =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "merchant."
+
*A large gold and silver deposit discovered in central Nevada, near Virginia City, in 1859. It attracted many miners from California, and Virginia City became one of the largest, most prosperous cities in the Rocky Mountain West. Mining began to fade in the 1880s, and the population of Nevada declined as a result.
  
comercio
+
===== Comte  =====
  
    Spanish word for "business, commerce."
+
*The third highest ranking title in the French peerage. A comte ranks below a marquis (marquess) and above a vicomte (viscount). A comte is equal to a count in other parts of continental Europe and an earl in Great Britain.
  
comes
+
comune
  
     Latin word for "count."
+
     Italian word for "municipality."
  
comitas
+
comunhão
  
     Latin word for "county."
+
     Portuguese word for "communion."
  
comitatus
+
comunione
  
     Latin word for "county."
+
     Italian word for "communion."
  
comitissa
+
comunità
  
     Latin word for "countess."
+
     Italian word for "community, township."
  
<br>
+
comunión
  
===== Commander  =====
+
    Spanish word for "communion."
  
*An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.
+
con
  
commater
+
    Italian and Spanish word for "with."
  
    Latin word for "godmother."
+
concejal
  
===== Commercial directory  =====
+
    Spanish word for "councilman."
  
*An alphabetical list of craftsmen, tradesmen, merchants, and others in business within a given area.
+
concelho
  
===== Commercial on-line service  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "council, counsel."
  
*A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.
+
concepta est
  
commerciante di vino
+
    Latin word for "she was pregnant."
  
    Italian word for "wine merchant."
+
concernente
  
===== Commissariat court, Scotland  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "concerning."
  
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissary court.
+
concerniente
  
===== Commissary court, Church of England  =====
+
    Spanish word for "concerning."
  
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Commissary courts are also called episcopal, bishop's, diocesan, exchequer, and consistory courts.
+
<br>
  
===== Commissary court, Scotland =====
+
===== Concession, Canada =====
  
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.
+
*A division of a township in eastern Canada.
  
commissionario
+
concessit
  
     Italian word for "broker."
+
     Latin word for "consented."
  
===== Commissioned officer  =====
+
conciatore
  
*A military officer who holds the rank of second lieutenant, ensign, or above.
+
    Italian word for "tanner."
  
===== Commissioners court, Texas  =====
+
<br>
  
*A court in Texas with countywide jurisdiction.
+
<br>
  
===== Commodore, British  =====
+
<br>
  
*An officer in the British navy who commands a squadron.
+
concilio
  
===== Common pleas court, West Virginia  =====
+
    Spanish word for "council."
  
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. Its jurisdiction varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
+
concilio tridentino
  
===== Commonwealth, USA  =====
+
    Spanish word for "Council of Trent."
  
*A term used in the official names of four states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Virginia.
+
concubina
  
commorantes
+
    Italian word for "concubine."
  
    Latin word for "living, residing."
+
concubine
  
Commot
+
    French word for "concubine."
  
    An early Welsh administrative division that was part of a cantrev.
+
condado
  
Commstock Load
+
    Spanish word for "county."
  
    Named for Henry Comstock (nicknamed "Old Pancake"). In 1859 he held the rights to a large silver deposit in the mines of Virginia City, Nevada, but later sold the rights for almost nothing.
+
conde, Portuguese
  
communauté
+
    Portuguese word for "count, earl".
  
    French word for "community (of goods), religious community."
+
===== Conde  =====
  
===== Commune  =====
+
*The third highest raking title of Spanish nobility. A conde (equivalent in rank to a count or earl) ranks below a marqués (marques or marquis) and above a vizconde (viscount).
  
*The French word for community.
+
conditione, sub
  
communicanten
+
    Latin word for "conditionally."
  
    Dutch word for "members, communicants."
+
condizione
  
communion
+
    Italian word for "status, condition."
  
    French and Norwegian word for "communion."
+
conducente
  
communionsbog
+
    Italian word for "driver."
  
    Danish word for "communion book."
+
<br>
  
===== Community cemetery =====
+
===== Confederacy =====
  
*A cemetery owned by a civil government.
+
*The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861. These states were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.
  
Compact disc: A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.
+
<br> Confederate
  
como
+
    A person who supported the Southern States prior to, during, and after the Civil War. Also an adjective describing things relating to the states that seceded from the United States, such as places, military forces, and flags.
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "as, how."
+
===== Confederate prisoners  =====
  
Compact disc
+
*Men who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and were taken as prisoners of war.
  
    A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.
+
Confederate armed forces
  
===== Compact disc catalog  =====
+
    The army and navy of the Southeran states during the United States Civil War.
  
*The Family History Library Catalog™ on compact disc.
+
===== Confederate scrip lands  =====
  
===== Compact disc index  =====
+
*Land grants issued by Texas to Confederate veterans who were permanently disabled in the American Civil War or to widows of soldiers who were killed during the war.
  
*A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.
+
Confederation (of Canada)
  
compagnon
+
    The union on 1 July 1867 of the former British colonies of Canada West (Ontario), Canada East (Quebec), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia as the Dominion of Canada. It now includes all the present provinces and territories of Canada.
  
    French word for "journeyman, partner."
+
confermazione
  
comparant
+
    Italian word for "confirmation."
  
    Dutch word for "one who appeared."
+
confettiere
  
comparatio
+
    Italian word for "confectioner."
  
    Latin word for "presence, appearance."
+
===== Confirmación  =====
  
compareerde
+
*A Spanish term meaning confirmation. Also used in the Philippines. The plural is confirmaciones.
  
    Dutch word for "appeared before."
+
===== Confirmações  =====
  
comparu
+
*A Portuguese word for confirmations.
  
    French word for "appeared."
+
confirmatie
  
comparuit
+
    Dutch word for "confirmation."
  
    Latin word for "he/she appeared, was present."
+
===== Confirmation record  =====
  
compater
+
*A record created by a church when an individual is confirmed.
  
    Latin word for "godfather."
+
===== Confirmation, general  =====
  
<br>
+
*A church rite that allows an individual to become a member of a church.
  
===== Compendium  =====
+
Confirmation, Latter-day Saint
  
*A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.
+
    An ordinance of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in which an individual becomes a member of the Church and receives the gift of the Holy Ghost.  
  
compenso
+
confirmeraður
  
     Italian word for "fee."
+
     Icelandic word for "confirmed, confirmand."
  
<br>
+
confirmerede
  
===== Compiled biography  =====
+
    Norwegian word for "confirmed."
  
*A compilation of the histories of people’s lives. The people selected for a compiled biography usually have something in common, such as an occupation, place of origin or residence, or experience in a historical event. Also called a biographical encyclopedia or biographical dictionary.
+
confirmeret
  
===== Compiled record:  =====
+
    Danish word for "confirmed."
  
*collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
+
===== Conflict between Denmark and Sweden (1643-1645)  =====
  
===== Compiled service records  =====
+
*A military action in which Sweden invaded and defeated Denmark and Jutland. In 1645 the Treaty of Christianopel forced Denmark to cede some of its possessions to Sweden.
  
*All of the records concerning people who served in the military. These records are usually indexed.
+
===== Confraternidades, Spain  =====
  
===== Compiled source  =====
+
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
  
*A collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
+
confronta (cfr.)
  
===== Complete record  =====
+
    Italian word for "compare."
  
*A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.
+
congestion cérébrale
  
compos
+
    French word for "stroke."
  
    Latin word for "in possession of."
+
congiunto
  
===== Compound surname  =====
+
    Italian word for "related."
  
*A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.
+
===== Congo  =====
  
comprare
+
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person who is from the Congo region of Africa. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
    Italian word for "to buy."
+
===== Congregation  =====
  
comprend
+
*A group of people who support the same parish or branch of a church or regularly meet together for religious services. The term can also refer to any gathering of people.
  
    French word for "includes."
+
===== Congregationalist Church  =====
  
===== Computer bulletin board system  =====
+
*A group of Protestant churches whose beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. They support the right of individual congregations to rule themselves, including selecting their own ministers, and oppose government interference in religion. Congregationalism developed out of the Separatist movement in Great Britain, where they are also known as Independents. In 1931 the Congregationalist churches in the United States merged with three smaller churches to form the Congregational Christian Churches. In 1957 they merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Churches to form the United Church of Christ. However, several Congregational groups did not join. In 1972 Congregationalist and Presbyterians congregations in England united to form the United Reformed Church. Welsh and Scottish congregations did not join.
  
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many bulletin boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer message board or computer news group.
+
===== Congress lands  =====
  
===== Computer chat session  =====
+
*Land in Ohio that was owned by the United States government and sold by general acts of Congress. Congress lands included land sold to the Ohio Company and John Cleves Symmes. Much of the land was reserved for soldiers who had served in the Revolutionary War and refugees from Canada who had supported the colonies during the war. Much of the reserved land was not claimed, and it reverted back to being Congress land. Most of what is now the state of Ohio was Congress land. The term Congress land can also refer to any federal land disposed of by acts of Congress.
  
*A computer resource that allows people to send messages to each other in real time. This may also be called a conference.
+
Congress, USA
  
===== Computer interest group  =====
+
    The legislative or law-making branch of the government. Congress is divided into two groups: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
  
*A group of people who share a common interest and use computer on-line services to share information, learn about the particular topic, promote projects, or publish newsletters.
+
conhecido (a)
  
===== Computer lecture session  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "known, acquaintance."
  
*A computer program that allows an individual to conduct a “classroom lecture” through a computer network or on-line service.
+
conhecido (a) como
  
===== Computer message board  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "known as."
  
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many computer message boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer news group.
+
coniugati
  
===== Computer network  =====
+
    Italian word for "married."
  
*A group of computers electronically connected to each other so they can share information and programs.
+
coniugi
  
===== Computer news group  =====
+
    Italian word for "married couple."
  
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many news groups focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
+
conjoint
  
===== Computer number  =====
+
    French word for "spouse, assistant."
  
*A number used to identify each entry in the Family History Library Catalog™. Using the Computer Number search is the fastest way to find a record in the catalog.
+
conjugatus
  
===== Computer on-line services  =====
+
    Latin word for "married."
  
*The various features available to computer users through networks and modems, such as E-mail and Internet access. Computer on-line services usually refer to commercial organizations, such as America On-line or CompuServe, that provide such services for a fee.
+
conjuges
  
===== Computer record  =====
+
    Latin word for "married couple."
  
*A record that is stored in a computer-readable format.
+
conjugum
  
===== Computerized phone directory  =====
+
    Latin word for "of/from the married couple."
  
*A list of people's names, addresses, and telephone numbers that can be searched by computer.
+
conjuncti sunt
  
===== Comstock Lode  =====
+
    Latin word for "they were joined (in marriage)."
  
*A large gold and silver deposit discovered in central Nevada, near Virginia City, in 1859. It attracted many miners from California, and Virginia City became one of the largest, most prosperous cities in the Rocky Mountain West. Mining began to fade in the 1880s, and the population of Nevada declined as a result.
+
conjux
  
===== Comte  =====
+
    Latin word for "spouse."
  
*The third highest ranking title in the French peerage. A comte ranks below a marquis (marquess) and above a vicomte (viscount). A comte is equal to a count in other parts of continental Europe and an earl in Great Britain.
+
connaissance
  
comune
+
    French word for "acquaintance."
  
    Italian word for "municipality."
+
connessione
  
comunhão
+
    Italian word for "relationship."
  
    Portuguese word for "communion."
+
conocido (a)
  
comunione
+
    Spanish word for "known, acquaintance."
  
    Italian word for "communion."
+
conocido (a) como
  
comunità
+
    Spanish word for "known as."
  
    Italian word for "community, township."
+
consanguinidad
  
comunión
+
    Spanish word for "blood relationship, kinship."
  
    Spanish word for "communion."
+
consanguinitatis
  
con
+
    Latin word for "of blood relationship (such as cousins)."
  
    Italian and Spanish word for "with."
+
consangüinidade
  
concejal
+
    Portuguese word for "blood relationship, kinship."
  
    Spanish word for "councilman."
+
<br>
  
concelho
+
===== Conscription  =====
  
    Portuguese word for "council, counsel."
+
*Mandatory enrollment for military service.
  
concepta est
+
===== Conscription list  =====
  
    Latin word for "she was pregnant."
+
*A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as listas de quintas or conscripciones. These are lists of new recruits and, in some cases, all males eligible for military service. In many cases, these records are found in town or municipal archives. They can serve as a type of census of all the males who lived in a community at the time the list was compiled.
  
concernente
+
conseil d'état civil
  
     Portuguese word for "concerning."
+
     French word for "civil registrar's."
  
concerniente
+
===== Conseil Superieur, French Louisiana  =====
  
    Spanish word for "concerning."
+
*The judicial arm of government in French Louisiana. It handled all judicial matters in the colony. The administrative arm of government was called the conseil de regie. These two branches often met together, and it is difficult to distinguish them. The conseil superieur is also called the French Superior Council.
  
<br>
+
conseiller
  
===== Concession, Canada  =====
+
    French word for "councilor."
  
*A division of a township in eastern Canada.
+
consejo
  
concessit
+
    Spanish word for "council."
  
    Latin word for "consented."
+
consenso
  
conciatore
+
    Italian word for "consent."
  
    Italian word for "tanner."
+
===== Consent papers  =====
  
<br>
+
*A document signed by the parents of children who are legally too young to marry to give them permission to marry.
  
<br>
+
consentement
  
<br>
+
    French word for "consent."
  
concilio
+
conservato
  
     Spanish word for "council."
+
     Italian word for "preserved."
  
concilio tridentino
+
consigliere
  
     Spanish word for "Council of Trent."
+
     Italian word for "counselor."
  
concubina
+
===== Consistory court, Church of England  =====
  
    Italian word for "concubine."
+
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Consistory courts are also called episcopal, commissary, diocesan, exchequer, and bishop's courts.
  
concubine
+
consobrina
  
     French word for "concubine."
+
     Latin word for "female cousin (usually on the mother's side)."
  
condado
+
consobrinus
  
     Spanish word for "county."
+
     Latin word for "male cousin (usually on the mother's side)."
  
conde, Portuguese
+
consors (consortis)
  
     Portuguese word for "count, earl".
+
     Latin word for "wife."
  
