Difference between revisions of "Delaware Indians"

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[[Image:Delaware Indians sign Treaty of Penn with Benjamin West a painting.jpg|thumb|right|Delaware Indians sign Treaty of Penn with Benjamin West a painting.jpg]]
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{{indenjnyokpa}}
  
To get started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]
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Guide to '''{{PAGENAME}} ancestry, family history and genealogy:''' birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, and other agency records.
  
<br>
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{{TOC left}}{{Click|Image:AI_ORP.png|American Indian Online Genealogy Records|right}}[[Image:{{Delinsign}}]]<center>Painting of the Delaware Indians signing the Treaty of Penn with Benjamin West.</center>]]
  
The Delaware Indians were originally known as the Lenape or Lenni Lenape Indians, the name they called themselves. The American colonists named them the Delaware Indians.  
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The&nbsp;Delaware&nbsp;Indians&nbsp;were originally known as the '''Lenape''' or '''Lenni Lenape''' Indians, the name they called themselves. The American colonists named them the Delaware Indians.  
  
 
'''Clans:''' ''Tukwsi-t,'' the wolf; ''Pukuwanku,'' the turtle; and ''Pele,'' the turkey  
 
'''Clans:''' ''Tukwsi-t,'' the wolf; ''Pukuwanku,'' the turtle; and ''Pele,'' the turkey  
  
'''Original homelands: '''New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
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'''Original homelands:''' Delaware, [[Indians of Pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]], [[Indians of New Jersey|New Jersey]], and [[Indians of New York|New York]]. Some later were removed to [[Indians of Oklahoma|Oklahoma]].
  
 
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
 
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
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The Delaware Nation is currently found primarily in western Oklahoma.  
 
The Delaware Nation is currently found primarily in western Oklahoma.  
  
Delaware Nation<br>Address<br>P.O. Box 825<br>Anadarko, OK 73005<br>Location<br>31064 State Highway #281<br>Building 100<br>Anadarko, OK 73005<br>Phone: 405.247.2448<br>Fax: 405.247.9393<br>
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Delaware Nation<br>Address<br>P.O. Box 825<br>Anadarko, OK 73005<br><br>Location<br>31064 State Highway #281<br>Building 100<br>Anadarko, OK 73005<br>Phone: 405.247.2448<br>Fax: 405.247.9393<br>  
  
 
*[http://www.delawarenation.com/Home/tabid/37/Default.aspx The Delaware Nation] Official Website
 
*[http://www.delawarenation.com/Home/tabid/37/Default.aspx The Delaware Nation] Official Website
  
The Tribal office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.&nbsp;
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The Tribal office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.  
 +
 
 +
Tribal Population: 1984: Total Enrollment 989. <ref>Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 222 </ref>
  
 
=== History  ===
 
=== History  ===
  
The Delaware or Lenape were forced to cede lands and migrate many times, moving into Ohio, Kansas, Texas and Indian Territory<br>
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The Delaware Confederacy included the Unami and Unalachtigo
 +
 
 +
The Delaware or Lenape were forced to cede lands and migrate many times, moving into Ohio in 1755, Kansas, Texas and Indian Territory<br>  
  
 
=== Brief Timeline  ===
 
=== Brief Timeline  ===
  
*'''1600's:''' First contact was with the Dutch  
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*1600's: First contact was with the Dutch  
*'''1638: '''Swedish lived moved into the Delaware Bay area  
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*1638: Swedish lived moved into the Delaware Bay area  
*'''1682:''' Treaty with William Penn.  
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*1682: Treaty with William Penn.  
*'''1700's: '''Tribal members began to settle along the OhioRiver
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*1700's: Tribal members began to settle along the Ohio River
*'''1789:''' Some of the tribe removed to Missouri and later to Arkansas  
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*1789: Some of the tribe removed to Missouri and later to Arkansas  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0064.htm 1795] Treaty  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0064.htm 1795] Treaty  
*'''1800: '''Many migrate to Indiana  
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*1800: Many migrate to Indiana  
*'''1820:''' Some moved to Texas, became known as the Southern band  
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*1820: Some moved to Texas, became known as the Southern band  
*'''1824-51:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Fort Leavenworth Agency  
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*1824-51: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Fort Leavenworth Agency  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del1048.htm 1832] Treaty  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del1048.htm 1832] Treaty  
*'''1835:''' Many members resettled in Kansas  
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*1835: Many members resettled in Kansas  
*'''1851-55:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Kansas Agency while living in Kansas  
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*1851-55: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Kansas Agency while living in Kansas  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0803.htm 1854] Treaty  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0803.htm 1854] Treaty  
*'''1855-73:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Delaware Agency  
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*1855-73: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Delaware Agency  
*'''1859:''' Delaware tribal members living in Texas removed to western Oklahoma  
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*1859: Delaware tribal members living in Texas removed to western Oklahoma  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0937.htm 1866] Treaty  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0937.htm 1866] Treaty  
*'''1867: '''Tribe began to settle west of the Mississippi River some removed to Canada  
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*1867: Tribe began to settle west of the Mississippi River some removed to Canada  
*'''1867: '''Delaware tribal members living in Kansas move to eastern Oklahoma and purchase rights in the Cherokee Nation. In 1890 become Cherokee citizens.  
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*1867: Delaware tribal members living in Kansas move to eastern Oklahoma and purchase rights in the Cherokee Nation. In 1890 become Cherokee citizens.  
*'''1867-74:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Agency  
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*1867-74: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Agency  
*'''1875-80:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Union Agency
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*1875-80''':''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Union Agency
  
