To get started in American Indian Research
The Delaware Indians were originally known as the Lenape or Lenni Lenape Indians, the name they called themselves. The American colonists named them the Delaware Indians.
Clans: Tukwsi-t, the wolf; Pukuwanku, the turtle; and Pele, the turkey
Original homelands: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
- 1 Tribal Headquarters
- 2 History
- 3 Brief Timeline
- 4 Additional Reference to the History of the Tribe
- 5 Agencies
- 6 Reservations
- 7 Superintendencies
- 8 Records
- 9 Correspondence and Census
- 10 Census
- 11 Indian Pioneer Papers
- 12 Treaties
- 13 Important Web Sites
- 14 References
- 15 Bibliography
- 16 Tribe
- 17 General
The Delaware Nation is currently found primarily in western Oklahoma.
P.O. Box 825
Anadarko, OK 73005
31064 State Highway #281
Anadarko, OK 73005
- The Delaware Nation Official Website
The Tribal office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.
The Delaware or Lenape were forced to cede lands and migrate many times, moving into Ohio, Kansas, Texas and Indian Territory
- 1600's: First contact was with the Dutch
- 1638: Swedish lived moved into the Delaware Bay area
- 1682: Treaty with William Penn.
- 1700's: Tribal members began to settle along the OhioRiver
- 1789: Some of the tribe removed to Missouri and later to Arkansas
- 1795 Treaty
- 1800: Many migrate to Indiana
- 1820: Some moved to Texas, became known as the Southern band
- 1824-51: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Fort Leavenworth Agency
- 1832 Treaty
- 1835: Many members resettled in Kansas
- 1851-55: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Kansas Agency while living in Kansas
- 1854 Treaty
- 1855-73: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Delaware Agency
- 1859: Delaware tribal members living in Texas removed to western Oklahoma
- 1866 Treaty
- 1867: Tribe began to settle west of the Mississippi River some removed to Canada
- 1867: Delaware tribal members living in Kansas move to eastern Oklahoma and purchase rights in the Cherokee Nation. In 1890 become Cherokee citizens.
- 1867-74: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Agency
- 1875-80: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Union Agency
The Southern Band
In the 1820's some of the tribe moved ot Texas, becoming known as the Southern Band of Delaware Indians
The band was under the jurisdiction of the Caddo and Red River Agencies
1847-59: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Texas Agency
1859-78: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Wichita Agency
1878-80: the band was under the jurisdiction of the Kiowa Agency
The Southern Band was under the jurisdiction of the Southern and Central Superintendencies
Additional Reference to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Delaware tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.
Ohio History Central article on the Delaware Indians
The Delaware Tribe was under the following jurisdicdictions
Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs..., Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians, and others.
Agencies are the field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. They recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians.
Reservations are tracks of land established by treaty or law for the American Indians to occupy and use.
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.
There are hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many are federally recognized and supervised. Some are state reservations, administered by the state office of Indian Affairs.
Superintendencies authorized by the the Bureau of Indian Affairs supervised the local agencies and subagencies.
Correspondence and Census
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
M234 RG 75
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
|Delaware||Anadarko Area Office, 1881-1962||Fort Worth||-||-||Rolls 218-23||-|
|Delaware, Kansas||Fort Leavenworth Agency, 1824-1962||Washington D.C.||Rolls 300-03||-||-||-|
|Delaware, Kansas||Kansas Agency, 1851-55||Washington D.C.||Rolls 364-70||-||-||-|
|Delaware, Kansas||Delaware Agency, 1855-73||Washington D.C.||Rolls 274-80||-||-||-|
|Delaware,Indian Terr.||Cherokee Agency, 1867-74||Washington D.C.||Rolls 101-12||-||-||-|
|Delaware, Indian Terr.||Union Agency, 1875-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 865-77||-||-||-|
1862 Census of Delaware Indians FHL Film: 989204
Census rolls various years, Delaware Indians holding citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. FHL Film: 989204
1897-1898 Delaware Indian Census at Kiowa Ageency, Oklahoma Territory FHL film: 576900 Items 15 and Item 24
1927 Census, Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma FHL Book Q 970.466 B898c or Film 1697766 Item 12
Indian Pioneer Papers
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."  The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject.  An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Delaware, may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” Two surnames from the Delaware tribe found in the collection are: Ketchum and Zeigler (Ketchum).
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
- Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.
- The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/
Treaty an agreement made by negotiation between two or more nations,to resolve conflict, incourage peace, alliance , and commerce.
1682: Treaty with William Penn
Important Web Sites
- Constitution of the Delaware Nation of Oklahoma
- Brief history of the Delaware Indians in Ohio
- The Delaware Nation Official Website
- Official Website of the Delaware Tribe of Indians
- Delaware Tribe Web Site
- Delaware Tribe Wikipedia
- Lenape Wikipedia
Weslager, C.A., The Delaware Indians: A History, Rutgers University Press (1972), hardcover, 546 pages, WorldCat 282073
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published