===== Conde  =====
+
consorte
  
*The third highest raking title of Spanish nobility. A conde (equivalent in rank to a count or earl) ranks below a marqués (marques or marquis) and above a vizconde (viscount).
+
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "spouse, partner."
  
conditione, sub
+
constipación
  
     Latin word for "conditionally."
+
     Spanish word for "constipation."
  
condizione
+
constipação
  
     Italian word for "status, condition."
+
     Portuguese word for "constipation."
  
conducente
+
Constitution
  
     Italian word for "driver."
+
     The document that lists the basic laws, powers, and duties of a state or nation and which guarantees certain rights of the people.
  
<br>
+
consumimiento
  
===== Confederacy  =====
+
    Spanish word for "consumption."
  
*The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861. These states were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.
+
consunção
  
<br> Confederate
+
    Portuguese word for "consumption."
  
    A person who supported the Southern States prior to, during, and after the Civil War. Also an adjective describing things relating to the states that seceded from the United States, such as places, military forces, and flags.
+
conta
  
===== Confederate prisoners  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "account, bill."
  
*Men who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and were taken as prisoners of war.
+
contabile
  
Confederate armed forces
+
    Italian word for "accountant."
  
    The army and navy of the Southeran states during the United States Civil War.
+
contadino, -a
  
===== Confederate scrip lands  =====
+
    Italian word for "farm laborer, peasant."
  
*Land grants issued by Texas to Confederate veterans who were permanently disabled in the American Civil War or to widows of soldiers who were killed during the war.
+
conte
  
Confederation (of Canada)
+
    Italian word for "count, earl."
  
    The union on 1 July 1867 of the former British colonies of Canada West (Ontario), Canada East (Quebec), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia as the Dominion of Canada. It now includes all the present provinces and territories of Canada.
+
contea
  
confermazione
+
    Italian word for "county."
  
    Italian word for "confirmation."
+
contenido
  
confettiere
+
    Spanish word for "contents."
  
    Italian word for "confectioner."
+
<br>
  
===== Confirmación =====
+
===== Contents =====
  
*A Spanish term meaning confirmation. Also used in the Philippines. The plural is confirmaciones.
+
*The information contained in a record.
  
===== Confirmações  =====
+
contenu
  
*A Portuguese word for confirmations.
+
    French word for "content."
  
confirmatie
+
conteúdo
  
     Dutch word for "confirmation."
+
     Portuguese word for "contents."
  
===== Confirmation record =====
+
===== Continental Line =====
  
*A record created by a church when an individual is confirmed.
+
*Troops who were part of the regular Revolutionary War army raised by the Continental Congress. They were not part of state militia units.
  
===== Confirmation, general =====
+
===== Continental pedigree =====
  
*A church rite that allows an individual to become a member of a church.
+
*A table that lists the name and date and place of birth, marriage, and death for an individual and a specified number of his or her ancestors. This chart is also called an ahnentafel chart.
  
Confirmation, Latter-day Saint
+
conto
  
     An ordinance of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in which an individual becomes a member of the Church and receives the gift of the Holy Ghost.  
+
     Italian word for "account, bill."
  
confirmeraður
+
contra, Latin
  
     Icelandic word for "confirmed, confirmand."
+
     Latin word for "against, opposite."
  
confirmerede
+
contra, Portuguese
  
     Norwegian word for "confirmed."
+
     Portuguese word for "against."
  
confirmeret
+
<br>
  
    Danish word for "confirmed."
+
===== Contract  =====
  
===== Conflict between Denmark and Sweden (1643-1645)  =====
+
*A legally binding agreement between parties.
  
*A military action in which Sweden invaded and defeated Denmark and Jutland. In 1645 the Treaty of Christianopel forced Denmark to cede some of its possessions to Sweden.
+
contractant
  
===== Confraternidades, Spain  =====
+
    French word for "the groom (in a marriage record)."
  
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
+
contractante
  
confronta (cfr.)
+
    French word for "the bride (in a marriage record)."
  
    Italian word for "compare."
+
contracti
  
congestion cérébrale
+
    Latin word for "contracted, drawn together."
  
    French word for "stroke."
+
contrada
  
congiunto
+
    Italian word for "town quarter."
  
    Italian word for "related."
+
contraente
  
===== Congo  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "contracting party in a marriage."
  
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person who is from the Congo region of Africa. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
contrajó matrimonio con (c.m.c.)
  
===== Congregation  =====
+
    Spanish word for "contracted marriage with."
  
*A group of people who support the same parish or branch of a church or regularly meet together for religious services. The term can also refer to any gathering of people.
+
===== Contrat de mariage  =====
  
===== Congregationalist Church  =====
+
*A French term for marriage contract, a document created to protect the legal rights and property of a couple who are to be married.
  
*A group of Protestant churches whose beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. They support the right of individual congregations to rule themselves, including selecting their own ministers, and oppose government interference in religion. Congregationalism developed out of the Separatist movement in Great Britain, where they are also known as Independents. In 1931 the Congregationalist churches in the United States merged with three smaller churches to form the Congregational Christian Churches. In 1957 they merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Churches to form the United Church of Christ. However, several Congregational groups did not join. In 1972 Congregationalist and Presbyterians congregations in England united to form the United Reformed Church. Welsh and Scottish congregations did not join.
+
===== Contrato de compra-venta  =====
  
===== Congress lands  =====
+
*The Spanish term for a contract documenting the purchase and sale of goods.
  
*Land in Ohio that was owned by the United States government and sold by general acts of Congress. Congress lands included land sold to the Ohio Company and John Cleves Symmes. Much of the land was reserved for soldiers who had served in the Revolutionary War and refugees from Canada who had supported the colonies during the war. Much of the reserved land was not claimed, and it reverted back to being Congress land. Most of what is now the state of Ohio was Congress land. The term Congress land can also refer to any federal land disposed of by acts of Congress.
+
contratto di matrimonio
  
Congress, USA
+
    Italian word for "marriage contract."
  
    The legislative or law-making branch of the government. Congress is divided into two groups: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
+
contraxerunt
  
conhecido (a)  
+
    Latin word for "they contracted (marriage)."
  
    Portuguese word for "known, acquaintance."
+
contrayente
  
conhecido (a) como
+
    Spanish word for "contracting party in a marriage."
  
    Portuguese word for "known as."
+
contre
  
coniugati
+
    French word for "against."
  
    Italian word for "married."
+
contro
  
coniugi
+
    Italian word for "against."
  
    Italian word for "married couple."
+
Conversion guide
  
conjoint
+
    A guide that lists two sets of microfilm numbers for the same set of microfilms. For example, the Archives of Ontario and the Family History Library both have copies of the same microfilms of vital records of births, marriages, and deaths from the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Archives of Ontario uses one numbering system for those records, and the Family History Library uses another numbering system. The Archives of Ontario has a conversion guide that lists both the Archives of Ontario and the Family History Library film numbers for each roll of microfilm in the set.
  
    French word for "spouse, assistant."
+
conversione
  
conjugatus
+
    Italian word for "conversion."
  
    Latin word for "married."
+
conversión
  
conjuges
+
    Spanish word for "conversion."
  
    Latin word for "married couple."
+
conversão
  
conjugum
+
    Portuguese word for "conversion."
  
    Latin word for "of/from the married couple."
+
Conveyance
  
conjuncti sunt
+
    A title deed; a document drawn up to transfer property from one person to another.
  
    Latin word for "they were joined (in marriage)."
+
Convict records
  
conjux
+
    Records of convicts who were deported to colonies of their country. These include records made in the new colony or country while the people were still convicts.
  
    Latin word for "spouse."
+
Convict Records, FamilySearch
  
connaissance
+
    A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records of convicts who were deported to colonies of their country. These include records made in the new colony or country while the people were still convicts.
  
    French word for "acquaintance."
+
convulsione, -i
  
connessione
+
    Italian word for "convulsion(s)."
  
    Italian word for "relationship."
+
convulsionis
  
conocido (a)
+
    Latin word for "of convulsions."
  
    Spanish word for "known, acquaintance."
+
convulsión
  
conocido (a) como
+
    Spanish word for "convulsion."
  
    Spanish word for "known as."
+
convulsão
  
consanguinidad
+
    Portuguese word for "convulsion."
  
    Spanish word for "blood relationship, kinship."
+
===== Cook  =====
  
consanguinitatis
+
*In the British military, an officer who prepares food. In the United States military, the cook is an enlisted man rather than an officer.
  
    Latin word for "of blood relationship (such as cousins)."
+
===== Cook County, Illinois  =====
  
consangüinidade
+
*The county in Illinois of which Chicago is a part.
  
    Portuguese word for "blood relationship, kinship."
+
cooperta
  
<br>
+
    Latin word for "married (of a woman)."
  
===== Conscription  =====
+
coopvaerdi
  
*Mandatory enrollment for military service.
+
    Swedish word for "merchant marine."
  
===== Conscription list  =====
+
Gilbert Cope's Collection of Family Data (Cope collection)
  
*A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as listas de quintas or conscripciones. These are lists of new recruits and, in some cases, all males eligible for military service. In many cases, these records are found in town or municipal archives. They can serve as a type of census of all the males who lived in a community at the time the list was compiled.
+
    A collection of family history information about Quakers and others who lived in southeastern Pennsylvania and Burlington, Cumberland, Gloucester, and Salem counties in New Jersey.
  
conseil d'état civil
+
copie civili di registri parrocchiali
  
     French word for "civil registrar's."
+
     Italian word for "parish register transcripts."
  
===== Conseil Superieur, French Louisiana  =====
+
copulati sunt
  
*The judicial arm of government in French Louisiana. It handled all judicial matters in the colony. The administrative arm of government was called the conseil de regie. These two branches often met together, and it is difficult to distinguish them. The conseil superieur is also called the French Superior Council.
+
    Latin word for "they were married, joined."
  
conseiller
+
copulationis
  
     French word for "councilor."
+
     Latin word for "of marriage."
  
consejo
+
copulatus
  
     Spanish word for "council."
+
     Latin word for "married, joined."
  
consenso
+
copulavit
  
     Italian word for "consent."
+
     Latin word for "he married (performed wedding)."
  
===== Consent papers  =====
+
<br>
  
*A document signed by the parents of children who are legally too young to marry to give them permission to marry.
+
===== Copulerede  =====
  
consentement
+
*A Danish word for marriages.
  
    French word for "consent."
+
copuleret
  
conservato
+
    Danish word for "married."
  
    Italian word for "preserved."
+
copulieren
  
consigliere
+
    German word for "to marry."
  
    Italian word for "counselor."
+
Copyhold land, England
  
===== Consistory court, Church of England  =====
+
    Land held subject to the will of the lord of a manor. Title to the land was recorded in the manor court rolls, and the tenant was given a copy. A copyhold could not be inherited unless the heir released the land to the lord and was confirmed by the lord on payment of a fee. The same applied to other copyhold land transfers.
  
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Consistory courts are also called episcopal, commissary, diocesan, exchequer, and bishop's courts.
+
===== Copyhold records, Denmark  =====
  
consobrina
+
*Danish land contracts that document agreements between the landowner and farmers wishing to lease crown-held land. These contracts were made before 1850 and include the name of the former occupant, his reason for leaving the farm, the name and sometimes birthplace of the new leaseholder, the new leaseholder's relationship to the former leaseholder (if any), the date of transfer, and a description of the land. If there was no breach of contract, the landowner could not evict the leaseholder. In Danish these records are called fæsteprotokoller.
  
    Latin word for "female cousin (usually on the mother's side)."
+
===== Copyright  =====
  
consobrinus
+
*The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, and sell an original literary or artistic work that is granted for a specific time to the author or originator.
  
    Latin word for "male cousin (usually on the mother's side)."
+
coqueluche
  
consors (consortis)
+
    French and Portuguese word for "whooping cough."
  
    Latin word for "wife."
+
coquus
  
consorte
+
    Latin word for "cook."
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "spouse, partner."
+
coram
  
constipación
+
    Latin word for "in the presence of."
  
    Spanish word for "constipation."
+
===== Corbin Manuscript Collection, Massachusetts  =====
  
constipação
+
*A manuscript collection of information about people from central and western Massachusetts. It includes local histories, church records, town records, genealogies, and transcripts of Bible and cemetery records. It is helpful for the years 1650 to 1850.
  
    Portuguese word for "constipation."
+
cordaio
  
Constitution
+
    italian word for "rope maker."
  
    The document that lists the basic laws, powers, and duties of a state or nation and which guarantees certain rights of the people.
+
cordelero
  
consumimiento
+
    Spanish word for "rope maker."
  
    Spanish word for "consumption."
+
cordier
  
consunção
+
    French word for "rope maker."
  
    Portuguese word for "consumption."
+
cordoeiro
  
conta
+
    Portuguese word for "rope maker."
  
    Portuguese word for "account, bill."
+
cordonnier
  
contabile
+
    French word for "shoemaker."
  
    Italian word for "accountant."
+
coriarius
  
contadino, -a
+
    Latin word for "tanner, leather worker."
  
    Italian word for "farm laborer, peasant."
+
<br>
  
conte
+
===== Cornet, British  =====
  
    Italian word for "count, earl."
+
*The fifth-ranking commissioned officer in a British infantry. The cornet carries the colors. The rank is equal with the ensign in the cavalry.
  
contea
+
===== Cornish  =====
  
    Italian word for "county."
+
*A member of the ethno-linguistic group which originated in Cornwall. A speaker of the Brythonic Celtic language of Cornwall.
  
contenido
+
===== Coroner  =====
  
    Spanish word for "contents."
+
*A public official who inquires into deaths of people who did not die under the care of a physician or people whose deaths may not have been due to natural causes.
  
<br>
+
===== Coroner's inquest  =====
  
===== Contents  =====
+
*The records relating to a coroner's examination of a body to determine the cause of death.
  
*The information contained in a record.
+
===== Corporation court, Virginia  =====
  
contenu
+
*A court formed in 1850 in independent cities, such as Richmond, to handle minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. In 1902, the circuit courts assumed the duties of the corporation courts.
  