 
'''The Southern Band'''  
 
'''The Southern Band'''  
  
In the 1820's some of the tribe moved ot Texas, becoming known as the Southern Band of Delaware Indians  
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In the 1820's some of the tribe moved to Texas, becoming known as the Southern Band of Delaware Indians  
  
 
The band was under the jurisdiction of the Caddo and Red River Agencies  
 
The band was under the jurisdiction of the Caddo and Red River Agencies  
  
'''1847-59: '''The band was under the jurisdiction of the Texas Agency  
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1847-59: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Texas Agency  
  
'''1859-78:''' The band was under the jurisdiction of the Wichita Agency  
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1859-78: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Wichita Agency  
  
'''1878-80:''' the band was under the jurisdiction of the Kiowa Agency  
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1878-80: the band was under the jurisdiction of the Kiowa Agency  
  
 
The Southern Band was under the jurisdiction of the Southern and Central Superintendencies  
 
The Southern Band was under the jurisdiction of the Southern and Central Superintendencies  
  
=== Additional Reference to the History of the Tribe ===
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=== Additional Reference  ===
  
 
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/delaware/delawarehist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Delaware tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/newjersey/index.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].  
 
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/delaware/delawarehist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Delaware tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/newjersey/index.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].  
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Brinton, Daniel Gerrison. The Lenape and their legends: with an anonymous ms. in the archives of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem, Pa. {{FHL|1426628|item|disp=FHL Book 970.3 D375b}}
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Brinton, Daniel Gerrison. A Lenape-English dictionary: from an anonymous ms. in the archives of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem, PA. {{FHL|47578|disp=FHL film 1697586}}
  
 
Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=584 Delaware Indians]  
 
Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=584 Delaware Indians]  
  
The Delaware Tribe was under the following jurisdicdictions
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The Delaware Tribe was under the following jurisdictions
  
 
=== Agencies  ===
 
=== Agencies  ===
  
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. ''Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices''.  
  
 
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
 
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] are the field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. They recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians.  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] are the field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. They recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians.  
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 +
John G. Pratt Papers, 1834-1899 in the Kansas State Historical Society contains records of the Delaware agency, Wyandotte subagency and the Kansas agency FHL films 812762-812765
  
 
[[Piqua Indian Agency (Ohio)|Piqua Agency]]  
 
[[Piqua Indian Agency (Ohio)|Piqua Agency]]  
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[[Kiowa Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Kiowa Agency]]  
 
[[Kiowa Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Kiowa Agency]]  
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=== Records  ===
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The '''majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies'''. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:<br>
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 +
*[[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment records]]
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*[[American Indian Annuity Rolls|Annuity rolls]]
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*[[American Indian Census Rolls|Census records]]
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*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Correspondence]]
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*[[American Indian Health Records|Health records]]
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*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Reports]]
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*[[American Indian School Records|School census and records]]
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*[[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital records]]
  
 
=== Reservations  ===
 
=== Reservations  ===
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The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/il.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.  
 
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/il.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.  
  
<br>There are hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many are federally recognized and supervised.&nbsp; Some are state reservations, administered by the state office of Indian Affairs.  
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<br>There are hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many are federally recognized and supervised. Some are state reservations, administered by the state office of Indian Affairs.  
  
 
=== Superintendencies  ===
 
=== Superintendencies  ===
  
[[Superintendencies - Bureau of Indian Affairs|Superintendencies]] authorized by the the Bureau of Indian Affairs&nbsp;supervised the local agencies and subagencies.&nbsp;
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[[Superintendencies - Bureau of Indian Affairs|Superintendencies]] authorized by the the Bureau of Indian Affairs supervised the local agencies and subagencies.  
  
