To get started in American Indian Research
Various spellings: Chickasaw, Chickesa, Chicasa
Original homeland on the northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, western Kentucky and eastern Arkansas.
The Chickasaw Nation is primarily associated with the state of Oklahoma.
Linguistic group: Muskhogean
Chickasaw Nation Headquarters
P.O. Box 1548
Ada, OK 74821
- The Chickasaw Nation Official Web Site
Their first recorded encounter with non Indian was with the Spanish explorer De Soto in 1540.
The Chickasaw are the smallest group of the Five Civilized Tribes. Before removing to Indian Territory the tribe sent (1830) a group to inspect the land of the proposed relocation. The group rejected the proposed land, which voided the treaty and removal. This same process reoccurred in 1832, 1835 and 1836. Finally in 1837 the Chickasaw leaders met with the Choctaw leaders near Fort Towson in Indian Territory and agreed to pay the Choctaw for the part of the Choctaws' region in southern Indian Territory.
The tribe was divided into several groups for the removal leaders included: Colonel A.M.M.Upshaw, John M. Millard, Captain Joe A. Phillips, Dr. C.G. Keenan, W.R. Guy, Chief Ishtehopa, Kin-hi-cha, and Chief Sealy with Lieutenant Governor Morris and Daniel McCurtain an interpreter. Some groups took the overland route and other a water route. The Groups arrived at Memphis November of 1837, from Memphis many took steamships under the direction of Captain Simeon Buckner to Fort Coffee.Some traveled by land directed by Langtree, Welbourne, and John M.Millard.
Gibson, Arrell M. The Chickasaws. Norman University of Oklahoma Press. FHL book 970.3 C432g
- 1729: Natchez Revolt, the Natchez joined the Chickasaw
- 1754-1763: During the French and Indian War were allies of the British
- 1786: Hopewell Treaty; northern boundary of the Ohio River.
- 1809-11: Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, tried to unite Indians against the United States
- 1822: some moved west of the Mississippi
- 1833: Treaty of Pontotoc Creek
- 1837: Treaty of Doaksville, a group of 450-500 removed to Indian Territory
- 1839: 300 Chickasaw arrive in Indian Territory
- 1841: 145 Chickasaw emigrated
- 1842: 198 Migrated
- 1844: 138 Chickasaw and 56 slaves moved west
- 1847: Census in Oklahoma Territory
- 1855: Treaty separating land of Chickasaw and Choctaw.
- 1856: Chickasaw Nation is created
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Chickasaw tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.
Annuity Rolls of 1857-1860 and the "1855" Chickasaw District Roll of 1856. by K.M. Armstrong and Bob Curry. Heritae Books, Inc. Maryland FHL book 970.3 C432a
1878 Annuity Rolls and 1890 Census of Pontotoc Co., Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory (now McClain Co. and portions of Grady, Garvin, Murray, Pontotoc, Johnston and Coal Counties, Oklahoma) by Joyce A. Rex. C. 1990 McClain Co., Historical Society, Purcell, OK. FHL book 970.3 C432rj microfiche 6125933
1818 Chickasaw Census - an annuity roll www.chickasawhistory.com
Chickasaw Emigration Roll1839 (Upshaw Roll). Prepared by A.M.M. Upshaw abstracted from National Archives Filming of 1980 Record Group 75 Records of Bureau of Indian Affairs Edited and Indexed by Larry S. Watson C. Histree 1994 FHL Book: 970.3 C432ce
1847 Chickasaw Indian Census Roll Indian Territory, 1839 Chickasaw Indian Census Roll Indian Territory, 1837 Chickasaw Indian Census (Muster) Roll Mississippi. Abstracted and edited by Bennie Coffey Loftin and Johnny Cudd Published by Pittsburg County Genealogical and Historical Society, 113 E. Carl Albert Parkway, McAlester, Oklahoma 74501-5039. FHL Book 970.3 C432ci
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||Pre-1880 Correspondence M234 Roll Number||FHL Film Number|
|Chickasaw||Chickasaw Agency,1824-70||Washington D.C.||Rolls 135-48||1,660,865-78|
|Chickasaw||Choctaw Agency, 1855-74||Washington D.C.||Rolls 169-96||1,660,899-926|
|Chickasaw||Muskogee Area Office, 1870-1952||Fort Worth||-||-|
|Chickasaw||Union Agency, 1875-1914||Washington D.C. and Fort Worth||Rolls 865-77||1,661,595-607|
Chickasaw Emigration Roll 1839 (Upshaw Roll) 1839 Chickasaw Census. prepared by A.M.M. Upshaw abstracted from National Archives Filming of 1980 Record Group 75 of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Edited by Larry S. Watson. C.1994 Histree. FHL book 970.3 C432ce
Indian Pioneer Papers
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here." The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject.  An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Chickasaw, may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” Some of the surnames from the Chickasaw tribe found in the collection are: Airington, Colbert (Mead), Laber, Kemp, Minto-ho-yo (Mead). Family History Library microfiche number:6,016,865 (first fiche)
The year link (date of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty.
- 1786 January 10, at Hopewell
- 1801 October 24, at Chickasaw Bluffs
- December 17, 1801
- 1805 July 23,
- January 7, 1806, in Cherokee treaty
- August 9, 1814, Creek treaty
- 1816 September 20, at Chickasaw Council House
- October 19, 1818, at Chickasaw Old Town
- 1830 August 31, at Franklin
- 1832 October 20, at Chickasaw Council House (Pontitock)
- 1832 October 22, supplementary
- 1834 May 24,
- 1837 January 17, at Doaksville
- 1852 June 22, at Washington
- 1854 November 4, at Doaksville
- 1855 June 22, at Washington
- 1865 September 13, at Fort Smith
- 1866 April 28, at Washington
- July 4, 1866, Delaware treaty
Important Web Sites
- Constitution of the Chickasaw Nation
- The Chickasaw Nation Official Web Site
- Chickasaw Nation Wikipedia
- Chickasaw Native Americans http://chickasawnativeamericans.blogspot.com
- Indian Research http://researchindians.blogspot.com
- Native American Research http://nativeamericanresearch.blogspot.com
- Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 134, 12 July 2002 Available online
- Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.
- The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; Family History Library book 970.1 R259e.
- Lennon, Rachal Mills. Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. FHL Book 970.1 L548t.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; Family History Library book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 Vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 Vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; Family History Library book970.1 W146e 2006.
There are several groups of American Indians or Native Americans. Some are considered tribes, while others are considered bands or groups within those tribes.