    French word for "content."
+
corpus (corporis)
  
conteúdo
+
    Latin word for "body."
  
    Portuguese word for "contents."
+
===== Corrected record of birth  =====
  
===== Continental Line  =====
+
*A document showing a change or addition to a birth certificate.
  
*Troops who were part of the regular Revolutionary War army raised by the Continental Congress. They were not part of state militia units.
+
===== Correctional Institutions, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
  
===== Continental pedigree  =====
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about jails, prisons, halfway houses, and other correctional institutions.
  
*A table that lists the name and date and place of birth, marriage, and death for an individual and a specified number of his or her ancestors. This chart is also called an ahnentafel chart.
+
corrente
  
conto
+
    Italian and Portuguese word for "current."
  
    Italian word for "account, bill."
+
===== Correspondence  =====
  
contra, Latin
+
*The exchange of written communication, such as a letter and a response.
  
    Latin word for "against, opposite."
+
corriente
  
contra, Portuguese
+
    Spanish word for "current."
  
    Portuguese word for "against."
+
corriere
  
<br>
+
    Italian word for "couier."
  
===== Contract  =====
+
corte
  
*A legally binding agreement between parties.
+
    Italian and Portuguese word for "court."
  
contractant
+
cortiça
  
     French word for "the groom (in a marriage record)."
+
     Portuguese word for "cork."
  
contractante
+
cosecha
  
     French word for "the bride (in a marriage record)."
+
     Spanish word for "harvest."
  
contracti
+
costruttore
  
     Latin word for "contracted, drawn together."
+
     Italian word for "builder."
  
contrada
+
così
  
     Italian word for "town quarter."
+
     Italian word for "thus, so."
  
contraente
+
cotarius
  
     Portuguese word for "contracting party in a marriage."
+
     Latin word for "cottager."
  
contrajó matrimonio con (c.m.c.)
+
couches
  
     Spanish word for "contracted marriage with."
+
     French word for "bed, marital bed." Morte en couches means "died in childbirth."
  
===== Contrat de mariage =====
+
===== Council of probate, Rhode Island =====
  
*A French term for marriage contract, a document created to protect the legal rights and property of a couple who are to be married.
+
*A probate court in Rhode Island. The council of probate is also known as the general council.
  
===== Contrato de compra-venta =====
+
===== Council of Trent =====
  
*The Spanish term for a contract documenting the purchase and sale of goods.
+
*A series of conferences held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, Italy. The focus of the council was to define Catholic beliefs and counteract the Protestant Reformation. The council also formalized record-keeping practices that were being followed in much of the Catholic world.
  
contratto di matrimonio
+
Council, Virginia
  
     Italian word for "marriage contract."
+
     The legislative body and court of appeals for the colony of Virginia during its earliest period.  
  
contraxerunt
+
===== Count  =====
  
    Latin word for "they contracted (marriage)."
+
*A title of nobility in continental Europe, equal in rank to a British earl. Generally, a count ranks below a marquess and above a viscount. In German, a count is called a Graf. In Spain, Portugal, and Latin America, a count is called a conde. In France, a count is called a comte.
  
contrayente
+
===== Counter Reformation  =====
  
    Spanish word for "contracting party in a marriage."
+
*A religious movement that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s as the Catholic Church tried to unify its beliefs and stop the spread of Protestantism. It led to a series of wars that occurred when Catholic governments tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in their countries. These wars include civil war in France (1565–1648), rebellion in the Netherlands (1585–1604), conflicts between Spain and England (1585–1604), and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648).
  
contre
+
Country
  
     French word for "against."
+
     The highest level of government in a given area.
  
contro
+
===== Country of arrival  =====
  
    Italian word for "against."
+
*The country to which an immigrant moves.
  
Conversion guide
+
===== Country of origin  =====
  
    A guide that lists two sets of microfilm numbers for the same set of microfilms. For example, the Archives of Ontario and the Family History Library both have copies of the same microfilms of vital records of births, marriages, and deaths from the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Archives of Ontario uses one numbering system for those records, and the Family History Library uses another numbering system. The Archives of Ontario has a conversion guide that lists both the Archives of Ontario and the Family History Library film numbers for each roll of microfilm in the set.
+
*The country from which an individual moved.
  
conversione
+
===== County  =====
  
    Italian word for "conversion."
+
*A division within a country, state, or province.
  
conversión
+
===== County commissioner  =====
  
    Spanish word for "conversion."
+
*An elected official who sits on the council that creates county laws and ordinances.
  
conversão
+
===== County commissioner's court, Illinois  =====
  
    Portuguese word for "conversion."
+
*A court in Illinois with countywide jurisdiction over disputes concerning county roads, turnpikes, canals, taxes, and licenses. These courts have evolved into administrative rather than judicial bodies.
  
Conveyance
+
===== County commissioner's court, Maine  =====
  
    A title deed; a document drawn up to transfer property from one person to another.
+
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. From 1699 to 1831 county commissioner's courts were called courts of general sessions. They were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
  
Convict records
+
===== County court orders, Kentucky  =====
  
    Records of convicts who were deported to colonies of their country. These include records made in the new colony or country while the people were still convicts.
+
*Land grants sold by counties in Kentucky beginning in 1835.
  
Convict Records, FamilySearch
+
===== County court, Alabama  =====
  
    A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records of convicts who were deported to colonies of their country. These include records made in the new colony or country while the people were still convicts.
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. These courts have also been called inferior courts, superior courts, chancery courts, intermediate courts, common pleas courts, civil courts, criminal courts, law and equity courts, general sessions courts, and law and juvenile courts.
  
convulsione, -i
+
===== County court, Arkansas  =====
  
    Italian word for "convulsion(s)."
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over juvenile cases, taxes, claims, and county expenditures.
  
convulsionis
+
===== County court, Canada  =====
  
    Latin word for "of convulsions."
+
*A provincial court in Canada that handles certain types of criminal cases and civil cases involving more than a specified amount of money. Also called a midlevel county court or judicial district court. Many provinces no longer use these courts.
  
convulsión
+
===== County court, Colorado  =====
  
    Spanish word for "convulsion."
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, preliminary hearings, the issuance of some warrants, some bail matters, minor civil cases, probates, and some appeals.
  
convulsão
+
===== County court, Connecticut  =====
  
    Portuguese word for "convulsion."
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil, minor criminal, chancery, and divorce cases. These courts existed from 1666 to 1855.
  
===== Cook  =====
+
County court, Florida
  
*In the British military, an officer who prepares food. In the United States military, the cook is an enlisted man rather than an officer.
+
    A court with countywide jurisdiction over probates, marriages, administration, and guardianships.  
  
===== Cook County, Illinois =====
+
===== County court, general =====
  
*The county in Illinois of which Chicago is a part.
+
*A court with jurisdiction over a county.
  
cooperta
+
===== County court, Illinois  =====
  
    Latin word for "married (of a woman)."
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. In some counties, the county courts also have jurisdiction over probates.
  
coopvaerdi
+
===== County court, Kansas  =====
  
    Swedish word for "merchant marine."
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over some criminal cases, including traffic violations, and minor civil cases.
  
Gilbert Cope's Collection of Family Data (Cope collection)
+
===== County court, Kentucky  =====
  
    A collection of family history information about Quakers and others who lived in southeastern Pennsylvania and Burlington, Cumberland, Gloucester, and Salem counties in New Jersey.
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, bonds, deeds, probates, and juvenile matters. After 1852 most criminal cases were heard by the circuit or quarterly courts.
  
copie civili di registri parrocchiali
+
===== County court, Maryland  =====
  
    Italian word for "parish register transcripts."
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases. In 1851 the county courts were replaced by circuit courts.
  
copulati sunt
+
===== County court, Massachusetts  =====
  
    Latin word for "they were married, joined."
+
*A court in Massachusetts with countywide jurisdiction. County courts are also called quarter courts or inferior quarter courts.
  
copulationis
+
===== County court, Michigan  =====
  
    Latin word for "of marriage."
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction. Michigan abolished these courts in 1833. Few of the remaining records have genealogical value.
  
copulatus
+
===== County court, Mississippi  =====
  
    Latin word for "married, joined."
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, some law and equity cases, and appeals from other courts.
  
copulavit
+
===== County court, Nebraska  =====
  
    Latin word for "he married (performed wedding)."
+
*A countywide court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and juvenile and probate actions.
  
<br>
+
===== County court, New Jersey  =====
  
===== Copulerede  =====
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. County courts replaced the courts of common pleas, oyer and terminer, general quarter sessions, special sessions, and orphan's courts. In 1978 county courts were replaced by the superior courts.
  
*A Danish word for marriages.
+
===== County court, New York  =====
  
copuleret
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases, minor equity cases, and some appeals. These are the major trial courts for each county in New York.
  
    Danish word for "married."
+
===== County court, North Carolina  =====
  
copulieren
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases, estate settlements, land entries, military pension declarations, and criminal cases. These courts were abolished in 1868.
  
    German word for "to marry."
+
===== County court, North Dakota  =====
  
Copyhold land, England
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases, probates, and guardianships.
  
    Land held subject to the will of the lord of a manor. Title to the land was recorded in the manor court rolls, and the tenant was given a copy. A copyhold could not be inherited unless the heir released the land to the lord and was confirmed by the lord on payment of a fee. The same applied to other copyhold land transfers.
+
===== County court, Ohio  =====
  
===== Copyhold records, Denmark  =====
+
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and civil cases.
  
*Danish land contracts that document agreements between the landowner and farmers wishing to lease crown-held land. These contracts were made before 1850 and include the name of the former occupant, his reason for leaving the farm, the name and sometimes birthplace of the new leaseholder, the new leaseholder's relationship to the former leaseholder (if any), the date of transfer, and a description of the land. If there was no breach of contract, the landowner could not evict the leaseholder. In Danish these records are called fæsteprotokoller.
+
===== County court, Oregon  =====
  
===== Copyright  =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over probate, juvenile cases, and civil cases under $500.
  
*The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, and sell an original literary or artistic work that is granted for a specific time to the author or originator.
+
===== County court, Pennsylvania  =====
  
coqueluche
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over equity and estate cases, civil cases, and criminal cases (except for capital crimes). The courts also performed many executive duties, such as laying out roads, registering marks and brands, levying taxes, supervising indentured servants, and so forth. The justices of county courts also met as an orphan's court to deal with orphan matters. County courts were used from 1682 to 1722.
  
    French and Portuguese word for "whooping cough."
+
===== County court, South Carolina  =====
  
coquus
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts existed between 1785 to 1798.
  
    Latin word for "cook."
+
County court, Texas: A court with countywide jurisdiction over major criminal cases, civil cases, and naturalizations.  
  
coram
+
===== County court, Virginia  =====
  
    Latin word for "in the presence of."
+
*A court in Virginia with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. County courts existed from 1618 to 1902, when they were replaced by circuit courts. Also called monthly courts (1618–1634) and courts of the shire.
  
===== Corbin Manuscript Collection, Massachusetts =====
+
===== County court, Wisconsin =====
  
*A manuscript collection of information about people from central and western Massachusetts. It includes local histories, church records, town records, genealogies, and transcripts of Bible and cemetery records. It is helpful for the years 1650 to 1850.
+
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, probates, juvenile matters and dependency and neglect matters. From 1854 to 1913 the county courts handled probate matters but did not have criminal or civil jurisdiction.
  
cordaio
+
===== County courthouse, archive  =====
  
    italian word for "rope maker."
+
*A building that houses county offices and county records.
  
cordelero
+
===== County courthouse, court records  =====
  
    Spanish word for "rope maker."
+
*A building that houses a county-level court of law.
  
cordier
+
<br>
  
    French word for "rope maker."
+
====== ===============  ======
  
cordoeiro
+
===== County directory  =====
  
    Portuguese word for "rope maker."
+
*A list of the names and addresses of people living in a county.
  
cordonnier
+
===== County history  =====
  
    French word for "shoemaker."
+
*A written account of the events that took place in a county. County histories often include biographical sketches of county residents.
  
coriarius
+
===== County justice court, North Dakota  =====
  
    Latin word for "tanner, leather worker."
+
*A court in North Dakota with jurisdiction in counties that do not have county courts. They have jurisdiction over misdemeanors and civil cases.
  
<br>
+
===== County map  =====
  
===== Cornet, British  =====
+
*A map that shows the land in a county.
  
*The fifth-ranking commissioned officer in a British infantry. The cornet carries the colors. The rank is equal with the ensign in the cavalry.
+
===== County probate court, Arizona  =====
  
===== Cornish  =====
+
*A court in Arizona with countywide jurisdiction over paying a deceased person's debts and distributing his or her property. Since 1912 the superior courts have handled probates.
  
*A member of the ethno-linguistic group which originated in Cornwall. A speaker of the Brythonic Celtic language of Cornwall.
+
===== County probate court, Utah  =====
  
===== Coroner  =====
+
*A court in Utah with countywide jurisdiction over probate actions. These courts were used from 1850 to 1896.
  
*A public official who inquires into deaths of people who did not die under the care of a physician or people whose deaths may not have been due to natural causes.
+
===== County record office  =====
  
===== Coroner's inquest  =====
+
*An archive that houses records for a particular county in England, Scotland, and Wales.
  
*The records relating to a coroner's examination of a body to determine the cause of death.
+
===== County records =====
  
===== Corporation court, Virginia  =====
+
*Records, such as birth, marriage, death, and land records, kept by a county government.
  
*A court formed in 1850 in independent cities, such as Richmond, to handle minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. In 1902, the circuit courts assumed the duties of the corporation courts.
+
===== County registrar  =====
  
corpus (corporis)
+
*A county official charged with keeping deed records.
  
    Latin word for "body."
+
===== County seat  =====
  
===== Corrected record of birth  =====
+
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county town.
  
*A document showing a change or addition to a birth certificate.
+
===== County surrogate court indexes, New Jersey  =====
  
===== Correctional Institutions, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
+
*Indexes to probate records kept by the county surrogate courts in New Jersey.
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about jails, prisons, halfway houses, and other correctional institutions.
+
===== County surrogate court, New Jersey  =====
  
corrente
+
*A court that began handling New Jersey probate cases in 1804.
  
