Indians of Vermont

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The most prominent early Indian tribes in Vermont were the Abénaki and Mahican. The western Abénaki Indians were composed of subdivisions including Sokoki, Missisquoi, and Cowasuck. Most of the Indian tribes have disappeared from Vermont through warfare, disease, or migration.

Tribes and Bands of Vermont

Abenaki, Mahican, Missiassik, Pennacook, Pocomtuc


Hodge, Frederick Webb.Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ehtonology, Bulletin #30 1907.
Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin #145.

See the “Native Races” section of the United States Research Outline (30972) for suggestions on how to research American Indian ancestry. For the history of American Indians in Vermont, see:

  • Calloway, Colin G. The Western Abenakis of Vermont, 1600–1800. The Civilization of the American Indian Series, v.197. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. (Family History Library book 970.3 Ab71cc; film 1598340, item5.) This contains a chronology of the tribe and a good bibliography of sources.
  • Haviland, William A. The Original Vermonters. Hanover, New Hampshire: Published for University of Vermont by University Press of New England, 1981. (Family History Library book 970.1 H199o.) This history includes information on the Abénaki and Mahican tribes in Vermont, an index, and a bibliography.

You can also find articles about Vermont Indians in Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society and in Vermont History. These periodicals and the Periodical Source Index (PERSI), which could be used to find articles on Indians, are discussed in the “Periodicals” section of this outline.

Family History Library

Additional sources on specific tribes can be found in the Family History Library Catalog by using a Subject Search under the name of the tribe, for example:


Other sources can be found in the Family History Library Catalog by using a Locality Search under:


Other Repositories

Vermont Historical Society

See Also:

Vermont-Military Records for a list of forts


Web Sites



  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethonology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.