# Help:Wiki markup

 This help article will guide you as you edit in the Wiki. See Contributor Help for more help articles.

Wiki markup is the text you use to format a FamilySearch Wiki page.

The following characters are used to create links: [[ ]], [ ], ~~~~, ~~~, http, ISBN, RFC & {{ }}, as denoted by the following sections:

 To Do: Change the examples to be more relevant to FamilySearch Wiki
 Questions? Visit the Wiki Contributor Help Forum to receive help with contributing to the Wiki.

What it looks like What you type

The character tilde (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page. You should sign your comment by appending four tildes (~~~~) to the comment so as to add your user name plus date/time:

User:Patricia Zhang 13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)

User:Patricia Zhang

and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives the date/time alone:

13:40, Jan 14, 2007 (UTC)
• The first two both provide a link to your user page.

The character '''tilde''' (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page. You should sign your comment by appending four tildes (~~~~) to the comment so as to add your user name plus date/time:
:~~~~
Adding three tildes (~~~) will add just your user name:
: ~~~
and adding five tildes (~~~~~) gives the date/time alone:
: ~~~~~

(Redirects)

• Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

#REDIRECT [[United States#History]] will redirect to the [[United States]] page, to the History section, if it exists

'''What links here''' and '''Related changes''' pages can be linked as:Special:WhatLinkshere/Help:Wiki markup andSpecial:RecentChangeslinked/ Help:Wiki markup

Dates

Use links for dates, so everyone can set their own display order. Use Special:Preferences to change your own date display setting.
July 20 1969 20 July 1969 and 1969-07-20

[[July 20]] [[1969]]
[[20 July]] [[1969]]
and [[1969]]-[[07-20]]

Linking to old revisions of pages, diffs, and specific history pages

External link function is used for these as [[page]] will not work.
Open an old revision or diff and copy the url, pasting it where you want it, e.g. previous edit

[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Help:Wiki_markup&diff=330350877&oldid=330349143 previous edit]

(User edits)

A user's '''Contributions''' page can be linked as: [[Special:Contributions/UserName]] or [[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]]

(Categorize)

• To put an article in a category, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, it does not matter where you put these links while editing as they will always show up in the same place when you save the page, but placement at the end of the edit box is recommended.

[[Category:Character sets]]

(Book sources)

Link to a book using alternate text, such as its title.

• Link to books using their ISBN. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended. ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
• To create a link to Book Sources using alternate text (e.g. the book's title), use the internal link style with the appropriate namespace.

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

[[Special:BookSources/0670037818|alternate text, such as its title]]

(RFC number)

Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

(“As of” tag)

As of” tags like "As of April 2009" and "as of April 2009" categorize info that will need updating.

“[[WP:As of|As of]]” tags like "{{As of|2009|4|df=us}}" and "{{As of|2009|4|df=us|lc=on}}" categorize info that will need updating.

## Images

Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.

What it looks like What you type
A picture:

A picture:
[[Image:wiki.png]]
With alternative text:

With alternative text:
[[Image:wiki.png|alt=Puzzle globe logo]]
• Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing it.
Floating to the right side of the page using the frame attribute and a caption:

Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:wiki.png|frame|alt=Puzzle globe logo|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
• The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
• The last parameter is the caption that appears below the image.
Floating to the right side of the page using the thumb attribute and a caption:

Floating to the right side of the page
using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption:
[[Image:wiki.png|thumb|alt=Puzzle globe logo|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
• The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
• An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:
Floating to the right side of the page
''without'' a caption:
[[Image:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
A picture resized to 30 pixels...

A picture resized to 30 pixels...
[[Image:wiki.png|30 px|Wikipedia Encyclopedia]]
Linking directly to the description page of an image:
Linking directly to the description page
of an image:
[[:Image:wiki.png]]
• Clicking on an image displayed on a page (such as any of the ones above) also leads to the description page.
Linking directly to an image without displaying it:
Linking directly to an image
without displaying it:
[[Media:wiki.png|Image of the jigsaw globe logo]]
Using the span and div tag to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text):
Example:
<div style="display:inline;
width:220px; float:right;">
Place images here </div>
Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers):
Example: {| align=right
|-
|
Place images here
|}


See the Wikipedia's image use policy as a guideline used on Wikipedia.

For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the picture tutorial.

Further information: [[Help:Section]] Use headings to split articles into sections. Put a heading on a separate line. A level-two heading is the highest level editors use in an article.
What it looks like What you type

Subsection

Using more equals signs creates a subsection.

A smaller subsection

Start with 2 equals signs. Don't skip levels, like from two to four equals signs.

