Gambier Islands or Mangareva or Iles Gambier, are volcanic islands which lie at the eastern end of the Tuamotu Archipelago about 900 miles from Tahiti. The inhabited islands are Mangareva (Pearl), Taravai (Belcher), Temoe, Aukena (Elson), and Akamaru (Wainwright), with some smaller islands which are surrounded by an outer coral reef through which there are three deep passages. Short valleys on the main islands have fertile soil capable of growing cultivated plants.
Native traditions indicate that the earliest settlers filtered through from the Tuamotus. Bananas, sweet potatoes, taros, and yams were also introduced, and as they do not grow in the neighboring Tuamotu atolls, they were probably introduced from the Marquesas, as was the paper mulberry, for clothing.
The staple food of the islands is fermented breadfruit. The pig was present in the past, for it appears as a historical memory, but neither the dog nor the fowl was present. In the course of time, canoes were succeeded by rafts, both for fishing and inter-island transport.
The majority are Protestant. LDS Missionaries have begun to work here. These atolls have a population of about 6,500 people.
France’s creation of a protectorate for Tahiti in 1871 and the departure of Father Laval brought about an end to theocracy in the Gambiers. Today Gambier's main industry is jewellery-making of mother-of-pearl.
1300 Native tradition says Tupa arrived from Iva and introduced the breadfruit, coconut, and other trees. He also introduced the worship of the god Tu and the building of maraes.
1400 Much of the lush forestation on Magareva was depleted.
1500-1800 Civil war and cannibalism happened on the islands.
1800-1850 Whaling ships stopped here..
1823 Frederick Beechey entered the lagoon of the Gambier Islands.
1834 Father Honoré Laval, Father François Caret and Friar Columban Murphy of the Belgian Jesuit order of priests arrived.
They learned enough of the language to attempt the conversion of Te Maputeoa The king thought they should perform some miracle, such as walking on the llagoon. Laval replied that only God could do that. Wne the king went to the island of Taravai to hold court, the high priest insisted that Laval go along. The court convened under a huge sacred banyan tree that still stands at Taravai, and Laval asked permission to pray. As it was granted, the high priest gave a signal and warriors ran forward with their spears levelled at the kneeling missionaries. Laval and his companions kept on praying.
Legend credits the women of the Gambier Islands for saving Laval Shouting, the women rushed forward, shielding the missionaries with their own bodies . Laval calmly finished his prayer, then arose and wrote down in a note book the names of the natives who had intervened to protect him. The high priest disappeared never to return.
Laval kept a written record of all the activites on the island while he was there. They reduced the language to writing and encouraged the natives to record their history and customs in a native manuscript which has great historical value. Laval wrote a manuscript based on the native history. After remaining for years in the archives of the Congregation, it was published in French in 1938 with the financial assistance of Bishop Museum. Laval also published a grammar and dictionary on the language. Caret's letters from the islands were published in the Annals of the Association for the Propagation of the Faith.
The king ordered the notebook brought to him, but Laval ordered the king to come and get it And the king came. From that moment that Pere Laval was the virtual ruler of the Gambiers.
Under his rule, the stone images of the ancient gods were shattered; the temple platforms destroyed; and the natives brought into complete subjugation.
The people were forced to wear modest garments. Christian marriage came for the first time to the Gambiers. The customary freedom of the younger folk were forbidden and a native police force, directed by Laval, inflicted severe penalties for infringements of his moral code.
1836 Caret and Murphy left for Tahiti. Laval inforced a huge building program. Over 100 coral and stone buildings, including palaces, a prison, a monastery, a convent, a textile factory, and a 1.200 seat cathedral in Rikitea, The people began to die.
1843 During his rule, 5,000 of the 6,000 native people died. About 1,000 remained, of whom only two families were said to be survivors of the ancient Mangarevan stock.
Forced labour, unaccustomed clothes, the punishments inflicted by the ecclesiastical police, the sudden reversal of established customs, the enforced sterility in the convents and monasteries, and tuberculosis induced by living within stone walls, all are believed to have contributed to the depopulation of the islands. But more than anything else, the cause must have lain in the hopelessness that overtakes a people when their entire cultural structure is uprooted.
1844 Sea captains and traders resented his stringent laws and his monopoly of business. Jean Dupuy had arrived in Mangareva as agent for a commercial firm. He was thrown in jail, but managed to smuggle a report to his employers, who complained to the governor in Papeete. Compte Emile de la Ronciere came to Mangareva and was horrified at what he saw.
His first act was to order the prison opened. Among the prisoners were two small boys. They had been imprisoned for laughing while Mass was being held. Ronciere called for the records of vital statistics and as he read of the shrinking birth rate and the enormous toll of death his face grew even more grave. When he asked Laval what kind of government resulted in 5,000 deaths over ten years, Laval is reported to have replied "Ah, Monsieur le Compte, they have but gone more quickly to heaven."
Pere Laval was called to Tahiti by the Bishop.
1841 Hurricane in the Gambier Islands.
1862 Peruvian slave traders try to kidnap natives. They discover Laval's despotic reign, but get few native slaves.
1870 Laval is removed from Managareva and taken to Tahiti. Only 463 native people are left on Mangareva.
1880 Laval died
1996 Of the 6,000 people in Mangareva, 55% are Protestant, 30% are Catholic, 6% are Mormon (Church of Jesus Christof Latter-day Saints), and 2% are Adventist.
Parts of the above story are from The Leaning Wind by Clifford Gessler, published by D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1943
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