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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Washington]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Washington]]''  
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Washington, United States Genealogy|Washington]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' '''Indians of Washington''' {{Washington-sidebar}} {{Click|Image:AI_ORP.png|American Indian Online Genealogy Records}}
  
== Tribes and Bands of Washington  ==
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Learn about the tribes and bands, state recognized tribes, agencies, records and reservation of the Indians of Washington.
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To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]]. __TOC__
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=== Tribes and Bands of Washington  ===
  
 
Many tribes and bands of Indians have historically resided in the Pacific Northwest. Many of them signed treaties with the United States government and ceded claims to land. A maps of some of these land cessions is [http://www.goia.wa.gov/tribal_gov/documents/Tribal_Cedres.pdf available online]. The following list of American Indians who have lived in Washington has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe. A map of the current Federally-Recognized Tribes of Washington State is [http://www.goia.wa.gov/tribal_gov/documents/WAStateTribalMap.pdf available online].  
 
Many tribes and bands of Indians have historically resided in the Pacific Northwest. Many of them signed treaties with the United States government and ceded claims to land. A maps of some of these land cessions is [http://www.goia.wa.gov/tribal_gov/documents/Tribal_Cedres.pdf available online]. The following list of American Indians who have lived in Washington has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe. A map of the current Federally-Recognized Tribes of Washington State is [http://www.goia.wa.gov/tribal_gov/documents/WAStateTribalMap.pdf available online].  
  