    Italian and Portuguese word for "current."
+
===== County town  =====
  
===== Correspondence  =====
+
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county seat.
  
*The exchange of written communication, such as a letter and a response.
+
===== Countywide index  =====
  
corriente
+
*An index to a group of records covering a single county. For example, a countywide index may cover one county of a state within a federal census.
  
    Spanish word for "current."
+
coup de sang
  
corriere
+
    French word for "paralytic stroke."
  
    Italian word for "couier."
+
cour
  
corte
+
    French word for "court."
  
    Italian and Portuguese word for "court."
+
courant
  
cortiça
+
    French word for "current."
  
    Portuguese word for "cork."
+
===== Court calendar  =====
  
cosecha
+
*Lists of cases heard by a court. Court calendars may list the names of the plaintiff and defendant, the date the case was heard, the case file number, and all documents related to the case. They are also called dockets.
  
    Spanish word for "harvest."
+
===== Court case file  =====
  
costruttore
+
*A packet or bundle of the loose documents relating to a court case, such as copies of evidence, testimonies, bonds, depositions, correspondence, and petitions.
  
    Italian word for "builder."
+
===== Court clerk  =====
  
così
+
*An officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, and judgments and keeps records of court proceedings.
  
    Italian word for "thus, so."
+
===== Court decree  =====
  
cotarius
+
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court judgment or court order.
  
    Latin word for "cottager."
+
===== Court directory  =====
  
couches
+
*A list of city officers, government officials, and private residents.
  
    French word for "bed, marital bed." Morte en couches means "died in childbirth."
+
Court district
  
===== Council of probate, Rhode Island  =====
+
    The area of land over which a court has authority.
  
*A probate court in Rhode Island. The council of probate is also known as the general council.
+
Court executions, New Jersey
  
===== Council of Trent  =====
+
    Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
  
*A series of conferences held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, Italy. The focus of the council was to define Catholic beliefs and counteract the Protestant Reformation. The council also formalized record-keeping practices that were being followed in much of the Catholic world.
+
===== Court executions, New Jersey  =====
  
Council, Virginia
+
*Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
  
    The legislative body and court of appeals for the colony of Virginia during its earliest period.
+
===== Court for trial of Negroes, Pennsylvania  =====
  
===== Count  =====
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over African-Americans who were accused of committing crimes. This court existed from 1700 to 1780.
  
*A title of nobility in continental Europe, equal in rank to a British earl. Generally, a count ranks below a marquess and above a viscount. In German, a count is called a Graf. In Spain, Portugal, and Latin America, a count is called a conde. In France, a count is called a comte.
+
===== Court judgment  =====
  
===== Counter Reformation  =====
+
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court order.
  
*A religious movement that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s as the Catholic Church tried to unify its beliefs and stop the spread of Protestantism. It led to a series of wars that occurred when Catholic governments tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in their countries. These wars include civil war in France (1565–1648), rebellion in the Netherlands (1585–1604), conflicts between Spain and England (1585–1604), and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648).
+
===== Court minutes  =====
  
Country
+
*Brief daily accounts of all actions taken by a court. Minutes list the names of the plaintiff and defendant and briefly describe the action taken.
  
    The highest level of government in a given area.
+
===== Court of appeal, Ohio  =====
  
===== Country of arrival  =====
+
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
  
*The country to which an immigrant moves.
+
===== Court of appeals deed book, Kentucky  =====
  
===== Country of origin  =====
+
*A record of disputes and litigation that occurred over land rights in Kentucky.
  
*The country from which an individual moved.
+
===== Court of appeals, California  =====
  
===== County  =====
+
*A statewide court in California that hears cases appealed from lower courts.
  
*A division within a country, state, or province.
+
===== Court of appeals, Canada  =====
  
===== County commissioner  =====
+
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears appeals of civil and criminal cases from the Trial Division (Court of Queens' Bench) and from lower courts.
  
*An elected official who sits on the council that creates county laws and ordinances.
+
===== Court of appeals, Colorado  =====
  
===== County commissioner's court, Illinois  =====
+
*An intermediate court in Colorado with statewide jurisdiction over appeals from district courts, the Denver Superior Court, probate courts, and juvenile courts.
  
*A court in Illinois with countywide jurisdiction over disputes concerning county roads, turnpikes, canals, taxes, and licenses. These courts have evolved into administrative rather than judicial bodies.
+
===== Court of appeals, Maryland  =====
  
===== County commissioner's court, Maine  =====
+
*The highest court in Maryland. It has statewide jurisdiction over criminal, civil, and probate appeals.
  
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. From 1699 to 1831 county commissioner's courts were called courts of general sessions. They were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
+
===== Court of appeals, Oklahoma  =====
  
===== County court orders, Kentucky  =====
+
*An intermediate court in Oklahoma with statewide jurisdiction to hear appeals from lower courts.
  
*Land grants sold by counties in Kentucky beginning in 1835.
+
===== Court of arches, England  =====
  
===== County court, Alabama  =====
+
*A court that heard appeals from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. These courts have also been called inferior courts, superior courts, chancery courts, intermediate courts, common pleas courts, civil courts, criminal courts, law and equity courts, general sessions courts, and law and juvenile courts.
+
===== Court of assistants, Connecticut  =====
  
===== County court, Arkansas  =====
+
*The main court of jurisdiction in Connecticut for all matters of law, including appeals from town and borough courts. The court of assistants lasted from 1665 to 1711.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over juvenile cases, taxes, claims, and county expenditures.
+
===== Court of assizes, New York  =====
  
===== County court, Canada  =====
+
*The highest provincial court in New York from 1665 to 1683. It was located in New York City and heard civil, criminal, and probate cases.
  
*A provincial court in Canada that handles certain types of criminal cases and civil cases involving more than a specified amount of money. Also called a midlevel county court or judicial district court. Many provinces no longer use these courts.
+
===== Court of chancery, New Jersey  =====
  
===== County court, Colorado  =====
+
*A court in New Jersey with statewide jurisdiction that gradually received jurisdiction over civil and equity cases, mortgage foreclosures, lis pendens, land partitions, payment of debt, probate suits, lunacy inquisitions, naturalizations, divorces, and child custody. These functions are now handled by the superior courts.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, preliminary hearings, the issuance of some warrants, some bail matters, minor civil cases, probates, and some appeals.
+
===== Court of chancery, New York  =====
  
===== County court, Connecticut  =====
+
*A court in New York with statewide jurisdiction over civil equity matters such as mortgage foreclosures, real property proceedings, sales of estates in dower and curtesy, naturalizations, matrimonial disputes, divorces, guardianships, and child custody. It absorbed the court of probate and had appellate jurisdiction over surrogates' courts. After 1847 equity responsibilities were assigned to the state's supreme court.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil, minor criminal, chancery, and divorce cases. These courts existed from 1666 to 1855.
+
===== Court of chancery, Ontario, Canada  =====
  
County court, Florida
+
*A court with jurisdiction over equity cases in Ontario. (Equity cases are court cases in which parties are disputing over a matter that is not a violation of law, and the court is asked to make a fair decision.) This court was established in 1837.
  
    A court with countywide jurisdiction over probates, marriages, administration, and guardianships.
+
===== Court of chancery, South Carolina  =====
  
===== County court, general  =====
+
*A type of court used in South Carolina from 1671 to the 1790s. It handled land and inheritance matters for the entire colony.
  
*A court with jurisdiction over a county.
+
===== Court of chancery/equity, Pennsylvania  =====
  
===== County court, Illinois  =====
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with jurisdiction over equity cases.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. In some counties, the county courts also have jurisdiction over probates.
+
===== Court of civil appeals, Alabama  =====
  
===== County court, Kansas  =====
+
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over civil cases appealed from lower courts.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over some criminal cases, including traffic violations, and minor civil cases.
+
Court of common law
  
===== County court, Kentucky  =====
+
    A court with jurisdiction over criminal cases.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, bonds, deeds, probates, and juvenile matters. After 1852 most criminal cases were heard by the circuit or quarterly courts.
+
===== Court of common pleas, Delaware  =====
  
===== County court, Maryland  =====
+
*A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil suits, minor criminal cases, appeals from lesser courts, adoption cases, and cases to terminate parental rights. Courts of common pleas operated from 1701 to 1831, when the authority of the court of common pleas was given to the superior courts. Before 1792 the courts of common pleas also heard cases now handled by the chancery courts.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases. In 1851 the county courts were replaced by circuit courts.
+
===== Court of common pleas, England  =====
  
===== County court, Massachusetts  =====
+
*One of the four superior courts at Westminster. It heard civil cases between commoners. In 1873 it became the Common Pleas division of the High Court of Justice, which was merged with the Queen's Bench division in 1880.
  
*A court in Massachusetts with countywide jurisdiction. County courts are also called quarter courts or inferior quarter courts.
+
Court of common pleas, general
  
===== County court, Michigan  =====
+
    A countywide court, usually having civil and criminal jurisdiction.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction. Michigan abolished these courts in 1833. Few of the remaining records have genealogical value.
+
===== Court of common pleas, Indiana  =====
  
===== County court, Mississippi  =====
+
*A court that existed from 1790 to 1817 and from 1853 to 1873. It heard insanity, guardianship, probate, naturalization, equity, criminal, and civil cases.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, some law and equity cases, and appeals from other courts.
+
===== Court of common pleas, Missouri  =====
  
===== County court, Nebraska  =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases before the 1880s. Not all counties in Missouri had courts of common pleas.
  
*A countywide court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and juvenile and probate actions.
+
===== Court of common pleas, New Hampshire  =====
  
===== County court, New Jersey  =====
+
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil matters from 1769 to 1820 and from 1824 to 1859.
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. County courts replaced the courts of common pleas, oyer and terminer, general quarter sessions, special sessions, and orphan's courts. In 1978 county courts were replaced by the superior courts.
+
===== Court of common pleas, New Jersey  =====
  
===== County court, New York  =====
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases and appeals from the justice and small cause courts.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases, minor equity cases, and some appeals. These are the major trial courts for each county in New York.
+
===== Court of common pleas, New York =====
  
===== County court, North Carolina  =====
+
*A court established in each city or county in New York to handle civil cases such as marriages, naturalizations, name changes, probates, exemptions from military duty, lunacy cases, tavern licenses, insolvency cases, old age assistance, manumissions, the laying of roads, settlements of boundary disputes, and child support and custody. These courts also handled appeals from the justices of the peace. These courts existed from 1691 to 1847, when they were replaced by county courts.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases, estate settlements, land entries, military pension declarations, and criminal cases. These courts were abolished in 1868.
+
===== Court of common pleas, Ohio  =====
  
===== County court, North Dakota  =====
+
*A court in Ohio with districtwide jurisdiction over felonies, marriages, major civil cases, juvenile matters, probates (until 1852), naturalizations (until 1860 and after 1906), chancery matters (until 1900), and divorces (until 1894).
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases, probates, and guardianships.
+
===== Court of common pleas, Pennsylvania  =====
  
===== County court, Ohio  =====
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases including real estate, bankruptcy, tax collection, naturalization, and divorce. The court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
  
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and civil cases.
+
===== Court of common pleas, Rhode Island  =====
  
===== County court, Oregon  =====
+
*A court in Rhode Island with countywide jurisdiction over most criminal and civil matters. These courts were established in 1730 and continue today.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over probate, juvenile cases, and civil cases under $500.
+
===== Court of common pleas, South Carolina  =====
  
===== County court, Pennsylvania  =====
+
*A court that had statewide jurisdiction over guardianship and civil cases until 1790, when district courts assumed these cases. Courts of common pleas continue to operate today.
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over equity and estate cases, civil cases, and criminal cases (except for capital crimes). The courts also performed many executive duties, such as laying out roads, registering marks and brands, levying taxes, supervising indentured servants, and so forth. The justices of county courts also met as an orphan's court to deal with orphan matters. County courts were used from 1682 to 1722.
+
===== Court of common pleas, West Virginia  =====
  
===== County court, South Carolina  =====
+
*A court established in some counties. The court has limited jurisdiction over civil and domestic cases. It also hears appeals from municipal and justice courts. These courts have also been called criminal courts, intermediate courts, and statutory courts.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts existed between 1785 to 1798.
+
===== Court of criminal appeals, Alabama  =====
  
County court, Texas: A court with countywide jurisdiction over major criminal cases, civil cases, and naturalizations.  
+
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases appealed from lower courts.
  
===== County court, Virginia =====
+
===== Court of criminal appeals, Oklahoma =====
  
*A court in Virginia with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. County courts existed from 1618 to 1902, when they were replaced by circuit courts. Also called monthly courts (1618–1634) and courts of the shire.
+
*A court in Oklahoma that hears appeals of criminal cases from lower courts.
  
===== County court, Wisconsin =====
+
===== Court of delegates, England =====
  
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, probates, juvenile matters and dependency and neglect matters. From 1854 to 1913 the county courts handled probate matters but did not have criminal or civil jurisdiction.
+
*A court that heard final appeals from the Court of Arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases. The High Court of Delegates was established by law during the reign of Henry VIII. No permanent judges were appointed, but in every case of appeal a special commission usually appointed three judges to hear the case.<br>
  
===== County courthouse, archive =====
+
===== Court of equity, South Carolina =====
  
*A building that houses county offices and county records.
+
*A court in South Carolina with countywide jurisdiction over property matters. Courts of equity were used from 1791 to 1900.
  
===== County courthouse, court records =====
+
===== Court of First Instance, Philippines =====
  
*A building that houses a county-level court of law.
+
*A court in the Philippines with jurisdiction over land records, wills, etc.
  
<br>
+
===== Court of general quarter session, New Hampshire  =====
  
====== =============== ======
+
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters from 1769 to 1794 and from 1820 to 1824.
  
===== County directory =====
+
===== Court of general quarter sessions, Delaware =====
  
*A list of the names and addresses of people living in a county.
+
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over all criminal cases except capital crimes. These courts have existed since 1676 and continue to operate today.
  