 
[[Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Michigan Superintendency]]  
 
[[Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Michigan Superintendency]]  
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[[Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Southern Superintendency]]  
 
[[Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Southern Superintendency]]  
  
<br>
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=== Records  ===
 +
 
 +
=== Allotment  ===
  
=== Records ===
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Allotment of Land to Delaware Indians 1865. John G. Pratt Papers, 1834-1899 in t he Kansas State Historical Society. FHL film 812767 - 812769
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 +
=== Annuities ===
 +
 
 +
''1826 Voucher for Annuities Paid Mississippi Territory''. ''The Journal of American Indian Family Research'', Vol.7, No. 1 (1986) FHL 970.1 J825j
  
 
=== Correspondence and Census  ===
 
=== Correspondence and Census  ===
  
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
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{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | Tribe  
 
! scope="col" | Tribe  
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Rolls 962  
 
Rolls 962  
  
&nbsp;Roll Number
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Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
FHL  
 
FHL  
  
Film Number
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Film Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
Post-1885 Census  
 
Post-1885 Census  
  
&nbsp;M595&nbsp; RG 75 Rolls 693  
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M595 RG 75 Rolls 693  
  
Roll Number
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Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
FHL  
 
FHL  
  
Film Number
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Film Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
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|}
 
|}
  
<br>
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=== Census  ===
  
=== Census ===
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1862 ''Census of Delaware Indians ''FHL Film: 989204
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 +
Census rolls various years, Delaware Indians holding citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. FHL|Film: 989204
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 +
1883 ''Census of Wichita Agency Heads of Families''. ''The Tree Tracers'', Southwest Oklahoma Genealogical Society, Lawton, OK, Vol. 23 No. 2 (Dec. 1998 - Feb. 1999)
 +
 
 +
1897-1898 Delaware Indian Census at Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma Territory FHL film: 576900 Items 15 and Item 24
 +
 
 +
1927 Census, Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma FHL Book Q970.466 B898c or Film 1697766 Item 12
 +
 
 +
1936 ''Absentee Delaware Census Roll''. ''The Tree Tracers'', Southwest Oklahoma Genealogical Society, Lawton, OK, Vol. 23 No. 2 (Dec. 1998 - Feb. 1999)
  
1862 Census of Delaware Indians {{FHL|Film: 989204 }}
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=== Church Records  ===
  
Census rolls various years, Delaware Indians holding citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. {{FHL|Film: 989204 }}  
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Gray, Elma E. Wilderness Christians: ''The Moravian Mission to the Delaware Indians''. {{FHL|536944|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 D276g}}  
  
1897-1898 Delaware Indian Census at Kiowa Ageency, Oklahoma Territory FHL film: 576900 Items 15 and Item 24
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=== Enrollment Records ===
  
1927 Census, Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma FHL Book&nbsp;Q&nbsp;970.466 B898c or Film 1697766 Item 12
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Delaware Indians, adopted by the Cherokee tribe, rolls dealing with the Dawes Commission {{FHL|item|735817|disp=FHL films 830229, 1022112,1023029, and 1490282}}
  
 
=== '''Indian Pioneer Papers'''  ===
 
=== '''Indian Pioneer Papers'''  ===
  
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."&nbsp;<ref>Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Delaware, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Two surnames from the Delaware tribe found in the collection are: Ketchum and Zeigler (Ketchum).  
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In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."<ref>Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Delaware, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Two surnames from the Delaware tribe found in the collection are: Ketchum and Zeigler (Ketchum).  
 +
 
 +
=== Land Records  ===
 +
 
 +
Allotted land: 55,599.92 acres. Tribal owned land 2,602.64 acres.<ref>Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 222 </ref>
  
==== References ====
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=== School Records ===
  
{{reflist}}
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1858 and 1867 ''List of Delaware Pupils Attending the Baptist Mission School in Kansas Territory''. ''The Journal of American Indian Family Research'', Vol. 7, No.1, (1986) FHL call 970.1 J825j
  
 
=== Treaties  ===
 
=== Treaties  ===
  
[[American Indian Treaties with the United States|Treaty]] an agreement made by negotiation between two or more nations,to resolve conflict, incourage peace, alliance , and commerce.  
+
[[American Indian Treaties with the United States|Treaty]] an agreement made by negotiation between two or more nations,to resolve conflict, encourage peace, alliance , and commerce.  
  