'''Tribes:''' Chathlamet, Cathlapotle, [[Cayuse Indians|Cayuse]], [[Chehalis Indians|Chehalis]], Chelan, Chilluckittequaw, Chinook, '''Clackamas''',[[Clallam Indians|Clallam]],[[Clallam Indians|Clallum]], Columbia, [[Coeur d'Alene Indians|Coeur d'Alene]],&nbsp; [[Colville Indians|Colville]], Copalis, [[Cowlitz Indians|Cowlitz]], Duwamish, [[Hoh Indians|Hoh]], Humptulip, [[Kalispel Indians|Kalispel]], Klickitat, Kwaiailk,Kwalhioqua,&nbsp;&nbsp; [[Lummi Indians|Lummi]], [[Makah Indians|Makah]], Methow, Mical, [[Muckleshoot Indians|Muckleshoot]], Neketemeuk, Nespelem, [[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perce]], [[Nisqualli Indians|Nisqually]], [[Nooksack Indians|Nooksack]], Ntlayapamuk, Okanagon, [[Ozette Indians|Ozette]], Palouse, Pshwanwapam, [[Puyallup Indians|Puyallup]], Queets or Quitso, [[Quileute Indians|Quileute]], [[Quinault Indians|Quinault]], Sahehwamish, [[Salish Indians|Salish]], [[Samish Indians|Samish]], [[Sanpoil Indians|Sanpoil]], Satsop, Semiahmoo, Senijextee, [[Shoalwater Bay Indians|Shoalwater Bay]], Sinkaietk, Sinkakaius, Skagit, Sinkiuse-Columbia, Skilloot, Skin, [[Snohomish Indians|Snohomish]], [[Snoqualmie Indians|Snoqualmie]], [[Spokane Indians|Spokane]], [[Squaxin Island Indians|Squaxin]] or Squakson, [[Suquamish Indians|Suquamish]], [http://stillaguamish.nonprofitsites.com/ Stillaguam][http://stillaguamish.nonprofitsites.com/ ish], [[Swinomish Indians|Swinomish]], Taidnapam, [[Tulalip Indians|Tulalip]], Twana, [[Upper Skagit Indians|Upper Skagit]], [[Walla Walla Indians|Walla Walla]], Wanapam, Watlala, Wauyukma, Wenatchee, Wishram, Wynoochee, [[Yakama Indians|Yakama]]  
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'''Tribes:''' [http://books.google.com/books?id=-7zBc-pqnGsC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=cathlamet+indians&source=bl&ots=wcMRXBSuFe&sig=CqHBm-TN60Na4qYqx1SxPJjpJXo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=vKwjUdv1K8eGyAGR9YDoBA&sqi=2&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=cathlamet%20indians&f=false Chathlamet], [http://books.google.com/books?id=-7zBc-pqnGsC&pg=PA13&dq=Cathlapotle+Indians&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Za0jUaqxEIWCyQH5iYC4BA&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Cathlapotle%20Indians&f=false Cathlapotle], [[Cayuse Indians|Cayuse]], [[Chehalis Indians|Chehalis]], [http://books.google.com/books?id=-7zBc-pqnGsC&pg=PA18&dq=Chelan+Indians&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1K0jUeayDebgyQH7w4GgBA&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Chelan%20Indians&f=false Chelan,] [http://books.google.com/books?id=-7zBc-pqnGsC&pg=PA21&dq=Chilluckittequaw+Indians&hl=en&sa=X&ei=rK4jUYDGEceGyAGR9YDoBA&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Chilluckittequaw%20Indians&f=false Chilluckittequaw,] [http://books.google.com/books?id=HuCjdhf_hMIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Chinook,++Indians&hl=en&sa=X&ei=A68jUYClCIfrygHwioGIBQ&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Chinook%2C%20%20Indians&f=false Chinook,] [http://books.google.com/books?id=-7zBc-pqnGsC&pg=PA26&dq=Clackamas,++Indians&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WK8jUfX-FZHUyQHA_YCIBQ&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Clackamas%2C%20%20Indians&f=false '''Clackamas'''],[[Clallam Indians|Clallam]],[[Clallam Indians|Clallum]], Columbia, [[Coeur d'Alene Indians|Coeur d'Alene]],&nbsp; [[Colville Indians|Colville]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/copalis-indians.htm Copalis], [[Cowlitz Indians|Cowlitz]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/duwamish-tribe.htm Duwamish], [[Hoh Indians|Hoh]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/humptulip-indians.htm Humptulip], [[Kalispel Indians|Kalispel]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/klikitat-tribe.htm Klickitat], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/kwaiailk-indians.htm Kwaiailk], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/kwalhioqua-tribe.htm Kwalhioqua],&nbsp;&nbsp; [[Lummi Indians|Lummi]], [[Makah Indians|Makah]],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/methow-tribe.htm Methow], Mical, [[Muckleshoot Indians|Muckleshoot]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington-indian-tribes.htm Neketemeuk], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington-indian-tribes.htm Nespelem], [[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perce]], [[Nisqualli Indians|Nisqually]], [[Nooksack Indians|Nooksack]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/ntlakyapamuk-tribe.htm Ntlayapamuk], Okanagon, [[Ozette Indians|Ozette]],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/palouse-indians.htm Palouse], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington-indian-tribes.htm Pshwanwapam], [[Puyallup Indians|Puyallup]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/queets-indians.htm Queets] or Quitso, [[Quileute Indians|Quileute]], [[Quinault Indians|Quinault]],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/sahehwamish-indians.htm Sahehwamish], [[Salish Indians|Salish]], [[Samish Indians|Samish]], [[Sanpoil Indians|Sanpoil]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/satsop-tribe.htm Satsop], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/methow-tribe.htm Semiahmoo], [http://www.canadiangenealogy.net/indians/senijextee_shuswap_indians.htm Senijextee], [[Shoalwater Bay Indians|Shoalwater Bay]], Sinkaietk, Sinkakaius,[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/skagit-tribe.htm Skagit],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/sinkiuse-sinkyone-tribe.htm Sinkiuse-Columbia], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/skilloot-tribe.htm Skilloot], Skin, [[Snohomish Indians|Snohomish]], [[Snoqualmie Indians|Snoqualmie]], [[Spokane Indians|Spokane]], [[Squaxin Island Indians|Squaxin]] or Squakson, [[Suquamish Indians|Suquamish]], [http://stillaguamish.nonprofitsites.com/ Stillaguam][http://stillaguamish.nonprofitsites.com/ ish], [[Swinomish Indians|Swinomish]],[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington-indian-tribes.htm Taidnapam], [[Tulalip Indians|Tulalip]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/twana-tribe.htm Twana], [[Upper Skagit Indians|Upper Skagit]], [[Walla Walla Indians|Walla Walla]], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/wanapam-indians.htm Wanapam], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/watlala-tribe.htm Watlala], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington-indian-tribes.htm Wauyukma], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/wenatchee-tribe.htm Wenatchee], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/wishram-indians.htm Wishram], [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indian-tribes-of-the-united-states.htm Wynoochee], [[Yakama Indians|Yakama]]  
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'''Confederated Tribes:''' [[Colville Indians|Colville]], [[Okanagan Indians|Okanagan]], Lakees, San Poil, Methow, Nespelem, Entiat, Wenatchee, Moses, [[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perce]], and Palouse
  
