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Various Spellings: Kickapoo, Kikapo, Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma
Ancestral Homeland: Great Lakes area (Illinois); closely related to the Sac and Meskwaki (Fox); all three tribes lived in Wisconsin
Kickapoo of Kansas Kickapoo Tribal Office
1107 Goldfinch Road
Horton, Kansas 66439 Phone: 1-877-864-2746
Web site: http://www.ktik-nsn.gov/contact.htm
Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma
P.O. Box 7
McLoud, Oklahoma 74851 Phone: 1-405-964-7053
Kickapoo Tribe of Wisconsin
Kickapoo Tribe in Texas
- 1600's: Jesuit priest Claude Jean Allouez visited the tribe between the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers
- 1790-94: Little Turtles' War; tribes stands against non-Indians
- 1763: The tribe joined Pontiac in his rebellion.
- 1809-11: Tecumseh's Rebellion, the tribe joined Tecumseh
- 1819: Leave Illinois and Indian and move to Missouri
- 1832: Black Hawk War
- 1832:The tribe removed to Missouri
- 1839: Part of tribe moved to Texas and Mexico
- 1860's: The tribe migrated to the Illinois River in Illinois
- 1873: part of the tribe move to Indian Territoy, granted a reservation along the North Canadian River; their descendants became the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma.
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Kickapoo tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.
Kickapoo Reservation - Kansas
Kickapoo Reservation - Oklahoma
Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs..., Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians, and others.
Fort Leavenworth Agency 1824-51
Great Nemaha Agency 1851-55
Kickapoo Agency 1855-76 (Mexican Kickapoo 1874-80)
Horton (Pottawatomie) Agency 1874-80
Sac and Fox Agency 1874-80
Slack, C.T. Genealogies of the Kickapoo Indians FHL Film: 928361
- 1862 Kansas Kickapoo Land Allotments http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com
- 1890 Kansas Kickapoo Land Allotments http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com
Correspondence and Census
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
M234 RG 75
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
|Kickapoo||Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952||Fort Worth||-||-||Rolls 210, 392-95||FHL Film:576899|
|Kickapoo||Ft. Leavenworth Agency, 1824-51||Washington D.C.||Rolls 300-03||-||-||-|
|Kickapoo, Kansas||Great Nemaha, 1851-55||Washington D.C.||Rolls 307-14||-||-||-|
|Kickapoo Kansas||Kickapoo Agency, 1855-76||Washington D.C.||Rolls 371-74||-||-||-|
|Kickapoo, Kansas||Horton (Potawatomi) Agency, 1874-1963||Washington D.C. and Kansas CIty||Rolls 691-95||-||Rolls 176, 210, 392-95||FHL Films: 580771-580774|
|Kickapoo, Mexican||Kickapoo Agency, 1873-75||Washington D.C.||Rolls 373-74||-||-||-|
|Kickapoo, Mexican||Sac and Fox Agency, 1874-80||Washington D.C. and Chicago||Rolls 740-44||-||-||-|
|Kickapoo, Mexican||Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952||Fort Worth||-||-||-||-FHL Films:581865-581871|
- 1795 August 3, with the Wyandot
- 1803 June 7, at Fort Wayne, with the Delaware
- 1803 August 7, at Vincennes, with the Eel River, Etc.,
- 1809 December 9, at Vincennes,
- 1815 September 2, at Portae des Sioux
- 1816 June 4, at Fort Harrison, with the Wea
- 1819 June 30, at Edwardsville, Illinois
- 1819 August 30, at Fort Harrison
- 1820 July 19, at St. Louis
- 1820 September 5, Kickapoo of the Vermillion
- 1832 October 24, at Castor Hill
- 1854 May 18, at Washington
- 1862 June 28, at Kickapoo Agency
- Horton (Potawatomi) Agency, M595,births and deaths 1918-1935, FHL Film: 580774
Important Web Sites
- Constitution of the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas.
- Constitution and By-Laws of the Kickapoo Tribe of Indians of the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas, Approved February 26, 1937
- Constitution and By-Laws of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, Ratified September 18, 1937.
- Kickapoo Tribe Wikipedia
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published