==Section headings==

The Wiki software can automatically generate

==Subsection==

Using more equals signs creates a subsection.

===A smaller subsection===
Don't skip levels, like from two to four equals signs.

Horizontal line

Separating with a horizontal dividing line:

this is above it...

...and this is below it.

If you don't use a section header, you don't get a TOC entry.

A horizontal dividing line:
this is above it...
----
...and this is below it.


## Text formatting

What it looks like What you type
Newline

A single newline has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph, or ends a list or indented part. (<p> disables this paragraphing until </p> or the end of the section)

A semicolon at the start of a line is not displayed, but has the effect of rendering the newline. A colon in such a line is not rendered, but has the effect of starting a new, indented line.

You can make the wikitext more readable by putting in newlines, but see RTENOTITLE for possible problems.

• When used in a list, a newline does affect the layout (See Help:List).
A single
newline
has no
effect on the
layout.

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.
You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.

(The HTML tag <br /> is sufficient. The system produces the XHTML code <br />.)

• Close markup between lines; do not start a link or italics or bold on one line and close it on the next.
You can break lines<br />
without starting a new paragraph.

When there is a need for separating a block of text

the blockquote command will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.

This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text.

<blockquote>
The '''blockquote''' command will indent
both margins when needed instead of the
left margin only as the colon does.
</blockquote>

Centered text.
<center>Centered text.</center>

### Lists

What it looks like What you type
• Unordered lists are easy to do:
• Start every line with a star.
• More stars indicate a deeper level.
Previous item continues.
• A new line
• in a list

marks the end of the list.

• Of course you can start again.
* ''Unordered lists'' are easy to do:
** Start every line with a star.
*** More stars indicate a deeper level.
*: Previous item continues.
** A new line
* in a list
marks the end of the list.
* Of course you can start again.

1. Numbered lists are:
1. Very organized
2. Easy to follow
Previous item continues

A new line marks the end of the list.

1. New numbering starts with 1.
# ''Numbered lists'' are:
## Very organized
## Easy to follow
#: Previous item continues
A new line marks the end of the list.
# New numbering starts with 1.


## Character formatting

What it looks like What you type
You can italicize text by putting 2

apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will bold the text.

5 apostrophes will bold and italicize the text.

You can ''italicize text'' by putting 2
apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will '''bold the text'''.

5 apostrophes will '''bold''' and ''italicize''
'''''the text'''''.


Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has a colored background and more stringent formatting. Suppose we want to define int main(): <source lang=cpp>#include <iostream> int main ( int argc, char **argv ) {

   std::cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;


}</source>

Computer code has a colored background
and more stringent formatting. Suppose we
want to define <code>int  main()</code>:

<source lang=cpp>#include <iostream>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
std::cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}</source>


You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.


Better stay away from big text, unless it's within small text.

Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.


You can strike out deleted material and underline new material. ({{du&amp;amp;#124;Double underlining}} is also possible.)

You can also mark deleted material and inserted material using logical markup. For backwards compatibility better combine this potentially ignored new logical with the old physical markup.

• When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
• When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
You can <s>strike out deleted material</s>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

You can also mark <del>deleted material</del> and
<ins>inserted material</ins> using logical markup.
For backwards compatibility better combine this
potentially ignored new <del>logical</del> with
the old <s><del>physical</del></s> markup.


You can include a non-breaking space (sometimes called non-printing character) where you require two words to always appear together on the same line, such as Mr. Smith or 400 km/h using &nbsp; in place of a regular space between the two "words" that need to behave as a single word (never be separated on different lines).

Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h.

Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template:

Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.


Typewriter font (does not work beyond the end of a paragraph):
arrow →

New paragraph.

<tt>arrow      &rarr;</tt>

<tt>''italics''</tt>

New paragraph.</tt>

### Special characters

What it looks like What you type

Diacritical marks:
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;


Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”

&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;


Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;


Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

Combined:
ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.
1 Hectare = 1 E4 m²

• The Manual of Style prefers the x<sub>1</sub> format.
• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;
x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;


&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times;
10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m.
1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]



Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;


Mathematical characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall;
&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;


Mathematical formulae:
$\,\! \sin x + \ln y$
Template:Math

$\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}$
Template:Math

• Complex formulae should use $ markup. • Simple formulae may use either [itex] markup or HTML/wiki markup using the {{math}} template with <i> and <b> or '' and ''' for formatting. Make sure to replace = with {{=}}. • Ordinary text should use wiki markup for emphasis. However, mathematical formulae often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Per Wikipedia:Manual of Style (mathematics), wiki markup ('' and ''') is preferred over HTML markup (<i> and <b>), but both are allowed. [itex]\,\! \sin x + \ln y$<br>
{{math|sin ''x'' + ln ''y''}}

$\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}$<br>
{{math|<b>x</b> {{=}} <b>0</b>}}


Spacing in simple math formulae:
Obviously, Template:Math is true when Template:Math is a real number.