'''Confederated Tribes:''' [[Colville Indians|Colville]], [[Okanagan Indians|Okanagan]], Lakees, San Poil, Methow, Nespelem, Entiat, Wenatchee, Moses, [[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perce]], and &nbsp;Palouse
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Indian Tribes of Washington Territory. by George Gibbs. {{ FHL|194279|item|disp+ FHL book 970.1 G355i}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/indian-tribes-of-washington-territory/oclc/4804051 WorldCat]  
  
==== Tribes Recognized by the State of Washington  ====
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Indians in Washington:Indian Tribes and Reservations in Washington. by Victor A. Meyers. {{FHL|624672|item|disp= FHL book 907.1 M576i}} [http://www.worldcat.org/title/indians-in-washington-indian-tribes-and-reservations-in-washington/oclc/317438459 WorldCat]
  
Chinook Indian Tribe of Oregon and Washington, Inc. (also known as Chinook Nation)
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=== Washington State Recognized Tribes  ===
  
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinook_people Chinook Indian Tribe] of Oregon and Washington, Inc. (also known as Chinook Nation)
  
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
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=== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ===
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and sub-agencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
  
 
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Washington has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. {{FHL|247426|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551o}}</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. {{FHL|207428|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551g}}</ref>, and others.  
 
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Washington has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. {{FHL|247426|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551o}}</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. {{FHL|207428|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551g}}</ref>, and others.  
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*[[Cushman Indian Agency (Washington)|Cushman Agency]]  
 
*[[Cushman Indian Agency (Washington)|Cushman Agency]]  
 
*[[Flathead Indian Agency (Montana)|Flathead Agency]]  
 
*[[Flathead Indian Agency (Montana)|Flathead Agency]]  
*[[Eastern District Indian Agency (Montana)|Eastern District Agency ]]<br>
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*[[Eastern District Indian Agency (Montana)|Eastern District Agency ]]<br>  
 
*[[Makah Indian Agency (Washington)|Makah Agency]]  
 
*[[Makah Indian Agency (Washington)|Makah Agency]]  
 
*[[Neah Bay Indian Agency (Washington)|Neah Bay Agency]]  
 
*[[Neah Bay Indian Agency (Washington)|Neah Bay Agency]]  
 
*[[Nisqually Indian Agency (Washington)|Nisqually Agency]]  
 
*[[Nisqually Indian Agency (Washington)|Nisqually Agency]]  
*[[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], P.O.Box 120, Office Building Hoquiam, WA, 98550<br>
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*[[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], P.O.Box 120, Office Building Hoquiam, WA, 98550<br>  
*[[Nez Perce Indian Agency (Idaho)|Nez Perce]] (Washington East of the Cascades) Agency<br>
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*[[Nez Perce Indian Agency (Idaho)|Nez Perce]] (Washington East of the Cascades) Agency<br>  
 
*[[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], 3006 Colby St., Federal Bldg, Everett, Wa, 98201  
 
*[[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], 3006 Colby St., Federal Bldg, Everett, Wa, 98201  
 
*[[Puyallup Indian Agency (Washington)|Puyallup Agency]]  
 
*[[Puyallup Indian Agency (Washington)|Puyallup Agency]]  
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*[[Swinomish Indian Agency (Washington)|Swinomish Agency]]  
 
*[[Swinomish Indian Agency (Washington)|Swinomish Agency]]  
 