 
1682: Treaty with William Penn  
 
1682: Treaty with William Penn  
Line 274: Line 317:
 
*Lenape [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenape Wikipedia]
 
*Lenape [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenape Wikipedia]
  
=== References ===
+
=== For Further Reading ===
 
 
<references />
 
  
=== Bibliography ===
+
==== Tribe ====
  
=== Tribe  ===
+
*Weslager, C.A., ''The Delaware Indians: A History'', Rutgers University Press (1972), hardcover, 546 pages, {{OCLC|282073}}
  
Weslager, C.A., ''The Delaware Indians: A History'', Rutgers University Press (1972), hardcover, 546 pages, {{OCLC|282073}}
+
==== General  ====
  
=== General  ===
+
For background information to help find American Indian ancestors see [[American Indian For Further Reading|'''For Further Reading''']].
  
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
+
=== References  ===
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].
 
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.
 
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
 
 
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
 
:Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
 
:Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
 
:Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
 
 
 
*Sturtevant, William C. ''Handbook of North American Indians''. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– . <br>
 
 
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published
 
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
 
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
 
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.<br>
 
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.<br>
 
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.<br>
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
 
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.<br>
 
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.<br>
 
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.
 
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.<br>
 
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.<br>
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]
 
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.<br>
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published
 
:Volume 20 -- Not yet published
 
  
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].
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{{reflist}} {{American Indian}}  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
 
  
[[Category:New_Jersey_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:New_York_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Pennsylvania_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Delaware_Indian_Tribes]]
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[[Category:Oklahoma_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:New_Jersey_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:New_York_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Pennsylvania_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Delaware_Indian_Tribes]]

Latest revision as of 20:39, 18 October 2016

United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Delaware Gotoarrow.png New Jersey Gotoarrow.png New York Gotoarrow.png Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png Pennsylvania Gotoarrow.png Indians of Delaware Gotoarrow.png Indians of New Jersey Gotoarrow.png Indians of New York Gotoarrow.png Indians of Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png Indians of Pennsylvania Gotoarrow.png Delaware Indians

Guide to Delaware Indians ancestry, family history and genealogy: birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, and other agency records.

AI ORP.png
Painting of the Delaware Indians signing the Treaty of Penn with Benjamin West.
Painting of the Delaware Indians signing the Treaty of Penn with Benjamin West.
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The Delaware Indians were originally known as the Lenape or Lenni Lenape Indians, the name they called themselves. The American colonists named them the Delaware Indians.

Clans: Tukwsi-t, the wolf; Pukuwanku, the turtle; and Pele, the turkey

Original homelands: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. Some later were removed to Oklahoma.

Tribal Headquarters

The Delaware Nation is currently found primarily in western Oklahoma.

Delaware Nation
Address
P.O. Box 825
Anadarko, OK 73005

Location
31064 State Highway #281
Building 100
Anadarko, OK 73005
Phone: 405.247.2448
Fax: 405.247.9393

The Tribal office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.

Tribal Population: 1984: Total Enrollment 989. [1]

History

The Delaware Confederacy included the Unami and Unalachtigo

The Delaware or Lenape were forced to cede lands and migrate many times, moving into Ohio in 1755, Kansas, Texas and Indian Territory

Brief Timeline

  • 1600's: First contact was with the Dutch
  • 1638: Swedish lived moved into the Delaware Bay area
  • 1682: Treaty with William Penn.
  • 1700's: Tribal members began to settle along the Ohio River
  • 1789: Some of the tribe removed to Missouri and later to Arkansas
  • 1795 Treaty
  • 1800: Many migrate to Indiana
  • 1820: Some moved to Texas, became known as the Southern band
  • 1824-51: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Fort Leavenworth Agency
  • 1832 Treaty
  • 1835: Many members resettled in Kansas
  • 1851-55: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Kansas Agency while living in Kansas
  • 1854 Treaty
  • 1855-73: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Delaware Agency
  • 1859: Delaware tribal members living in Texas removed to western Oklahoma
  • 1866 Treaty
  • 1867: Tribe began to settle west of the Mississippi River some removed to Canada
  • 1867: Delaware tribal members living in Kansas move to eastern Oklahoma and purchase rights in the Cherokee Nation. In 1890 become Cherokee citizens.
  • 1867-74: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Agency
  • 1875-80: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Union Agency

The Southern Band

In the 1820's some of the tribe moved to Texas, becoming known as the Southern Band of Delaware Indians

The band was under the jurisdiction of the Caddo and Red River Agencies

1847-59: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Texas Agency

1859-78: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Wichita Agency

1878-80: the band was under the jurisdiction of the Kiowa Agency

The Southern Band was under the jurisdiction of the Southern and Central Superintendencies

Additional Reference

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Delaware tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

Brinton, Daniel Gerrison. The Lenape and their legends: with an anonymous ms. in the archives of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem, Pa. FHL Book 970.3 D375b

Brinton, Daniel Gerrison. A Lenape-English dictionary: from an anonymous ms. in the archives of the Moravian Church at Bethlehem, PA. FHL film 1697586

Ohio History Central article on the Delaware Indians

The Delaware Tribe was under the following jurisdictions

Agencies

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[2], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[3], and others.

