Several helpful gazetteers of Massachusetts have been published. Three of these are:
Guzzi, Paul. Historical Data Relating to Counties, Cities, and Towns in Massachusetts. [Boston, Massachusetts]: Secretary of the Commonwealth, 1975. (FHL book 974.4 H2h 1975; fiche 6051233.) This lists the dates when towns were established or annexed, changes of town names, and extinct towns.
Lindberg, Marcia W. Genealogist's Handbook for New England Research. 3rd ed. Boston, Massachusetts: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1993. (FHL book 974 D27g 1993; 1981 ed. fiche 6051401.) Guide to the records in each New England State. Includes dates when towns and counties were established. Gives names and addresses for the county records and probate offices, libraries, and historical societies for each state.
Nason, Elias. Gazetteer of the State of Massachusetts. Boston, Massachusetts: B. B. Russell, 1874. (FHL book 974.4 E5n; film 547258; fiche 6046886.)
An alphabetical list of unincorporated villages and sections of cities and towns is in:
The Decennial Census, 1915. Boston, Massachusetts: Wright and Potter, 1918. (FHL book 974.4 X2m; film 908760 item 1; fiche 6051394.) See pp. 134-68. This is listed in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under MASSACHUSETTS - CENSUS.