*[[Taholah Indian Agency (Washington)|Taholah Agency]]  
 
*[[Taholah Indian Agency (Washington)|Taholah Agency]]  
*[[Tulalip Indian Agency (Washington)|Tulalip Agency]]<br>
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*[[Tulalip Indian Agency (Washington)|Tulalip Agency]]<br>  
 
*[[Western Washington Indian Agency (Washington)|Western Washington Agency]]  
 
*[[Western Washington Indian Agency (Washington)|Western Washington Agency]]  
 
*[[Washington East of the Cascades Indian Agency|Washington East of the Cascades Agency]]  
 
*[[Washington East of the Cascades Indian Agency|Washington East of the Cascades Agency]]  
 
*[[Yakima Indian Agency (Washington)|Yakima Agency]], P.O. Box 632, Toppenish, WA 98948
 
*[[Yakima Indian Agency (Washington)|Yakima Agency]], P.O. Box 632, Toppenish, WA 98948
  
=== Enrollment and Allotment Records  ===
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=== Records  ===
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The '''majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies'''. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:<br>
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*[[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment records]]
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*[[American Indian Annuity Rolls|Annuity rolls]]
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*[[American Indian Census Rolls|Census records]]
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*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Correspondence]]
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*[[American Indian Health Records|Health records]]
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*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Reports]]
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*[[American Indian School Records|School census and records]]
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*[[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital records]]
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===Allotment Records===
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Allotted Tribes of Washington
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•Chehalis, Columbia, Colville Reservation, Kalispel Reservation, Klickitat, Lummi, Makah, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Port Madison, Puyallup, Quileute, Quinault, Skokomish Reservation, Spokane, Squaxin Reservation, Swinomish, Snohomish (Tulalip) Yakima
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•Colville
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=== Enrollment Records  ===
  
 
[[American Indian Enrollment Records|Enrollment Records]]  
 
[[American Indian Enrollment Records|Enrollment Records]]  
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United States Office of Indiana Affairs, ''Application for Enrollment and Allotment of Washington Indians, 1911-1919.'' M1343. {{FHL|362386|item|disp=FHL films 1605469(first of 6)}}  
 
United States Office of Indiana Affairs, ''Application for Enrollment and Allotment of Washington Indians, 1911-1919.'' M1343. {{FHL|362386|item|disp=FHL films 1605469(first of 6)}}  
  
== Indian Schools  ==
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Roll of Certain Indian Tribes in Oregon and Washington. by Charles E. McChesney and Glen Cameron Adams. Fairfield, Washington: Ye Galleon Press, c. 1969. {{FHL|174136|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 RR659}} [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/174136?availability=Family%20History%20Library WorldCat]
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=== Indian Schools  ===
  
 
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.  
 
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.  
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*[[Taholah Indian School (Washington)|Taholah School]]
 
*[[Taholah Indian School (Washington)|Taholah School]]
  
== Indian Health Facilities  ==
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=== Indian Health Facilities  ===
  
 
*[[Tacoma Hospital (Washington)|Tacoma Hospital]]
 
*[[Tacoma Hospital (Washington)|Tacoma Hospital]]
  
== Family History Library  ==
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=== Family History Library  ===
  
*A wealth of genealogical information is available for the various Indian tribes in [[Washington]]. Besides published histories, the Family History Library has microfilm copies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) records of births, marriages, deaths, censuses, schools, land allotments, heirships, and family records. They are available from about 1887 to 1952 from agencies such as the Colville, Puyallup, Taholah, Tulalip, and Yakama. The original documents are at the [http://www.archives.gov/pacific-alaska/seattle/ National Archives—Pacific Northwest Region (Seattle).]
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*A wealth of genealogical information is available for the various Indian tribes in [[Washington, United States Genealogy|Washington]]. Besides published histories, the Family History Library has microfilm copies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) records of births, marriages, deaths, censuses, schools, land allotments, heirships, and family records. They are available from about 1887 to 1952 from agencies such as the Colville, Puyallup, Taholah, Tulalip, and Yakama. The original documents are at the [http://www.archives.gov/pacific-alaska/seattle/ National Archives—Pacific Northwest Region (Seattle).]
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See also the FamilySearch Catalog for over 300 titles [https://familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&keyword=Washington+Native+Races&prekeyword=Washington+Native+Races Washington Native Races]  
  
