How to Recognize your United States Ancestor
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Steps
- 2.1 Step 1. Build an identity for your ancestor
- 2.2 Step 2. Learn about the person who is a possible match
- 2.3 Step 3. Analyze and compare your ancestor with the possible match
- 2.4 Step 4. Make a decision about the possible match
- 2.5 Step 5. Write a brief summary of your research findings
- 3 Tips
Imagine you have searched a record and found a person who is a possible match for your ancestor. It gets exciting, for finding your ancestor in a record is one of the true joys of genealogical research.
However, there are pitfalls along the way. Sometimes we want so much to find our ancestor that we ignore those pitfalls and end up "barking up the wrong family tree." Correct connections come from building the identity of your ancestor and comparing what you know about your ancestor with what you learn about each possible match.
This guide will help you ask questions and help you decide if a person is, in fact, your ancestor.
As you compare what you already know about your ancestor against the new information you found, you can decide whether you can feel reasonably sure that you have located your ancestor.
Once you have found a person in a record who may be your ancestor, the following steps will help you determine if you have, in fact, found your ancestor.
Step 1. Build an identity for your ancestor
As you research, your goal is to build on the identity of your ancestor. You need to know enough to be able to recognize him or her in the records you search. Your ancestor's identity also helps you to not be sidetracked when you find another person with the same name—a possible match.
These ideas will help you identify your ancestor clearly:
- Make a time line with dates and places of events in your ancestor's life. Time Line for My Ancestor or Time Line of a Specific Record for a Possible Match
- Include identity, origin, family, associates and neighbors. Use the FAN club principle by asking:
- Who are the family, associates and neighbors?
- What did they do together?
- When did they get together?
- Where did they meet together?
- Why did they associate with each other?
- Also include: property purchases, military service, and of course births, marriages and deaths.
- Consider mentioning what was happening in the community and how those events may have affected your ancestor.
- On your time line, include other people named in documents you find for each date and event.
- Briefly give the source of your information.
- Here are examples of timelines:
|1816, Nov 16||Samuel Richman was born in Woodstown, Salem Co., NJ. Source: biographical encyclopedia entry for son, S. Luther Richmond.|
|1819||Jonathan Richman, brother of Samuel Richman, was born in Woodstown, Salem Co., NJ. Source: Census 1850, 1860.|
|1843, Apr 11||Samuel Richman married in Bridgeton, Cumberland Co., NJ. Source: Family Bible record.|
|Samuel Richman had 7 children. Source: biographical encyclopedia for son, S. Luther Richmond.|
|1850||Samuel Richmond made shoes in Salem City, Salem Co., NJ. Jonathan Richmond was listed as being in the household. Source: 1850 Census.|
|1899, Jan 13||Death of Samuel Richmond. Source: biographical encyclopedia for son, S. Luther Richmond.|
- Use an analysis chart to identify and evaluate what you know.
- Consider what your findings may suggest.
|What Do I Know About the Possible Match?||Analysis and Conclusions|
|Biographical encyclopedia says the father of Samuel Richman/Richmond was Isaac Richman and that they lived in Woodstown, Salem Co., NJ.||Look for records associating Samuel Richman/Richmond with Isaac Richman in Woodstown, Salem Co., NJ.|
|Samuel Richman/Richmond may have been a Methodist because there is a Methodist hymnal in our family artifacts.||Check Woodstown and Salem City Methodist church records.|
|Samuel Richman/Richmond and his brother lived in Salem City, Salem Co., NJ and were shoemakers, according to the 1850 census.||If the family did come from Woodstown, they must have moved to Salem City at some point.|
Step 2. Learn about the person who is a possible match
Do the following to identify this person clearly:
- Make a time line of information given in the record of the possible match person. This time line may be quite small but will establish dates and places clearly.
- On that time line, include other persons mentioned in the record.
- Use an analysis chart to identify and evaluate what you know.
- Evaluate what that information may suggest.
To print a working copy of a time line for a specific record, click here.
For helps in making a time line, see Tip 1. How do I make a time line.
Example of a Possible Match Analysis Chart for a Single Record
Samuel Richman and others (name of person) Woodstown Methodist Church Records, Salem Co., NJ (name of record)
What Do I Know About the Possible Match?
Analysis and Conclusions
1. This Samuel Richman and family members were Methodist.
1. Confirms what I suspected from the Methodist hymnal in our family artifacts.
2. This Samuel Richman "removed" from the Methodist Church in Woodstown, Salem Co., NJ in April, 1842.
2. Samuel Richman moved somewhere else. Where?
3. Samuel Richman, Sybilla Richman, Isaac Richman and Jonathan Richman were all attending the Woodstown Methodist Church between April, 1839 and April, 1842.