===== County history =====
+
===== Court of general sessions of the peace, New York =====
  
*A written account of the events that took place in a county. County histories often include biographical sketches of county residents.
+
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases such as desertions, apprenticeship disputes, bastardy, and other violations of vice and immorality laws. These courts existed from 1665 to 1962, handling probate matters from 1665 to 1683 and then only criminal cases after 1691. Their jurisdiction was transferred to the county court in 1847, except in New York County, where they continued until 1962.
  
===== County justice court, North Dakota =====
+
===== Court of general sessions, Maine =====
  
*A court in North Dakota with jurisdiction in counties that do not have county courts. They have jurisdiction over misdemeanors and civil cases.
+
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts became the county commissioner's courts in 1831 and were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
  
===== County map =====
+
===== Court of general sessions, South Carolina =====
  
*A map that shows the land in a county.
+
*A court in South Carolina with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases. This court was used from 1769 to 1790.
  
===== County probate court, Arizona =====
+
===== Court of ordinary, Georgia =====
  
*A court in Arizona with countywide jurisdiction over paying a deceased person's debts and distributing his or her property. Since 1912 the superior courts have handled probates.
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over homesteads, land warrants, licenses, indentures, paupers, voting registers, and marriages. From 1777 to 1798 and after 1852 these courts also had jurisdiction over probates.
  
===== County probate court, Utah =====
+
===== Court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, New York =====
  
*A court in Utah with countywide jurisdiction over probate actions. These courts were used from 1850 to 1896.
+
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over capital crimes such as treason and murder. These courts were used from 1683 to 1895.
  
===== County record office =====
+
===== Court of oyer and terminer, Delaware =====
  
*An archive that houses records for a particular county in England, Scotland, and Wales.
+
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over capital cases. These courts have existed since 1746 and continue to operate today.
  
===== County records =====
+
===== Court of oyer and terminer, New Jersey =====
  
*Records, such as birth, marriage, death, and land records, kept by a county government.
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over all crimes committed within the county except for capital offenses of treason and murder. These courts were abolished in 1947.
  
===== County registrar =====
+
===== Court of probates, New York =====
  
*A county official charged with keeping deed records.
+
*A court in New York that had jurisdiction over probates from 1778 to 1823. Until 1783, the prerogative court also handled probates in British-occupied New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island.
  
===== County seat =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions of the peace, Pennsylvania =====
  
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county town.
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and other cases. This court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
  
===== County surrogate court indexes, New Jersey =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, England and Ireland =====
  
*Indexes to probate records kept by the county surrogate courts in New Jersey.
+
*A countywide court that met quarterly in England and Ireland to hear criminal cases such as murder, riot, theft, assault, poaching, and so forth. The court did not hear civil cases or criminal cases involving treason or forgery. Starting in 1531 these courts also administered the poor law.
  
===== County surrogate court, New Jersey =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, general =====
  
*A court that began handling New Jersey probate cases in 1804.
+
*A court that meets four times a year.
  
===== County town =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, Georgia =====
  
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county seat.
+
*A court used in colonial Georgia. No records exist from these courts.
  
===== Countywide index =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, Indiana =====
  
*An index to a group of records covering a single county. For example, a countywide index may cover one county of a state within a federal census.
+
*A statewide court with jurisdiction over all criminal and civil cases and probate matters between 1796 and 1813.
  
coup de sang
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, Kentucky  =====
  
    French word for "paralytic stroke."
+
*A court with jurisdiction over suits involving large amounts of money. This court existed between 1787 and 1802.
  
cour
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, Tennessee  =====
  
    French word for "court."
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and estate matters.
  
courant
+
===== Court of Queen's Bench, Canada  =====
  
    French word for "current."
+
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears serious civil and criminal cases and has the authority to grant divorces. Also called Court of King's Bench if the reigning monarch is a king and also called Trial Division.
  
===== Court calendar  =====
+
Court of Requests, England
  
*Lists of cases heard by a court. Court calendars may list the names of the plaintiff and defendant, the date the case was heard, the case file number, and all documents related to the case. They are also called dockets.
+
    A court used to recover small debts, intended originally for use by the poor. It was abolished in 1642, and its function was taken over by county Quarter Sessions courts.
  
===== Court case file =====
+
===== Court of schouts and schepens, New Netherland =====
  
*A packet or bundle of the loose documents relating to a court case, such as copies of evidence, testimonies, bonds, depositions, correspondence, and petitions.
+
*A court in New Netherland, which later became the state of New York, that had jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases from 1653 to 1674. These courts were replaced by mayor's courts.
  
===== Court clerk =====
+
===== Court of Session, Scotland =====
  
*An officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, and judgments and keeps records of court proceedings.
+
*The highest court in Scotland. It handles cases that deal with revenue, including debt to the Crown, and cases that lower courts refer to it.
  
===== Court decree  =====
+
Court of Star Chamber, England
  
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court judgment or court order.
+
    A high court, under the direct authority of the king, that mostly handled cases involving riots, perjury, and serious misdemeanors. It was abolished in 1642.
  
===== Court directory =====
+
===== Court of the Exchequer, England =====
  
*A list of city officers, government officials, and private residents.
+
*A court in England that originally had charge over keeping the king's accounts and collecting taxes. It began hearing cases between subjects, but this ended in 1290. After 1290 its jurisdiction was limited to cases regarding people who were withholding taxes or who refused to repay debts to the Crown. It later regained its jurisdiction over suits between subjects.
  
Court district
+
===== Court of the Exchequer, Scotland  =====
  
    The area of land over which a court has authority.
+
*A national court in Scotland that dealt with revenue issues, including debt to the Crown. This court existed from 1708 to 1856, when its jurisdiction was transferred to the Court of Session.
  
Court executions, New Jersey
+
===== Court of the general quarter session, Upper Canada  =====
  
    Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
+
*A court with jurisdiction over criminal matters in Upper Canada (Ontario). These courts operated from 1777 to 1868. They met four times a year.
  
===== Court executions, New Jersey  =====
+
===== Court of the general quarter sessions of the peace, New Jersey  =====
  
*Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases, such as desertions, vice, apprenticeship disputes, and bastardy. Before 1704 these courts also had jurisdiction over civil cases. These courts were dissolved in 1947. They are also called county courts.
  
===== Court for trial of Negroes, Pennsylvania  =====
+
Court of the King's Bench, England
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over African-Americans who were accused of committing crimes. This court existed from 1700 to 1780.
+
    A court of Common Law that handled matters of direct interest to the King or which were to be tried by his court. It was one of three courts that evolved from the earlier Curia Regis.
  
===== Court judgment  =====
+
Court of Ward and Liveries, England
  
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court order.
+
    A high court, under the direct authority of the king, which handled cases of inheritance of land. It was abolished in 1646.
  
===== Court minutes =====
+
===== Court order =====
  
*Brief daily accounts of all actions taken by a court. Minutes list the names of the plaintiff and defendant and briefly describe the action taken.
+
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court judgment.
  
===== Court of appeal, Ohio  =====
+
<br>
  
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
+
===== Court Records, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
  
===== Court of appeals deed book, Kentucky  =====
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records, such as dockets and court minutes, kept by courts.
  
*A record of disputes and litigation that occurred over land rights in Kentucky.
+
===== Court records, general  =====
  
===== Court of appeals, California  =====
+
*Records kept by courts of law.
  
*A statewide court in California that hears cases appealed from lower courts.
+
Court, PERiodical Source Index
  
===== Court of appeals, Canada  =====
+
    A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about court records.
  
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears appeals of civil and criminal cases from the Trial Division (Court of Queens' Bench) and from lower courts.
+
===== Courthouse, archive  =====
  
===== Court of appeals, Colorado  =====
+
*A building that houses a court of law or county offices and county records.
  
*An intermediate court in Colorado with statewide jurisdiction over appeals from district courts, the Denver Superior Court, probate courts, and juvenile courts.
+
cousin(e)
  
===== Court of appeals, Maryland  =====
+
    French word for "cousin."
  
*The highest court in Maryland. It has statewide jurisdiction over criminal, civil, and probate appeals.
+
cousin(e) germain(e)
  
===== Court of appeals, Oklahoma  =====
+
    French word for "first cousin."
  
*An intermediate court in Oklahoma with statewide jurisdiction to hear appeals from lower courts.
+
===== Coûtume de Paris  =====
  
===== Court of arches, England  =====
+
*An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
  
*A court that heard appeals from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.
+
couvreur
  
===== Court of assistants, Connecticut  =====
+
    French word for "roofer."
  
*The main court of jurisdiction in Connecticut for all matters of law, including appeals from town and borough courts. The court of assistants lasted from 1665 to 1711.
+
cova
  
===== Court of assizes, New York  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "grave."
  
*The highest provincial court in New York from 1665 to 1683. It was located in New York City and heard civil, criminal, and probate cases.
+
===== Covenant, general  =====
  
===== Court of chancery, New Jersey  =====
+
*A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
  
*A court in New Jersey with statewide jurisdiction that gradually received jurisdiction over civil and equity cases, mortgage foreclosures, lis pendens, land partitions, payment of debt, probate suits, lunacy inquisitions, naturalizations, divorces, and child custody. These functions are now handled by the superior courts.
+
coxo (a),  
  
===== Court of chancery, New York  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "lame."
  
*A court in New York with statewide jurisdiction over civil equity matters such as mortgage foreclosures, real property proceedings, sales of estates in dower and curtesy, naturalizations, matrimonial disputes, divorces, guardianships, and child custody. It absorbed the court of probate and had appellate jurisdiction over surrogates' courts. After 1847 equity responsibilities were assigned to the state's supreme court.
+
===== Coyote  =====
  
===== Court of chancery, Ontario, Canada  =====
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
*A court with jurisdiction over equity cases in Ontario. (Equity cases are court cases in which parties are disputing over a matter that is not a violation of law, and the court is asked to make a fair decision.) This court was established in 1837.
+
Coûtume de Paris
  
===== Court of chancery, South Carolina  =====
+
    An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
  
*A type of court used in South Carolina from 1671 to the 1790s. It handled land and inheritance matters for the entire colony.
+
cras
  
===== Court of chancery/equity, Pennsylvania  =====
+
    Latin word for "tomorrow."
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with jurisdiction over equity cases.
+
Creator (of a record)
  
===== Court of civil appeals, Alabama  =====
+
    The person, church, or government official or agency who made an original document or record. The "author" of a record.
  
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over civil cases appealed from lower courts.
+
creatura dei
  
Court of common law
+
    Latin word for "foundling (creature of God)."
  
    A court with jurisdiction over criminal cases.
+
===== Creek War (1836-1837)  =====
  
===== Court of common pleas, Delaware  =====
+
*A disturbance in eastern Alabama caused by the impending removal of the Creek tribe of Native Americans according to a treaty signed in 1832.
  
*A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil suits, minor criminal cases, appeals from lesser courts, adoption cases, and cases to terminate parental rights. Courts of common pleas operated from 1701 to 1831, when the authority of the court of common pleas was given to the superior courts. Before 1792 the courts of common pleas also heard cases now handled by the chancery courts.
+
===== Creek, Native Americans  =====
  
===== Court of common pleas, England  =====
+
*Tribes of Native Americans who originally lived in Alabama and Georgia. In 1832 they were forced to sign a treaty that required them to move to the Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi River.
  
*One of the four superior courts at Westminster. It heard civil cases between commoners. In 1873 it became the Common Pleas division of the High Court of Justice, which was merged with the Queen's Bench division in 1880.
+
===== Creole  =====
  
Court of common pleas, general
+
*A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.
  
    A countywide court, usually having civil and criminal jurisdiction.
+
cresima
  
===== Court of common pleas, Indiana  =====
+
    Italian word for "confirmation."
  
*A court that existed from 1790 to 1817 and from 1853 to 1873. It heard insanity, guardianship, probate, naturalization, equity, criminal, and civil cases.
+
cresimato, -i
  
===== Court of common pleas, Missouri  =====
+
    Italian word for "confirmee(s)."
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases before the 1880s. Not all counties in Missouri had courts of common pleas.
+
criada
  
===== Court of common pleas, New Hampshire  =====
+
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "maid."
  
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil matters from 1769 to 1820 and from 1824 to 1859.
+
criança
  
===== Court of common pleas, New Jersey  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "child."
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases and appeals from the justice and small cause courts.
+
criatura
  
===== Court of common pleas, New York  =====
+
    Spanish word for "infant, child."
  
*A court established in each city or county in New York to handle civil cases such as marriages, naturalizations, name changes, probates, exemptions from military duty, lunacy cases, tavern licenses, insolvency cases, old age assistance, manumissions, the laying of roads, settlements of boundary disputes, and child support and custody. These courts also handled appeals from the justices of the peace. These courts existed from 1691 to 1847, when they were replaced by county courts.
+
===== Crimean War (1854-1856)  =====
  
===== Court of common pleas, Ohio  =====
+
*A war fought over religious, commercial, and strategic issues between Russia and the combined forces of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Russia was defeated and forced to give up some of the land it had taken from the Ottoman Empire.
  
*A court in Ohio with districtwide jurisdiction over felonies, marriages, major civil cases, juvenile matters, probates (until 1852), naturalizations (until 1860 and after 1906), chancery matters (until 1900), and divorces (until 1894).
+
===== Criminal case  =====
  
===== Court of common pleas, Pennsylvania  =====
+
*A proceeding against an individual charged with a violation of law that harmed or could have harmed society. Criminal cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases including real estate, bankruptcy, tax collection, naturalization, and divorce. The court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
+
===== Criminal court =====
  
===== Court of common pleas, Rhode Island  =====
+
*A court that hears criminal cases (cases in which a violation of law harmed or could have harmed society). Such cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
  
*A court in Rhode Island with countywide jurisdiction over most criminal and civil matters. These courts were established in 1730 and continue today.
+
===== Criminal court, West Virginia  =====
  
===== Court of common pleas, South Carolina  =====
+
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. The jurisdiction of these courts varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
  
*A court that had statewide jurisdiction over guardianship and civil cases until 1790, when district courts assumed these cases. Courts of common pleas continue to operate today.
+
===== Criminal jurisdiction =====
  
===== Court of common pleas, West Virginia  =====
+
*The authority of a court to hear criminal cases that involve violations of law in which society was harmed or could have been harmed.
  