 
*An especially useful source is the collection, ''Family Index Cards, 1938-1950'', created by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Portland Area Office {{FHL|129295|item|disp=FHL films 1028470 item 4 to 1028471}}
 
*An especially useful source is the collection, ''Family Index Cards, 1938-1950'', created by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Portland Area Office {{FHL|129295|item|disp=FHL films 1028470 item 4 to 1028471}}
  
*Records of American Indians are also listed in the Subject section of the '''Family History Library Catalog '''under the names of the agency or tribe. Some of these tribes are the Nez Perce, Yakama, and Chinook.
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*Records of American Indians are also listed in the Subject section of the '''FamilySearch Catalog '''under the names of the agency or tribe. Some of these tribes are the Nez Perce, Yakama, and Chinook.
  
 
*Washington Superintendency records {{FHL|403591|item|disp=FHL films 1637277 (first of 26)}}
 
*Washington Superintendency records {{FHL|403591|item|disp=FHL films 1637277 (first of 26)}}
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*Portland Area Office - Census Information 1877-1952.
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**Census information 1888-1952 FHL film 1028458 Item 2
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**Census information 1877-1946 FHL film 1028459 Item 1
  
 
*Jesuits records 1853-1960 {{FHL|501251|item|disp=FHL films 1671639 (first of 34)}}
 
*Jesuits records 1853-1960 {{FHL|501251|item|disp=FHL films 1671639 (first of 34)}}
  
== Reservations  ==
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=== Reservations  ===
  
 
Many of the reservations in Washington are small, with one [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agency]] of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] having responsibilities for the tribes residing on several reservations. Most of the records kept by the federal government about the tribes will be found in the appropriate agency.  
 
Many of the reservations in Washington are small, with one [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agency]] of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] having responsibilities for the tribes residing on several reservations. Most of the records kept by the federal government about the tribes will be found in the appropriate agency.  
  
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
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From the mid-1800's, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
  
 
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.  
 
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.  
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For a current reservation map -[http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/WA.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Washington - Indian Reservations ]- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.  
 
For a current reservation map -[http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/WA.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Washington - Indian Reservations ]- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.  
  
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/wa.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Other reservations have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>
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The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/wa.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Other reservations have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>  
  
*[[Chehalis Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Chehalis Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribes: Chehalis  
+
*[[Chehalis Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Chehalis Reservation''']] -- (Grays Harbor and Thurston Counties, Washington)Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribes: Chehalis  
*Columbia Reservation--Established: April 19, 1879. Allotted Land 25,172 acres Tribe: Moses's Band (Sinkiuse)
+
*Columbia Reservation--Established: April 19, 1879. Allotted Land 25,172 acres Tribe: Moses's Band (Sinkiuse)  
 
*[[Colville Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Colville Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Colville Indian Agency (Washington)|Colville Agency]], Tribes: Confederated Tribes  
 
*[[Colville Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Colville Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Colville Indian Agency (Washington)|Colville Agency]], Tribes: Confederated Tribes  
*[[Hoh Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Hoh''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Hoh  
+
*[[Hoh Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Hoh''']] -- (Jefferson County, Washington) Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Hoh  
 
*Jamestown Reservation  
 
*Jamestown Reservation  
 
*[[Kalispel Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Kalispel Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Spokane Indian Agency (Washington)|Spokane Agency]], Tribe: Kalispel  
 
*[[Kalispel Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Kalispel Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Spokane Indian Agency (Washington)|Spokane Agency]], Tribe: Kalispel  
Line 119: Line 153:
 
*[[Yakama Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Yakama Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Yakima Indian Agency (Washington)|Yakima Agency]], Tribe Fourteen Confederated Tribes from the Yakima Nation
 
*[[Yakama Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Yakama Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Yakima Indian Agency (Washington)|Yakima Agency]], Tribe Fourteen Confederated Tribes from the Yakima Nation
  