3. I know from our family Bible record that Sybilla Richman was the mother of Samuel Richman, and Isaac Richman was the father of Jonathan Richman. Also, I know from the 1850 census that Samuel Richmond and Jonathan Richmond were living together in Salem, Salem Co., NJ. Finding these people together in this church record points to these people being a family.
4. Samuel and Jonathan Richman both left the Woodstown Methodist Church in 1841 and 1842.
4. It is very possible that the Samuel Richmond, shoemaker, and Jonathan Richmond, shoemaker, in the 1850 census in Salem, Salem Co., NJ were these same two people and were brothers.
To print a working copy of an analysis chart for a specific record to be used with a possible match, click here.
Step 3. Analyze and compare your ancestor with the possible match
- Is the possible match person living in the right place to be my ancestor?
- Is this event in the right time to be within the lifetime of my ancestor?
- Is the possible match person too young or too old to have been my ancestor?
- Are names of children of the possible match consistent with what I know about the children of my ancestor?
- Do the ages of the children seem logical or are they too young or too old to belong to my ancestor?
For more questions to help you analyze, see Tip 2 Is_this_my_ancestor.
Step 4. Make a decision about the possible match
To decide about the possible match person, do one of the following:
- Confirm the person as your ancestor.
- Suspect that the person may be a relative with the same name.
- Eliminate that person as your possible ancestor.
- Decide that there is not enough information yet to confirm or eliminate this person as your ancestor. In that case, see Tip 3 If I am not sure, what should I do next?
Step 5. Write a brief summary of your research findings
After your research, write a brief summary or report about your ancestor. Either you can explain what records proved your ancestor's life events and can document his or her life history, or you can explain what records did not lead you to a definite conclusion. Either way, you will have made a valuable contribution to your family's genealogical research efforts.
Be sure to include in your paragraph the title, author, and call number of the book or film of all records you have searched.
Tip 1. How do I make a time line?
To help you single out your ancestor, include on a time line:
- Events in date order (the same order they happened in your ancestor's life
- Birth, marriage, and death information for each family member
- Dates of other events, such as buying or selling land
- Other persons associated with these events, such as neighbors on a census or witnesses on a deed or will
- Happenings in the community that may have affected your ancestor
- Events that are not yet proven but may help identify your ancestor. (Be sure to clearly mark these as unproven.)
A word processor is a useful tool when making a time line, because you can easily insert new dates as needed.
To print a working copy of a time line, [click here.
Tip 2. Is this my ancestor?
- Is this the right spouse?
- To verify the name of a wife, check marriage records, children's birth records, land records, cemetery records, church records, and probate records.
- Are the economic conditions of this person consistent with the known family history?
- It is highly unusual for a wealthy person to be found in a poor section of the county on a small, rented acreage, or for a poor person to suddenly be a noted county official, living in a mansion.
- The following records give a good indication of the economic condition of the family:
- Census records: notice the column listing property values.
- Tax lists: check both property and personal property taxed.
- Land records: see both the number of properties and the acreage of lands owned.
- Is the FAN Club of your ancestor the same people as the FAN Club for the possible match?
- The following records are rich resources for learning the Family, Associates, and Neighbors (FAN Club) of both your ancestor and the possible match:
- Land records for witnesses and neighbors
- Censuses for neighbors
- Marriage records to learn the names of grooms for sisters or aunts
- Church records to learn names of other members
- Check other records to see what the possible match person did after this record was made.
- Migration can be a good clue:
- If your ancestor moved, see if the possible match person stayed around or did they seem to have migrated?
- Conversely, if you have a burial record or other proof that your ancestor stayed around, try to determine if the possible match moved.
- If their data matches, the possible match person is still a candidate.
- Is the possible match person affiliated with the church you know your ancestor belonged to?
- For example, does the possible match person appear in Presbyterian church records, but you know your ancestor was a Quaker?
- Be careful here, since people may have changed religions. For example, your ancestor may have been a Quaker originally, but went to war or married out of the faith.
- There is a person living in a neighboring county who has the same name as my ancestor. Could they be a possible match person?
- They may be the same person. Check county boundary changes or parent counties. Your ancestor could own land in a neighboring county, or could have lived on his farm when a new county was formed, finding himself in another county without actually moving.
- For more information, see County Boundary Changes.
- Why is the name of the possible match person spelled differently from my ancestor's name?
- The name of a person was commonly spelled differently in different documents. For more information, see Name Variations.
Tip 3. If I am still not sure, what should I do next?
Choose another record which has a possible match person, and repeat the first 4 steps in this guide.
Other major records available in most places in the United States include:
- Census records, both federal and state
- Birth, marriage and death records, frequently known as "Vital Records"
- Cemetery records
- Church records
- Land records
- Probate records (wills, administrations, inventories).
Many of these records were created on a county or town level. In this FamilySearch Wiki, search for the county you need. The county page will list various types of records with links to online resources and to records available through the Family History Library or Family History Centers.