• Using &nbsp; to prevent linebreak is not needed; the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <br> if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.

Obviously, {{math|''x<''<sup>2</sup> ≥ 0}} is true
when {{math|<VAR >x</VAR >}} is a real number.


Complicated formulae:

$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$
• See Help:Displaying a formula for how to use $. • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character. : [itex]\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


## No or limited formatting

—showing exactly what is being typed A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki to display things as you typed them — what you see, is what you get!

What it looks like What you type
<nowiki> tag:

The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets special characters: →

<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It reformats text by removing newlines
and multiple spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</nowiki>

<pre> tag:
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters: →

<pre>
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters:
&rarr;
</pre>

Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted.
It still interprets Wiki markup and
special characters: →

Leading spaces are another way
to preserve formatting.
Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted.
It still interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and
special characters: &rarr;


It's uncommon, but on occasion acceptable for notes to other editors ( see MOS ), to add a hidden comment within the text of an article. These comments are only visible when editing or viewing the source of a page. Most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page. The format is to surround the hidden text with and may cover several lines, e.g.:

<!-- An example of hidden comments
This won't be visible except in "edit" mode. -->



## Tables

There are two ways to build tables:

• in special Wiki-markup (see Table)
• Using HTML elements: <table>, <tr>, <td> or <th>.

For the latter, and a discussion on when tables are appropriate, see When to use tables.

## Variables

Code Effect
{{CURRENTWEEK}} 3
{{CURRENTDOW}} 4
{{CURRENTMONTH}} 01
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} January
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} January
{{CURRENTDAY}} 19
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}} Thursday
{{CURRENTYEAR}} 2017
{{CURRENTTIME}} 07:33
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 84,890
{{NUMBEROFUSERS}} 150,561
{{PAGENAME}} Wiki markup
{{NAMESPACE}} Help
{{REVISIONID}} 739428
{{localurl:pagename}} /wiki/en/Pagename
{{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}} http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandbox?action=edit
{{fullurl:pagename}} https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/Pagename
{{fullurl:pagename|query_string}} https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
{{SERVER}} https://familysearch.org
{{ns:1}} Talk
{{ns:2}} User
{{ns:3}} User talk
{{ns:4}} FamilySearch Wiki
{{ns:5}} FamilySearch Wiki talk
{{ns:6}} File
{{ns:7}} File talk
{{ns:8}} MediaWiki
{{ns:9}} MediaWiki talk
{{ns:10}} Template
{{ns:11}} Template talk
{{ns:12}} Help
{{ns:13}} Help talk
{{ns:14}} Category
{{ns:15}} Category talk
{{SITENAME}} FamilySearch Wiki

NUMBEROFARTICLES is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect, in other words number of articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages; CURRENTMONTHNAME is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}.

## Templates and Transcluding Pages

Main article: Wikipedia:Transclusion

Templates are segments of Wiki markup that are meant to be copied automatically ("transcluded") into a page. You add them by putting the template's name in {{double braces}}. It is also possible to transclude other pages by using {{:colon and double braces}}.

There are three pairs of tags that can be used in Wikitext to control how transclusion affects parts of a template or article. They determine whether or not wikitext renders, either in its own article, which we will call "here", or in another article where it is transcluded, which we will call "there".

• <noinclude>: the content will not be rendered there. These tags have no effect here.
• <includeonly>: the content will render only there, and will not render here (like Invisible ink made visible by means of transclusion).
• <onlyinclude>: the content will render here and will render there, but it will only render there what is between these tags.

There can be several such section "elements". Also, they can be nested. All possible renderings are achievable. For example, to render there one or more sections of the page here use <onlyinclude> tags. To append text there, wrap the addition in <includeonly> tags above, within, or below the section. To omit portions of the section, nest <noinclude> tags within it.

If a page is transcluded without transclusion markup, it may cause an unintentional categorization. Any page transcluding it will contain the same category as the original page. Wrap the category markup with <noinclude> tags to prevent incorrect categorization.

Some templates take parameters, as well, which you separate with the pipe character.

What it looks like What you type
{{Transclusion demo}}

{{Help:Transclusion Demo}}


This template takes two parameters, and creates underlined text with a hover box for many modern browsers supporting CSS:

Hover your mouse over this text

This template takes two parameters, and
creates underlined text with a hover box
for many modern browsers supporting CSS:

{{H:title|This is the hover text|
Hover your mouse over this text}}