Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail
The British military constructed Fort Charlotte between 1765 and 1767 to help protect local colonists from hostile Indians. The fort was then turned over to South Carolina. The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail probably followed older Indian trails. Fort Charlotte was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia.
As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.
Fort Charlotte played a role in the American Revolution. The South Carolina colonial government used the fort as an arsenal. The first Revolutionary War action in South Carolina ocurred when Patriots seized those supplies. They also negotiated at the fort trying in vain to win the Indians to the Patriot cause.
The first European colonists settled in counties along this path (north to south) as follows:
Connecting trails. The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail links to other trails at each end. The migration pathways connecting in Charleston included:
The migration routes connecting in Fort Charlotte included:
The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail also crossed the much older Occaneechi Path in Aiken County. The Occaneechi Path was overlapped here by the Fall Line Road starting about 1735, and also the Great Valley Road (south fork) starting in the 1740s.
Modern parallels. The modern roads that roughly match the old Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail start in Charleston. Follow I-26 north to the Orangeburg. Then take the Neeses Highway west to Springfield. Then take Highway 4 west to Aiken. Then follow Highway 19 northwest until it becomes Highway 25. Continue northwest along Highway 25 to where it meets Highway 378 in northern Edgefield County. Turn west onto Highway 378 to reach McCormick. Then go northwest on Highway 28 until Highway 81 forks off to the west. Follow Highway 81 winding westerly to Mt. Carmel. From Mt. Carmel take the Fort Charlotte Road 6.5 miles (10.4 km) southwest to Strom Thurmond Lake. The Old Fort Charlotte site lies under that lake.
Settlers and Records
Most of the early colonists along the path and in Camden were Englishmen from Charleston. Later settlers included Quakers, and eventually immigrants from the Ulster part of Ireland.
No complete list of settlers who used the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail is known to exist. However, local and county histories along the road may reveal first pioneer settlers who were candidates to have travelled the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail from the Charleston area. Later pioneers also may have used other connecting trails such as the Occaneechi Path, King's Highway, Fall Line Road, and Great Valley Road.
For partial lists of early settlers who probably used the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail, see:
in Kershaw County:
- "Early Settlement of the Area Now Kershaw County" in Kershaw County Historical Society Blog at http://kchistory.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.html (accessed 22 March 2011).
in Sumter County:
- Anne King Gregorie, History of Sumter County, South Carolina (Sumter, S.C.: Library Board of Sumter County, 1954) (FHL Book 975.769 H2g) WorldCat entry.
- Cassie Nicholes, Historical Sketches of Sumter County (Sumter, S.C.: Sumter County Historical Commission, 1981) (FHL Book 975.769 H2n) WorldCat entry.
in Calhoun County:
in Orangeburg County:
- "The First Families of Orangeburgh District, South Carolina" in Orangeburgh German-Swiss Genealogy Society at http://www.ogsgs.org/ffam/ff-intro.htm (accessed 23 March 2011).
in Dorchester County:
- Fort Charlotte (South Carolina) in Wikipedia
- Fort Charlotte historical marker in Mt. Carmel at junction of SC Hwy 81 and Road 91.
- Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 848. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002). WorldCat entry.
- Wikipedia contributors, "Fort Charlotte (South Carolina)," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fort_Charlotte_(South_Carolina)&amp;amp;oldid=417072816 (accessed 24 March 2011).
- South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 22 March 2011).