Agencies are the field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. They recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians.

John G. Pratt Papers, 1834-1899 in the Kansas State Historical Society contains records of the Delaware agency, Wyandotte subagency and the Kansas agency FHL films 812762-812765

Piqua Agency

Ohio Agency

Fort Leavenworth Agency

Kansas Agency

Delaware Agency

Cherokee Agency

Union Agency

Caddo Agency

Red River Agency

Texas Agency

Wichita Agency

Kiowa Agency

Records

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Reservations

Reservations are tracks of land established by treaty or law for the American Indians to occupy and use.

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[4], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[5], and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.


There are hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many are federally recognized and supervised. Some are state reservations, administered by the state office of Indian Affairs.

Superintendencies

Superintendencies authorized by the the Bureau of Indian Affairs supervised the local agencies and subagencies.

Michigan Superintendency

St. Louis Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Southern Superintendency

Records

Allotment

Allotment of Land to Delaware Indians 1865. John G. Pratt Papers, 1834-1899 in t he Kansas State Historical Society. FHL film 812767 - 812769

Annuities

1826 Voucher for Annuities Paid Mississippi Territory. The Journal of American Indian Family Research, Vol.7, No. 1 (1986) FHL 970.1 J825j

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence

M234 RG 75

Rolls 962

Roll Number

FHL

Film Number

Post-1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Number

FHL

Film Number

Delaware Anadarko Area Office, 1881-1962 Fort Worth - - Rolls 218-23 -
Delaware, Kansas Fort Leavenworth Agency, 1824-1962 Washington D.C. Rolls 300-03 - - -
Delaware, Kansas Kansas Agency, 1851-55 Washington D.C. Rolls 364-70 - - -
Delaware, Kansas Delaware Agency, 1855-73 Washington D.C. Rolls 274-80 - - -
Delaware,Indian Terr. Cherokee Agency, 1867-74 Washington D.C. Rolls 101-12 - - -
Delaware, Indian Terr. Union Agency, 1875-80 Washington D.C. Rolls 865-77 - - -

Census

1862 Census of Delaware Indians FHL Film: 989204

Census rolls various years, Delaware Indians holding citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. FHL|Film: 989204

1883 Census of Wichita Agency Heads of Families. The Tree Tracers, Southwest Oklahoma Genealogical Society, Lawton, OK, Vol. 23 No. 2 (Dec. 1998 - Feb. 1999)

1897-1898 Delaware Indian Census at Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma Territory FHL film: 576900 Items 15 and Item 24

1927 Census, Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma FHL Book Q970.466 B898c or Film 1697766 Item 12

1936 Absentee Delaware Census Roll. The Tree Tracers, Southwest Oklahoma Genealogical Society, Lawton, OK, Vol. 23 No. 2 (Dec. 1998 - Feb. 1999)

Church Records

Gray, Elma E. Wilderness Christians: The Moravian Mission to the Delaware Indians. FHL book 970.3 D276g

Enrollment Records

Delaware Indians, adopted by the Cherokee tribe, rolls dealing with the Dawes Commission FHL films 830229, 1022112,1023029, and 1490282

Indian Pioneer Papers

In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."[6] The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. [7] An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Delaware, may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” Two surnames from the Delaware tribe found in the collection are: Ketchum and Zeigler (Ketchum).

Land Records

Allotted land: 55,599.92 acres. Tribal owned land 2,602.64 acres.[8]

School Records

1858 and 1867 List of Delaware Pupils Attending the Baptist Mission School in Kansas Territory. The Journal of American Indian Family Research, Vol. 7, No.1, (1986) FHL call 970.1 J825j

Treaties

Treaty an agreement made by negotiation between two or more nations,to resolve conflict, encourage peace, alliance , and commerce.

1682: Treaty with William Penn

Important Web Sites

For Further Reading

Tribe

  • Weslager, C.A., The Delaware Indians: A History, Rutgers University Press (1972), hardcover, 546 pages, WorldCat 282073

General

For background information to help find American Indian ancestors see For Further Reading.

References

  1. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 222
  2. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  3. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  4. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  5. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
  6. Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.
  7. The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/
  8. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 222