*A court established in some counties. The court has limited jurisdiction over civil and domestic cases. It also hears appeals from municipal and justice courts. These courts have also been called criminal courts, intermediate courts, and statutory courts.
+
===== Criminal law  =====
  
===== Court of criminal appeals, Alabama  =====
+
*The laws in a country that define criminal offences (offences that harm society), set the rules for the arrest and possibly for the trial of those accused of crimes, and define punishment for crimes. Offences range in seriousness from disorderly conduct to murder.
  
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases appealed from lower courts.
+
===== Criollo  =====
  
===== Court of criminal appeals, Oklahoma  =====
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Spain (a pure-blooded Spaniard born in Latin America).
  
*A court in Oklahoma that hears appeals of criminal cases from lower courts.
+
===== Crioulo  =====
  
===== Court of delegates, England  =====
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Europe.
  
*A court that heard final appeals from the court of arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases.
+
===== Crismas  =====
  
===== Court of equity, South Carolina  =====
+
*A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.
  
*A court in South Carolina with countywide jurisdiction over property matters. Courts of equity were used from 1791 to 1900.
+
cristiano (a)
  
===== Court of First Instance, Philippines  =====
+
    Spanish word for "Christian."
  
*A court in the Philippines with jurisdiction over land records, wills, etc.
+
cristiano, -a
  
===== Court of general quarter session, New Hampshire  =====
+
    Italian word for Christian (or Catholic)."
  
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters from 1769 to 1794 and from 1820 to 1824.
+
cristão (ã)
  
===== Court of general quarter sessions, Delaware  =====
+
    Portuguese word for "Christian."
  
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over all criminal cases except capital crimes. These courts have existed since 1676 and continue to operate today.
+
===== Croato =====
  
===== Court of general sessions of the peace, New York  =====
+
*Italian word for "Croat".
  
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases such as desertions, apprenticeship disputes, bastardy, and other violations of vice and immorality laws. These courts existed from 1665 to 1962, handling probate matters from 1665 to 1683 and then only criminal cases after 1691. Their jurisdiction was transferred to the county court in 1847, except in New York County, where they continued until 1962.
+
===== Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England  =====
  
===== Court of general sessions, Maine  =====
+
*The period in English history when Oliver Cromwell ruled England. After the Civil War, Parliament refused to reform the English government as much as Cromwell and his Puritan supporters desired. As a result, Cromwell dismissed Parliament and established himself as lord protector of England. During this time, Cromwell severely limited freedom of the press and enforced strict moral standards. He also strengthened England's navy, brought Scotland and Ireland under English control, and helped in the development of English colonies in North America and Asia.
  
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts became the county commissioner's courts in 1831 and were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
+
===== Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts  =====
  
===== Court of general sessions, South Carolina  =====
+
*An index that lists street addresses and the corresponding enumeration district in the 1910 census for many large cities in the United States.
  
*A court in South Carolina with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases. This court was used from 1769 to 1790.
+
===== Crossing the Ocean Index  =====
  
===== Court of ordinary, Georgia  =====
+
*A list of Latter-day Saints who left Great Britain and Europe between 1840 and 1925 to settle in the western United States. Its official name is the European Emigration Card Index.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over homesteads, land warrants, licenses, indentures, paupers, voting registers, and marriages. From 1777 to 1798 and after 1852 these courts also had jurisdiction over probates.
+
===== Crossing the Plains Index  =====
  
===== Court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, New York  =====
+
*An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.
  
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over capital crimes such as treason and murder. These courts were used from 1683 to 1895.
+
Crown colony
  
===== Court of oyer and terminer, Delaware  =====
+
    A colony that was governed under the direction of the King of England, who appointed a governor over the colony and provided instructions on how the governor was to exercise his authority. All undisposed land was owned by the king, but the governor had the authority to dispose of it through the grant process.
  
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over capital cases. These courts have existed since 1746 and continue to operate today.
+
===== Crown colony land grants  =====
  
===== Court of oyer and terminer, New Jersey  =====
+
*Land grants issued by Kings George II and III between 1735 and 1775. North Carolina became a Crown colony in 1729 when seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their land to King George II.
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over all crimes committed within the county except for capital offenses of treason and murder. These courts were abolished in 1947.
+
===== Crown grant  =====
  
===== Court of probates, New York  =====
+
*A land grant issued by the British or French monarch.
  
*A court in New York that had jurisdiction over probates from 1778 to 1823. Until 1783, the prerogative court also handled probates in British-occupied New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island.
+
===== Crown land  =====
  
===== Court of quarter sessions of the peace, Pennsylvania  =====
+
*Land that is held (owned) in the name of a monarch.
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and other cases. This court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
+
===== Crown Lands Administration, Canada  =====
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, England and Ireland  =====
+
*A branch of the government in Newfoundland, Canada, that manages public lands.
  
*A countywide court that met quarterly in England and Ireland to hear criminal cases such as murder, riot, theft, assault, poaching, and so forth. The court did not hear civil cases or criminal cases involving treason or forgery. Starting in 1531 these courts also administered the poor law.
+
===== Crown Lands Registry, Canada  =====
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, general  =====
+
*A branch of the government in Manitoba, Canada, that houses land records made before 1930.
  
*A court that meets four times a year.
+
===== Crown lease, British  =====
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Georgia  =====
+
*A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.
  
*A court used in colonial Georgia. No records exist from these courts.
+
csak
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Indiana  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "only, but, just."
  
*A statewide court with jurisdiction over all criminal and civil cases and probate matters between 1796 and 1813.
+
család
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Kentucky  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "family, clan."
  
*A court with jurisdiction over suits involving large amounts of money. This court existed between 1787 and 1802.
+
családfa
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Tennessee  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "pedigree, family tree."
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and estate matters.
+
családi állapota
  
===== Court of Queen's Bench, Canada  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "marital status of."
  
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears serious civil and criminal cases and has the authority to grant divorces. Also called Court of King's Bench if the reigning monarch is a king and also called Trial Division.
+
családikönyv
  
Court of Requests, England
+
    Hungarian word for "family book."
  
    A court used to recover small debts, intended originally for use by the poor. It was abolished in 1642, and its function was taken over by county Quarter Sessions courts.
+
családinév
  
===== Court of schouts and schepens, New Netherland  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "family name, surname."
  
*A court in New Netherland, which later became the state of New York, that had jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases from 1653 to 1674. These courts were replaced by mayor's courts.
+
családtag
  
===== Court of Session, Scotland  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "family member."
  
*The highest court in Scotland. It handles cases that deal with revenue, including debt to the Crown, and cases that lower courts refer to it.
+
családtörténet
  
Court of Star Chamber, England
+
    Hungarian word for "genealogy, family history."
  
    A high court, under the direct authority of the king, that mostly handled cases involving riots, perjury, and serious misdemeanors. It was abolished in 1642.
+
cseh
  
===== Court of the Exchequer, England  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "czech."
  
*A court in England that originally had charge over keeping the king's accounts and collecting taxes. It began hearing cases between subjects, but this ended in 1290. After 1290 its jurisdiction was limited to cases regarding people who were withholding taxes or who refused to repay debts to the Crown. It later regained its jurisdiction over suits between subjects.
+
Csehország
  
===== Court of the Exchequer, Scotland  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "Bohemia."
  
*A national court in Scotland that dealt with revenue issues, including debt to the Crown. This court existed from 1708 to 1856, when its jurisdiction was transferred to the Court of Session.
+
cseléd
  
===== Court of the general quarter session, Upper Canada  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "servant."
  
*A court with jurisdiction over criminal matters in Upper Canada (Ontario). These courts operated from 1777 to 1868. They met four times a year.
+
csikós
  
===== Court of the general quarter sessions of the peace, New Jersey  =====
+
    Hungarian word for "horseherder."
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases, such as desertions, vice, apprenticeship disputes, and bastardy. Before 1704 these courts also had jurisdiction over civil cases. These courts were dissolved in 1947. They are also called county courts.
+
csizmadia
  
Court of the King's Bench, England
+
    Hungarian word for "bootmaker."
  
    A court of Common Law that handled matters of direct interest to the King or which were to be tried by his court. It was one of three courts that evolved from the earlier Curia Regis.
+
csütörtök
  
Court of Ward and Liveries, England
+
    Hungarian word for "Thursday."
  
    A high court, under the direct authority of the king, which handled cases of inheritance of land. It was abolished in 1646.
+
cuadragésimo
  
===== Court order  =====
+
    Spanish word for "fortieth."
  
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court judgment.
+
cuadringéntesimo
  
 +
    Spanish word for "four-hundredth."
  
===== Court Records, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
+
cuarenta
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records, such as dockets and court minutes, kept by courts.
+
    Spanish word for "forty."
  
===== Court records, general  =====
+
<br>
  
*Records kept by courts of law.
+
===== Cuarteado  =====
  
Court, PERiodical Source Index
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
    A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about court records.
+
===== Cuarterón  =====
  
===== Courthouse, archive  =====
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of African (1/4) and Spanish Caucasian (3/4). Also spelled quarterón. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
*A building that houses a court of law or county offices and county records.
+
===== Cuarterón de Chino, Peru  =====
  
cousin(e)
+
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
    French word for "cousin."
+
===== Cuarterón de Mestizo, Peru  =====
  
cousin(e) germain(e)
+
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
    French word for "first cousin."
+
===== Cuarterón de Mulato, Peru  =====
  
===== Coûtume de Paris  =====
+
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
*An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
+
cuarto
  
couvreur
+
    Spanish word for "room, fourth."
  
    French word for "roofer."
+
cuarto (a)
  
cova
+
    Spanish word for "fourth."
  
    Portuguese word for "grave."
+
cuate
  
===== Covenant, general  =====
+
    Spanish word for "twin."
  
*A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
+
<br>
  
 +
===== Cuatrero  =====
  
===========================
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Coyote  =====
+
cuatro
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
    Spanish word for "four."
  
===== Creek War (1836-1837)  =====
+
cuatrocientos
  
*A disturbance in eastern Alabama caused by the impending removal of the Creek tribe of Native Americans according to a treaty signed in 1832.
+
    Spanish word for "four hundred."
  
===== Creek, Native Americans  =====
+
cucitrice
  
*Tribes of Native Americans who originally lived in Alabama and Georgia. In 1832 they were forced to sign a treaty that required them to move to the Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi River.
+
    Italian word for "seamstress."
  
===== Creole  =====
+
cudzoziemski
  
*A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.
+
    Polish word for "foreign."
  
===== Crimean War (1854-1856)  =====
+
cuenta
  
*A war fought over religious, commercial, and strategic issues between Russia and the combined forces of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Russia was defeated and forced to give up some of the land it had taken from the Ottoman Empire.
+
    Spanish word for "account."
  
===== Criminal case  =====
+
cugino, -a
  
*A proceeding against an individual charged with a violation of law that harmed or could have harmed society. Criminal cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
+
    Italian word for "cousin."
  
===== Criminal court  =====
+
cuius
  
*A court that hears criminal cases (cases in which a violation of law harmed or could have harmed society). Such cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
+
    Latin word for "whose."
  
===== Criminal court, West Virginia  =====
+
cuiusdam
  
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. The jurisdiction of these courts varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
+
    Latin word for "of a certain."
  
===== Criminal jurisdiction  =====
+
cujo (a)
  
*The authority of a court to hear criminal cases that involve violations of law in which society was harmed or could have been harmed.
+
    Portuguese word for "whose."
  
===== Criminal law  =====
+
cukrovka
  
*The laws in a country that define criminal offences (offences that harm society), set the rules for the arrest and possibly for the trial of those accused of crimes, and define punishment for crimes. Offences range in seriousness from disorderly conduct to murder.
+
    Czech word for "diabetes."
  
===== Criollo  =====
+
cukrzyca
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Spain (a pure-blooded Spaniard born in Latin America).
+
    Polish word for "diabetes."
  
===== Crioulo  =====
+
culte
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Europe.
+
    French word for "religion."
  
===== Crismas  =====
+
cultellarius
  
*A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.
+
    Latin word for "cutler."
  
===== Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England  =====
+
cultivateur
  
*The period in English history when Oliver Cromwell ruled England. After the Civil War, Parliament refused to reform the English government as much as Cromwell and his Puritan supporters desired. As a result, Cromwell dismissed Parliament and established himself as lord protector of England. During this time, Cromwell severely limited freedom of the press and enforced strict moral standards. He also strengthened England's navy, brought Scotland and Ireland under English control, and helped in the development of English colonies in North America and Asia.
+
    French word for "farmer, cultivator."
  
===== Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts  =====
+
cum
  
*An index that lists street addresses and the corresponding enumeration district in the 1910 census for many large cities in the United States.
+
    Latin word for "with."
  
===== Crossing the Ocean Index =====
+
===== Cumberland Gap =====
  
*A list of Latter-day Saints who left Great Britain and Europe between 1840 and 1925 to settle in the western United States. Its official name is the European Emigration Card Index.
+
*A natural mountain pass in the Appalachian Mountains. It is located near where the boundaries of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia intersect. It was a major passage into lands west of Virginia. During the American Civil War, the Cumberland Gap was held at different times by the Union and the Confederacy.
  
===== Crossing the Plains Index =====
+
===== Cumberland Plateau =====
  
*An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.
+
*A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
  
===== Crown colony land grants =====
+
===== Cumberland Plateau =====
 
 
*Land grants issued by Kings George II and III between 1735 and 1775. North Carolina became a Crown colony in 1729 when seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their land to King George II.
 
  
===== Crown grant  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.<br>
  
*A land grant issued by the British or French monarch.
+
===== cumpleaños  =====
  
===== Crown land  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "birthday."<br>
  
*Land that is held (owned) in the name of a monarch.
+
===== cunhado (a) =====
  
===== Crown Lands Administration, Canada  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."<br>
  
*A branch of the government in Newfoundland, Canada, that manages public lands.
+
===== cuoco  =====
  
===== Crown Lands Registry, Canada  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "cook."<br>
  
*A branch of the government in Manitoba, Canada, that houses land records made before 1930.
+
===== cuore  =====
  
===== Crown lease, British  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "heart."<br>
  
*A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.
+
===== cuprifaber  =====
  
===== Cuarteado  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "coppersmith."<br>
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
===== cur  =====
  
===== Cuarterón  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "why."<br>
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of African (1/4) and Spanish Caucasian (3/4). Also spelled quarterón. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
===== cura  =====
  
===== Cuarterón de Chino, Peru  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."<br>
  
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
===== curateur  =====
  
===== Cuarterón de Mestizo, Peru  =====
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "guardian".<br>
  
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
<br>
  
===== Cuarterón de Mulato, Peru =====
+
===== Curation =====
  
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
*Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.
  