== See Also: ==
+
=== Archives, Libraries, and Museums ===
  
[[Washington Church Records|Washington-Church]] for a list of Missions
+
Glenbow Archive, Library, and Museum
  
[[Washington History|Washington-History]] for a calendar of events
+
The Glenbow Archives and Library, has an excellent collection of resources for the study of Métis genealogy. Their sources cover predominantly [[First Nations of Manitoba|Manitoba]], [[First Nations of Saskatchewan|Saskatchewan]], [[First Nations of Alberta|Alberta]], and some parts of the [[First Nations of Northwest Territories|Northwest Territories]], [[First Nations of Ontario|Ontario]], and [[First Nations of British Columbia|British Columbia]].
  
[[Washington Military Records|Washington-Military]] for a list of forts
+
Most of our sources pertain to people who were living in the Prairie Provinces in 1900 or earlier.
  
== OnLine Links  ==
+
One unique collection is the Gail Morin who donated her '''40,000 name data base''' to the archive in 2011. The data base is ancestral quest format and all in families with sources.
  
*[http://www.archives.gov/pacific-alaska/seattle/ National Archives]
+
Contact: Glenbow Archives<br> 130 - 9 Avenue<br> SE Calgary, Alberta T2G 0P3<br> Reference Desk telephone: 403-268-4204 <br> Email: [http://www.glenbow.org/collections/archives/genealogy/ archives@glenbow.org]  
  
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Bureau of Indian Affairs]
+
=== For Further Reading  ===
  
 +
See also '''[[American Indian For Further Reading]]'''.
 +
 +
*[[Washington Church Records|Washington-Church]] Wiki page for a list of Missions
 +
*[[Washington History|Washington-History]] Wiki page for a calendar of events
 +
*[[Washington Military Records|Washington-Military]] Wiki page for a list of forts
 +
*[http://www.archives.gov/pacific-alaska/seattle/ National Archives]
 +
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Bureau of Indian Affairs]
 
*[http://www.goia.wa.gov/Tribal-Directory/TribalDirectory.pdf Washington State Tribal Directory]
 
*[http://www.goia.wa.gov/Tribal-Directory/TribalDirectory.pdf Washington State Tribal Directory]
  
== References  ==
+
=== References  ===
 
 
<references />
 
 
 
==== Bibliography  ====
 
  
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
+
<references />
*''American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications''. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
 
*Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
 
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
 
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
 
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/WA.pdf Available online.]
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington/index.htm Available online].
 
  
 
{{American Indian}} {{Washington|Washington}}  
 
{{American Indian}} {{Washington|Washington}}  
  
[[Category:Washington]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
+
[[Category:Washington Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Latest revision as of 20:52, 21 October 2016

United States Gotoarrow.png Washington Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians of Washington

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Learn about the tribes and bands, state recognized tribes, agencies, records and reservation of the Indians of Washington.

To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites click here.

Tribes and Bands of Washington

Many tribes and bands of Indians have historically resided in the Pacific Northwest. Many of them signed treaties with the United States government and ceded claims to land. A maps of some of these land cessions is available online. The following list of American Indians who have lived in Washington has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe. A map of the current Federally-Recognized Tribes of Washington State is available online.

Tribes: Chathlamet, Cathlapotle, Cayuse, Chehalis, Chelan, Chilluckittequaw, Chinook, Clackamas,Clallam,Clallum, Columbia, Coeur d'AleneColville, Copalis, Cowlitz, Duwamish, Hoh, Humptulip, Kalispel, Klickitat, Kwaiailk, Kwalhioqua,   Lummi, Makah,Methow, Mical, Muckleshoot, Neketemeuk, Nespelem, Nez Perce, Nisqually, Nooksack, Ntlayapamuk, Okanagon, Ozette,Palouse, Pshwanwapam, Puyallup, Queets or Quitso, Quileute, Quinault,Sahehwamish, Salish, Samish, Sanpoil, Satsop, Semiahmoo, Senijextee, Shoalwater Bay, Sinkaietk, Sinkakaius,Skagit,Sinkiuse-Columbia, Skilloot, Skin, Snohomish, Snoqualmie, Spokane, Squaxin or Squakson, Suquamish, Stillaguamish, Swinomish,Taidnapam, Tulalip, Twana, Upper Skagit, Walla Walla, Wanapam, Watlala, Wauyukma, Wenatchee, Wishram, Wynoochee, Yakama

