Google Commands: How to Search More Effectively
Google is a great way to search for genealogical information. The following are ways to improve finding family information:
From Google Your Family Tree, by Daniel M. Lynch 2008
AND Combines words. When no commands are in the search, Google will assume that AND is the command. AND must be capitalized.
Example John AND Mary Englebert
OR To search for one word/phrase or another. OR must be capitalized. Example, lynch OR linch
“ “ To search for an exact phrase Example, "John Smith"
* A wildcard used inside quotes. One asterisk for one set of characters; two asterisks for two sets; etc.)
Example, "John * Smith"
- To exclude a word or phrase. No space between the hyphen and the next word. Example, John Kennedy -president
+ To include exactly this word, excluding variants. No space between the plus sign and the next word. Example, +foreset.
~ To find the keyword or similar words. No space between the tilde and the next word. Example, Smith ~genealogy
.. To search for a range of numbers like a date range. No spaces between the numbers and the periods. Do not use a hyphen, only the two periods between the numbers.
Google allows up to 32 keywords in any search. Generally, with common names only 4 or 5 keywords in combination can provide a navigable number of sites for research.
Google advanced searches
The goal of any Google family-history search is to include everyone you want to find and exclude everyone you don't want to find. Of course we can never be that surgical in our searches, but Google (and other search engines) have set up special tools to allow us to get closer to the target without excluding any good matches. Here are some advanced tools for that purpose. The sources include several online sites that can be found by searching 'Google search tools'.
When you are searching within a site, you must be able to specify the site name correctly. Enter your keyword first, then any of these advanced operators with a colon and the site information. There is no space between the : and the site information.
Purpose: Find similar sites to a site containing information you are searching for
Example: related:A genealogy of Runnels and Reynolds families in America
Explanation: returns other sites that contain all the keywords (in this case in a book title). Don't use " "
Impact: Allows you to find other sites with similar information
Purpose: Find content within a site
Example: Adams site:familyresearchlog.blogspot.com
Explanation: 'Adams' is the word searched for within the site http://familyresearchblog.blogspot.com
Impact: Returns just those parts of a site that contain the word searched for
Purpose: Find the most recent published page for a site; also find keywords (search terms) on the page
Example: cache:A genealogy of Runnels and Reynolds family in America
Explanation: Google stores earlier versions of a site. If the site is no longer online, you can view the most recent online version.
Impact: Many family history sites are projects of individuals, who may no longer support them. By using cache your keword is highlighted in the returned information. This is especially helpful when the returned page has long lists or text. If you use multiple keywords, each one is highlighted in a different color.
Purpose: Find text with keywords in it
Example: intext:Peter Stuyvesant England
Explanation: While intext: applies only to 'Peter', the other keywords must also be present on the site, though not necessarily in the text (can be in the title or URL).
Impact: Returns a page when all words are present in the text of a site
Operator: intext: with site:
Purpose: Find text with keywords in it on a particular site
Example: intext:birthday site:beautopotamus.blogspot.com
Explanation:'birthday' is the word you want to search for on the blog http://beautopotamus.blogspot.com
Impact: Returns a page when the keyword is present on that page of that site
Purpose: Find documents or books by title; can include other search elements
Example: intitle:Peter Stuyvesant England
Explanation: 'Peter' must be in the title of the book or article, while the other keywords must be somewhere in the document
Impact: Allows you to find a book or document when you know part of the title, or wish to find a work on a topic
Purpose: Find documents or books by title
Example: allintitle:Peter Stuyvesant England
Explanation: all words (Peter, Stuyvesant, England) must appear in the title
Impact: For when you know the title or suspect a topic is the title of a book or document
Purpose: Find sites by address and other search elements
Example: inurl:Peter Stuyvesant England
Explanation: This search allows multiple operators to be used, since only the first term 'Peter' must appear in the url
Impact: Used primarily if you have been to a site before and can't remember the address
Purpose: find sites by address only (other search terms not allowed)
Example: allinurl:Peter Stuyvesant England
Explanation: all search elements must be in the URL (web address)
Impact: For narrowing down a search for a known website
Google Family History Related Keywords
Try these special keywords to find sites where others may have supplied information about the person you are searching for. Try with and without " ". With " " returns sites with the exact phrase within the " "; without " " returns sites with the keywords anywhere on the site. These keywords can be combined with other operators and keywords. Inspired in part by Google Your Family Tree by Daniel M Lynch as cited above.
was born in
was born on
was married in
was married on
was married at