===== Cuatrero  =====
+
curato
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "parish."
  
===== Cumberland Gap  =====
+
curia, Latin
  
*A natural mountain pass in the Appalachian Mountains. It is located near where the boundaries of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia intersect. It was a major passage into lands west of Virginia. During the American Civil War, the Cumberland Gap was held at different times by the Union and the Confederacy.
+
    Latin word for "court."
  
===== Cumberland Plateau  =====
+
curia, Spanish
  
*A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
+
    Spanish word for "ecclesiastical tribunal."
  
===== Curation  =====
+
currarius
  
*Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.
+
    Latin word for "carriage builder."
  
 
===== Curtesy  =====
 
===== Curtesy  =====
  
 
*The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.
 
*The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.
 +
 +
curtidor
 +
 +
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "tanner."
 +
 +
curé
 +
 +
    French word for "parish minister, pastor, priest, clergyman."
  
 
===== Customs passenger list  =====
 
===== Customs passenger list  =====
  
 
*Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.
 
*Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.
 +
 +
custos (custodis)
 +
 +
    Latin word for "custodian, guard."
 +
 +
cuyo (a)
 +
 +
    Spanish word for "whose."
  
 
cuál  
 
cuál  

Revision as of 16:42, 19 April 2013


C

C
  • Roman numeral for "one-hundred."
circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))
  • Swedish word for "about, approximately."
contrajó matrimonio con (c.m.c.)
  • Spanish word for "contracted marriage with."
circa, German (ca.)
  • German word for "about."
caballero
  • Spanish word for "nobleman, knight, gentleman."
cabaretier
  • French word for "barkeeper."
cabeza
  • Spanish word for "head."
cabeça
  • Portuguese word for "head."
cabildo
  • Spanish word for "town council."
Cabinda, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from the Cabinda region of Angola. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cabo-verde, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Caboclo, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cabra, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
cacciatore
  • Italian word for "hunter."
Cadastral map
  • Map that shows the people who own land in an area. Also called land ownership map.
cadastro
  • Portuguese word for "land census."
cadaver
  • Latin word for "dead body, cadaver."
cadeia
  • Portuguese word for "jail."
Cadency
  • A mark on a coat of arms showing a younger son's birth order.
caduto
  • Italian word for "fallen."
caelebs
  • Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
caelum
  • Latin word for "heaven, sky."
caementarius
  • Latin word for "stonemason."
cafezal
  • Portuguese word for "coffee plantation."
cafone
  • Italian word for "peasant."
café
  • Portuguese word for "coffee."
Cafuzo, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cajun
  • A descendant of French settlers who came from the Acadia region of Canada, or present-day New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, to the United States. They settled in Louisiana in the swamps and slow-moving streams called bayous. They still maintain a unique cultural identity and speak both English and a dialect of French. Most are Roman Catholic.
calcearius
  • Latin word for "shoemaker."
calciator
  • Latin word for "shoemaker."
Calculated date
  • An event date that is derived from the date of another event in a person's life. For example, if the United States 1860 census lists a person as being 20 years old, a calculated birth date would be 1839 or 1840.
calderaio
  • Italian word for "tinker."
caledonia
  • Latin word for "Scotland."
Frank T. Calef collection (Calef collection)
  • A manuscript collection of genealogical information about people who are descended from Puritans or Mayflower passengers.
Calendar
  • An probate index that is arranged by first letter of the surname only and then by probate date. I may give the place of residence of a testator.
California Gold Rush
  • The movement of large numbers of people to the gold fields in California, especially in 1849.
caligator
  • Latin word for "shoemaker."
Call number
  • The number used to identify a book, microfilm, microfiche, or other source in a library or archive. Library materials are stored and retrieved by call number.
calle
  • Spanish word for "street."
Calpamulato
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Calvert Papers
  • A manuscript collection of land and other records compiled by the Calvert family, who were proprietors of the Colony of Maryland until the Revolutionary War. The Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore, Maryland, has this collection.
Calvin M. McClung Collection
  • A collection of biographical material about residents of Tennessee. It consists of 15,000 published volumes and 300,000 manuscripts arranged in surname folders. These contain correspondence, pedigrees, and abstracts of records.
Calvinistic Methodists, Wales
  • A religion that began to spread throughout Wales during the late 1730s. At first leaders advocated reforming the Church of England but not separating from it. Members would meet weekly for singing and preaching but attend their local parishes for communion. In 1811, however, the Methodists began ordaining their own ministers and keeping their own records. Their beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. Today the religion is known as the Presbyterian Church of Wales.
caly
  • Polish word for "entire."
calzolaio
  • Italian word for "shoemaker."
cambria
  • Latin word for "Wales."
Cambujo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and African (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cambur
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
cameranius
  • Latin word for "chamberlain, valet, groom."
cameriera
  • Italian word for "maid, servant girl."
cameriere
  • Italian word for "waiter."
cameriere di casa
  • Italian word for "house steward."
camino
  • Spanish word for "road."
campagna
  • Italian word for "countryside, rural."
campagnuolo, -a
  • Italian word for "countryman, countrywoman."
campesino (a)
  • Spanish word for "peasant."
campo, Portuguese
  • Portuguese word for "field, plain."
campo, Spanish
  • Spanish word for "field."
camponês (a)
  • Portuguese word for "peasant, small farmer."
cana de açúcar
  • Portuguese word for "sugarcane.
Canada East
  • An area that comprises modern-day Québec. Before 1841 it was called Lower Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada East and Canada West (modern-day Ontario) formed the Province of Canada.
Canada GenWeb
  • A computer term for a site on the World Wide Web that lists genealogical databases, libraries, bulletin boards, and resources available on the Internet for people interested in doing genealogical research about Canadians.
Canada West
  • An area that comprises modern-day Ontario. Before 1841 it was called Upper Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada West and Canada East (modern-day Québec) formed the Province of Canada.
Canadian border crossing lists, Canada
  • Lists of passengers being transported from Canada into the United States. Canadian shipping companies began keeping these records in 1895. There are two type of manifests: lists of people traveling by train and lists of people traveling by boat. The manifests may include the person's name, port or station of entry, date of entry, age, literacy, last residence, previous visits to the United States, and birthplace. Sometimes officials only recorded the information on the index card rather than on the manifest. Beginning in 1908 the companies began keeping similar records of people arriving in Canada from the United States. These records are not indexed and are not available through the Family History Library™. Also called border crossing manifests, passenger lists, or manifests.
Canadian border crossing lists, United States
  • Lists, or manifests, kept by Canada and the United States to document all people who crossed the border from Canada into the United States for any purpose. These lists began in 1895 and are on microfilm up to 1954.
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)
  • The Canadian army that served in World War I.
Canadian Pacific Railroad
  • A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
cancro
  • Italian word for "cancer."
cantante
  • Italian word for "singer."
cantatrice
  • Italian word for "singer."
Canton
  • A division of a place in France, Québec (Canada), and Switzerland. In France cantons are divisions of a district (arrondissement). In Québec cantons are townships. In Switzerland cantons are the major divisions of the country, similar to states in the United States or provinces in Canada.
Cantons de l'Est, Canada
  • Townships in eastern Québec, located directly north of the state of Vermont. Cantons de l'Est is a direct French translation of the English term Eastern Townships. These townships were originally settled by English-speaking Protestants, many of whom had connections to American Loyalists.
Cape Breton, Canada
  • A large island off of the coast of Nova Scotia. In the early 1600s it became a French colony, but in 1763 France ceded it to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War (French and Indian War). Britain made the island part of Nova Scotia. In 1784 the island separated from Nova Scotia, but the two areas reunited in 1820. Thousands of Scots moved to the island from the 1790s to the 1830s.
Cape Fear Valley
  • The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
capela
  • Portuguese word for "chapel."
capella
  • Latin word for "chapel."
capellanus
  • Latin word for "chaplain."
Capellanías, military
  • A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as military parish records. These are records that military chaplains kept of sacraments performed for soldiers and their families.
Capellanías,land
  • A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
capilla
  • Spanish word for "chapel."
Capital case
  • A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
Capital, USA
  • A city where the main offices of a government are located.
capitis

   Latin word for "head, chief."

capofamiglia

   Italian word for "family head."

capostipite

   Italian word for "family founder, earliest ancestor."

cappellaio

   Italian word for "hatter."

capt et jurat

   Latin word for "taken and sworn."

Captain
  • An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
Captain

   An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.

caput

   Latin word for "head, chief."

cara

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "face."

carabiniere

   Italian word for "policeman."

carbonaio

   Italian word for "coal dealer."

carbonarius

   Latin word for "collier, coal miner."

Card index
  • An index to a set of records. In a card index, each index entry appears on a separate card, and the cards are arranged alphabetically or by some other method. Many United States censuses have card indexes.
Card Membership, Latter-day Saint
  • A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
carecarius

   Latin word for "carter."

Carey Act of 1894
  • A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
Cariboo Gold Rush

   A gold mining boom in the Cariboo Mountains of south central British Columbia that lasted from 1860 to 1863.

carnarius

   Latin word for "butcher."

carnicero

   Spanish word for "butcher."

carpentarius

   Latin word for "carpenter."

Carpenter
  • A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
carpinteiro

   Portuguese word for "carpenter."

carpintero

   Spanish word for "carpenter."

carraio

   Italian word for "wheelwright."

carretera

   Spanish word for "road."

carta

   Latin word for "deed, charter, map."

Cartas de dote
  • The Spanish term for dowry records.
carte, French

   French word for "map."

carte, Italian

   Italian word for "maps, charts."

cartório

   Portuguese word for "archive."

casa

   Italian, Portuguese and Spanish word for "house."

casado (a)

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "married."

casado con (c.c.)

   Spanish word for "married to."

casale

   Latin word for "estate, village."

casamento

   Portuguese word for "marriage."

Casamentos
  • A Portuguese word for marriages.
Casamiento
  • A Spanish term for marriage. Also used in the Philippines.
Case file number
  • An identification number assigned to a case file.
casar, casarse

   Spanish word for "to marry."

casar-se

   Portuguese word for "to marry."

casaro

   Italian word for "dairy farmer."

casatus

   Latin word for "cottager."

Case file number

   An identification number assigned to a case file.

Case file, court records
  • A file containing the documentation related to a specific court case.
Case file, land
  • A file of records related to an individual’s acquisition of land. The case file may contain the individual’s application, records of payment, or certification that he or she has completed all requirements for owning the land. These are the most helpful land records for family history researchers.
Case file, probate
  • A file of all documents relating to the settlement of an individual’s estate. Also called estate file, estate packet, loose papers, probate estate papers, or probate packet.
Cash entry
  • The process of purchasing land from the federal government.
Cash entry files
  • The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
cassa

   Italian word for "chest, cash, cashier."

cassetta

   Italian word for "chest."

casta

   Spanish word for "caste, racial lineage."

castaldo

   Italian word for "land agent."

castello

   Italian word for "castle."

castelo

   Portuguese word for "castle."

castillo

   Spanish word for "castle."

Castizo, Puerto Rico
  • In Puerto Rico, a term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. In Guatemala, the term refers to a person who is a mix of Caucasian and Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Catalog
  • A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
cataster

   Latin word for "land, property record."

catasto

   Italian word for "land register."

catastro

   Spanish word for "land census."

catedral

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "cathedral."

Catholic diocese, Ireland

An ecclesiastical division headed by a bishop, made up of many parishes within the Bishop's jurisdiction, which parishes may be in more than one county. Both the Church of Ireland and the Catholic Church had dioceses, but neither the name of the diocese nor its boundaries are the same between the two churches.

Catholic mission
  • A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
Catholic parish, Ireland
  • A parish of the Catholic Church, whose name, boundaries, members, diocese, and records are different than that of the civil parish. The Catholic parish has no civil jurisdiction.
Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada
  • A card index to Catholic Church records in Montréal, Canada.
Catholic Relief Acts, Ireland
  • A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
catholicus

   Latin word for "Catholic."

catholique romaine

   French word for "Roman Catholic."

catorce

   Spanish word for "fourteen."

catorze

   Portuguese word for "fourteen."

cattolico, -a

   Italian word for "Roman Catholic."

católico (a)

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "Catholic."

caupo (cauponis)

   Latin word for "innkeeper."

causa

   Latin word for "cause, sake, because of." Ex causa means "on account of, for the sake of."

cavalheiro

   Portuguese word for "gentleman, knight, nobleman."

cavaliere

   Italian word for "knight."


Caveat
  • A warning notice issued by an interested person to a probate court that no action is to be taken in granting a probate without his case being heard.

cazador

   Spanish word for "hunter."

caçador

   Portuguese word for "hunter."

caña de azúcar

   Spanish word for "sugar cane."

CC

   Roman numeral for "two-hundred."

CCC

   Roman numeral for "three-hundred."

CD

   Roman numeral for "four-hundred."

ce

   Italian word for "us."

ce, c'

   French word for "it."

ce, cet, cette

   French word for "this, that."

cech

   Czech word for "guild."

Ceded

   Transfer, give up control. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States, it gave up control of the area.

cedo

   Portuguese word for "early."

Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)

   The Canadian army that served in World War I.

ceglarz

   Polish word for "brick maker."

cego (a)

   Portuguese word for "blind."

cejourd'hier

   French word for "yesterday."

cejourd'hui

   French word for "today."

celator

   Latin word for "turner."

celebrare il matrimonio

   Italian word for "solemnize a marriage."

celebraverunt

   Latin word for "they celebrated, were married."

celibe

   Italian word for "bachelor, bachelorette, single, unmarried."

celle

   French word for "this one, she."

celle-ci

   French word for "the latter (f.)."

celle-là

   French word for "the former (f.)."

celui

   French word for "this one, he."

celui-ci

   French word for "the latter (m.)."

celui-là

   French word for "the former (m.)."

celý

   Czech word for "entire."

cem

   Portuguese word for "one hundred."

cementerio

   Spanish word for "cemetery."