Confederated Tribes: Colville, Okanagan, Lakees, San Poil, Methow, Nespelem, Entiat, Wenatchee, Moses, Nez Perce, and Palouse

Indian Tribes of Washington Territory. by George Gibbs. FHL Collection WorldCat

Indians in Washington:Indian Tribes and Reservations in Washington. by Victor A. Meyers. FHL book 907.1 M576i WorldCat

Washington State Recognized Tribes

Chinook Indian Tribe of Oregon and Washington, Inc. (also known as Chinook Nation)

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and sub-agencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Washington has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.

Records

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Allotment Records

Allotted Tribes of Washington

•Chehalis, Columbia, Colville Reservation, Kalispel Reservation, Klickitat, Lummi, Makah, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Port Madison, Puyallup, Quileute, Quinault, Skokomish Reservation, Spokane, Squaxin Reservation, Swinomish, Snohomish (Tulalip) Yakima •Colville

Enrollment Records

Enrollment Records

United States Office of Indiana Affairs, Application for Enrollment and Allotment of Washington Indians, 1911-1919. M1343. FHL films 1605469(first of 6)

Roll of Certain Indian Tribes in Oregon and Washington. by Charles E. McChesney and Glen Cameron Adams. Fairfield, Washington: Ye Galleon Press, c. 1969. FHL book 970.1 RR659 WorldCat

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Washington has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

Indian Health Facilities

Family History Library

  • A wealth of genealogical information is available for the various Indian tribes in Washington. Besides published histories, the Family History Library has microfilm copies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) records of births, marriages, deaths, censuses, schools, land allotments, heirships, and family records. They are available from about 1887 to 1952 from agencies such as the Colville, Puyallup, Taholah, Tulalip, and Yakama. The original documents are at the National Archives—Pacific Northwest Region (Seattle).

See also the FamilySearch Catalog for over 300 titles Washington Native Races

  • An especially useful source is the collection, Family Index Cards, 1938-1950, created by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Portland Area Office FHL films 1028470 item 4 to 1028471
  • Records of American Indians are also listed in the Subject section of the FamilySearch Catalog under the names of the agency or tribe. Some of these tribes are the Nez Perce, Yakama, and Chinook.
  • Washington Superintendency records FHL films 1637277 (first of 26)
  • Portland Area Office - Census Information 1877-1952.
    • Census information 1888-1952 FHL film 1028458 Item 2
    • Census information 1877-1946 FHL film 1028459 Item 1

Reservations

Many of the reservations in Washington are small, with one agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs having responsibilities for the tribes residing on several reservations. Most of the records kept by the federal government about the tribes will be found in the appropriate agency.

From the mid-1800's, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

For a current reservation map -Washington - Indian Reservations - The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[7], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[8], and other sources. Other reservations have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

Archives, Libraries, and Museums

Glenbow Archive, Library, and Museum

The Glenbow Archives and Library, has an excellent collection of resources for the study of Métis genealogy. Their sources cover predominantly Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and some parts of the Northwest Territories, Ontario, and British Columbia.

Most of our sources pertain to people who were living in the Prairie Provinces in 1900 or earlier.

One unique collection is the Gail Morin who donated her 40,000 name data base to the archive in 2011. The data base is ancestral quest format and all in families with sources.

Contact: Glenbow Archives
130 - 9 Avenue
SE Calgary, Alberta T2G 0P3
Reference Desk telephone: 403-268-4204
Email: archives@glenbow.org

For Further Reading

See also American Indian For Further Reading.

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. FHL book 970.1 H551o
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. FHL book 970.1 H551g
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. FHL book 970.1 H551o
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. FHL book 970.1 H551g
  7. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  8. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.