Cementerios
  • A Spanish term for cemeteries and cemetery records. Also used in the Philippines.
Cemeteries, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize cemetery records (records that contain information about where people are buried).
Cemeteries, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about cemeteries and cemetery records.
Cemetery
  • A place where deceased individuals are buried.
Cemetery Inscription Card Index, North Carolina
  • A project completed by the federal government as part of the Historical Records Survey to index North Carolina cemetery records.
Cemetery Locator File, Indiana
  • An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
cemitério

   Portuguese word for "cemetery."

censimento

   Italian word for "census."

Censo
  • The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
Census

   An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.

Census Birthplace Index, 1881 British Census

   An index to the 1881 census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by place of birth, first name, and age in descending order.

Census bundle number, England

   A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a piece number.

Census district
  • A geographical area in which a supervisor or marshal was required to take a census. Before 1880 in the United States, census districts were called subdivisions. Starting in 1880 they were called enumeration districts.
  • In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
Census district, British

A civil boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. The boundary of a census district was determined by the government and was based on the population in the area. Each district was divided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict was divided into enumeration districts.

Census district, Scotland

A geographic boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. In Scotland, this area is the same as the civil or ecclesiastical boundary.

Census division, Canada

   In Canadian national censuses, the smallest area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. Only sometimes are the subdistricts divided into two or more divisions.

Census enumeration district, England

   The geographic area assigned to one census taker, who was known as an enumerator. The size of the enumeration district depended on the number of people living in the area. The enumerator was responsible to collect information about every person in the district on a specific night. Several enumeration districts make up a section of the census known as a census piece or bundle.

Census folio number

   A census folio is a two-sided sheet of paper used for recording the census. The folio number is stamped in the top right corner of the front of the sheet. Folio numbers run consecutively through a section of the census known as a piece or bundle.

Census index
  • An alphabetical list of some or all of the people on a census that identifies where within the census an individual can be found.
Census of Confederate Veterans, Arkansas
  • A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
Census page number

   A number printed on a page in an enumerator's book. The number appears in the top middle or a top corner of each page. Page numbers run consecutively through one enumeration district only.

Census piece number

   A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a bundle number.

Census Place Index, 1881 British Census
  • An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
Census Record-As-Enumerated, 1881 British Census

   An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged in the same order as the original census, with individuals listed by the household in which they were enumerated. Use this index after using the Surname Index, Birthplace Index, or Census Place Index.

Census schedule
  • A type of list in a census. A census can have many types of schedules, such as a population or mortality schedule.
Census, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize censuses (official counts and descriptions of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city).
Census, general
  • An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.
Census, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.

Census street index

   An alphabetical list of streets appearing in the census record of a geographic area. The index shows the name of the street and a set of reference numbers that are helpful in finding the street in a census record of most large cities.

Census subdistrict, Canada

   In Canadian national censuses, an area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. In some provinces, townships are census subdistricts. A political ward in a city may also be a census subdistrict. Only sometimes are the subdistricts further divided into two or more divisions.

Census substitutes

   Records which can be used instead of a census. The substitutes are lists of people in an area, such as tax lists.

Census Surname Index, 1881 British Census

   An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by first name and age in descending order.

Census, PERiodical Source Index

   A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.

Census, Latin and Czech

   Latin and Czech word for "census."

cent

   French word for "hundred."

centenario

   Spanish word for "centennial."

centenarius

   Latin word for "a person one hundred years of age."

centenário

   Portuguese word for "centennial."

centesimo, -a

   Italian word for "hundredth."

centesimus

   Latin word for "hundredth."

centesimus primus

   Latin word for "one-hundred-first."

centesimus quinquagesimus

   Latin word for "one-hundred-fiftieth."

centième

   French word for "hundredth."

cento

   Italian and Portuguese word for "one hundred."

Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden
  • An office that keeps statistics about the Swedish population. Swedish ministers were required to send extracts of their records to this office. The Swedish term for the bureau is Statistika Centralbyrån.
Central Estadística, Philippines
  • A government office, translated as the Central Office of Statistics, established by the Spanish in the Philippines in 1899. It was charged with gathering birth, marriage, and death information from parish priests.
Central provinces, Canada
  • A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
centum

   Latin word for "hundred."

centum quinquaginta

   Latin word for "one-hundred-fifty."

centum unus

   Latin word for "one-hundred-one."

Century Farm Applications, Iowa

   A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.

centésimo

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "one-hundredth."

centésimo primero

   Spanish word for "one-hundred-first."

cerca

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "near, approximate."

cerdo (cerdonis)

   Latin word for "handworker."

cerrajero

   Spanish word for "locksmith."

certidão

   Portuguese word for "certificate."

certificado

   Spanish word for "certificate."

Certificate of arrival
  • A document given to immigrants upon their arrival in the United States. The certificate is proof of how long they have been living in the United States and is a required part of the naturalization process. It is kept in the case file with the petition for citizenship.
Certificate of Naturalization (Form 2207)
  • A form given to a former alien as proof that he or she has become a citizen of the United States.
Certificate, general
  • A record that documents an individual's or group's accomplishment or participation in an event.
Certificate, immigration
  • A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
certificato

   Italian word for "certificate."

Certificats
  • A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
certifichiamo
Italian word for "we certify."
cervecero
Spanish word for "brewer."
cervejeiro
Portuguese word for "brewer."
cesarski
Polish word for "imperial."
cesarstwo
Polish word for "empire."
cesta
Czech word for "road."
cestovní pas
Czech word for "passport."
ceux
French word for "those."
confronta (cfr.)
Italian word for "compare."
chalupnik
Polish word for "cottager, poor peasant."
chalupník
Czech word for "cottager, poor peasant."
Chamizo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Chancery case
  • A court case in which parties disputing over a matter that does not involve a violation of law ask a court to make a fair decision. Chancery cases commonly involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity case.
Chancery court, Arkansas
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity, divorce, probate, and adoption cases.
Chancery court, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over equity matters.
Chancery court, England
  • A court in England that hears equity cases. Records from this court include disputes over land and property rights, debts, inheritance, trusts, and fraud. The court began operating in 1199 and continues today.
Chancery court, general
  • A court that administers justice and decides controversies in accordance with the rules of equity as opposed to the rules of law. These courts commonly hear cases that involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity court.
Chancery court, Maryland
  • A court in Maryland with statewide jurisdiction over equity cases, such as divorces, name changes, mortgage foreclosures, civil damage suits, and guardianships. This court existed from 1668 to 1851.
Chancery court, Mississippi
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity cases, divorce, land grants, probates, and guardianships.
Chancery court, Tennessee
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over property title disputes.
Chancery register
  • A record kept by a court of chancery.
Chapel of ease, Church of England
  • A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapel of ease has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapels of ease often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapelry.
Chapelry, Church of England
  • A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapelry has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapelries often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapel of ease.
Chaplain
  • A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
charbonnier
French word for "charcoal burner."
charcutier
French word for "pork merchant."
Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey
  • Several collections of information about families from northeastern New Jersey, especially those from Essex County.
Charles D. Parkhurst manuscripts
  • A collection of compiled genealogies about people from New London, Connecticut.
Charles R. Hale Collection, Connecticut
  • A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
charretier
French word for "cart or carriage man."
charron
French word for "cartwright, wheelwright."
chartarius
Latin word for "paper miller."
chasseur
French word for "hunter."
chaudronnier
French word for "cooper, barrel maker."
chce
Polish and Czech word for "he wants."
che
Italian word for "which, than, what, who, that, whom."
Cherokee
  • A powerful tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in the southeastern United States. In 1838 United States troops forced the Cherokee tribe to move to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. This forced exodus became known as the Trail of Tears. About 1,000 Cherokee escaped into the Great Smoky Mountains. They eventually bought land, and the government allowed them to stay. This group became the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Most Cherokee now live in northeastern Oklahoma, though some still live in North Carolina. The Cherokee were considered part of the Five Civilized Tribes.
Cherokee Outlet
  • A section of land allocated to the Cherokees by treaty. Treaties made in 1828 and 1833 guaranteed this land to the tribe. The tribe could not place homes on it. It was to be used as an "outlet." The tribe sold the land to the United States in 1891, and it became part of Oklahoma Territory. Also called Cherokee Strip.
Cherokee Removal (1838)
  • A forced exodus that occurred when the United States government forced the Cherokee to move from their lands in the southeastern United States to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. The Cherokee called this march the Trail of Tears because so many people died along the way.
Cherokee War (1760-1761)
  • A war between the Cherokee and white settlers in South Carolina. The treaty that ended the war opened up much of frontier South Carolina for settlement.
Chevalier
  • The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
Cheyenne Indians
A tribe of Native Americans that lived on the western plains in the United States.
chez
French word for "at the home of."
chi
Italian word for "who, whom."
Chicago fire, USA
  • A fire that started on the Southwest side of Chicago on 8 October 1871. The fire burned for over 24 hours, destroying downtown Chicago and many Northside homes. Many of Chicago’s public records were also burned. At least three hundred people died, and 98,500 were left homeless. The fire caused an estimated $200 million in damage.
Chicago, Illinois
  • A city in Cook County, Illinois.
Chicago Road
The military highway that ran between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, after the 1820s. It was a major route for settlers moving to the Northwest.
Chickasaw
  • A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
chiesa
Italian word for "church."
chiesa ortodossa
Italian word for "Greek Catholic."
chilometro
Italian word for "kilometer."
chimico
Italian word for "chemist."
China
  • A term used in Brazilian and Argentinean Catholic Church registers to describe a female Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Chinese
  • Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
Chino
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
hirotherarus
Latin word for "glover."
Chirurg
German word for "surgeon."
chirurgien
French word for "surgeon."
chirurgo
Italian word for "surgeon."
chirurgus
Latin word for "surgeon."
chiunque
Italian word for "whoever."
chlap
Czech word for "peasant, country fellow."
chlapec
Czech word for "boy."
chlop
Polish word for "peasant, country fellow."
chlopiec
Polish word for "boy."
Choctaw
  • A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
Cholo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
choroba
Polish and Czech word for "disease."
Christening (chr)
An ordinance performed on a baby by the minister of the local parish in the Church of England, Wales, and Ireland. The child is baptized, given a name, and received into the church.
chramarius
Latin word for "merchant."
Christelik
Afrikaans word for "Christianlike, religious."
Christen
Afrikaans word for "Christian."
Christen, religious
  • To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
Christen, shipping
  • To name a new ship on its first voyage.

Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).

Christening records
Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
Christian Church
  • A Protestant religion formed in Kentucky in 1809 by Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and Barton W. Stone. Its full name is the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The church practices baptism by immersion, but most congregations will accept people as members if they were baptized into another church.
Christian name
  • A first name, often from the Bible, used to identify an individual. Also called first name or given name.
Christian Reformed Church
  • A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
Christmonat
German word for "December."
chrzczony
Polish word for "christened."
chrzest
Polish word for "christening."
chrzestna, chrzestny
Polish word for "godparent(s)."


Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint
  • A book currently published every other year by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that gives information about Church leaders, historical events related to the Church, and statistics related to Church members around the world.
Church archive
  • An archive where a church stores its records and documents.
Church cemetery
  • A church-owned cemetery where that church's members, leaders, and others are buried.
Church census
  • A list and description of members of a church that is taken to track growth and update membership records. Church censuses are a major source of family history information for members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Church Directories, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize lists of churches' organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served.
Church directory
  • A list of a church's organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served. A church directory may also contain historical information about the local congregations, complete addresses of the churches, and the address of the church headquarters where additional records may be kept.
Church History, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about the history of various churches.
Church history, general
  • An account of the events surrounding a specific church or the events related to all of the religions and religious developments in an area.
Church marriage register
  • A record kept by a church of marriages performed by a priest or other church authority.
Church of England
  • The state church of England. It was established in 1534 by King Henry VIII who, when Pope Clement VII refused to grant him a divorce, compelled Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy. This act made the king of England, not the pope, the head of the church in England. Doctrines of the church are based on the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds and the Book of Common Prayer. The clergy are divided into bishops, priests, and deacons. The Church of England is now part of the Anglican Communion.
Church of Ireland
  • An independent Anglican Church in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It is the largest Protestant church in Ireland. The Church of Ireland separated from the Church of England in 1871.
Church of Scotland
  • The Presbyterian Church in Scotland. The Church of Scotland was once the state church.
Church of the Brethren
  • A religion that developed in 1708 in Germany under Alexander Mack. Persecution in Germany led many members to immigrate to Germantown, Pennsylvania. The Brethren stress obedience to Christ and living the gospel according to the New Testament. They practice trine baptism (baptism by immersion in which an individual is immersed three times, once for each member of the Trinity) and refuse to take oaths or serve in the military. They are also called Dunkards or Dunkers.
Church of the Nazarene
  • A Protestant religion established in Texas in 1908. The church follows the early teachings of Methodism and sponsors many schools, liberal arts colleges, and theological seminaries.
Church Records, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records kept by churches, such as baptism records, marriage records, and burial records.
Church records, general
  • Records kept by religious institutions.
Church unit boundaries, Latter-day Saint
  • The jurisdictions of various congregations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Church, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about church records.
Churchwarden account
  • Records kept by a churchwarden.
Churchwarden, Church of England
  • A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
chwilowo
Polish word for "temporarily."
château
French word for "castle."
châtelain
French word for "owner of a castle."
ci
Italian word for "there, us, to us."
CI
Roman numeral for "one-hundred-one."
ci-dessous
French word for "below here."
ci-dessus
French word for "above here."
ciabattino
Italian word for "cobbler."
cidade
Portuguese word for "city."
cidadão (ã)
Portuguese word for "citizen."
ciego (a)
Spanish word for "blind."
ciento
Spanish word for "one hundred."
ciento uno
Spanish word for "one hundred one."
cigány
Hungarian word for "gypsy."
cikán
Czech word for "gypsy."
Cimarrón
A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
cimeterium