Missouri in the Civil War
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Missouri Military Units
- 3 Confederate Records
- 4 Union Records
- 5 African-American Service Records
- 6 Missouri Soldiers' Records: War of 1812 - WWI
- 7 Provost Marshal Papers
- 8 Other Sources
- 9 References
Missouri was a border state and sent many men to the armies on both sides. Nearly 110,000 men fought for the Union, while about 40,000 served the Confederacy. They fought both in Missouri and in other states. Many battles and skirmishes were fought within Missouri itself.
The Civil War St. Louis: Timeline is actually a timeline for all of Missouri since 1764 when it was founded. However the part for 1846 through 1870 describes related events before, during, and after the Civil War with links to additional information on many topics.
If you are unsure which regiment and company your ancestor was assigned to, try the suggestions at Beginning United States Civil War Research.
Missouri Military Units
Most units were numbered; however, some were named. See the table below for lists of the regiments, battalions, batteries, and unassigned companies.
The information in the lists of Missouri Military Units comes from the Civil War Soldiers and Sailors web site. That web site can also be searched by the name of a soldier.
- Fold3. The Compiled Service Records ($) (Fold3.com) of Confederate soldiers who served in organizations from the state of Missouri are available online. In the future, these records will be made available at no charge through the National Archives web site. The compiled service records consist of an envelope containing card abstracts taken from muster rolls, returns, pay vouchers, and other records. The service records are also available at no charge at any library that provides free access to Fold3. For more information see Confederate Service Records.
- FamilySearch. Missouri, Civil War Service Records of Confederate Soldiers, 1861-1865 is a name searchable database. The records include a jacket-envelope for each soldier, labeled with his name, his rank, and the unit in which he served. Next are usually card abstracts relating to the soldier with information found in original muster rolls, returns, rosters, payrolls, appointment books, hospital registers, Union prison registers and rolls, parole rolls, inspection reports, and the originals of any papers relating solely to the particular soldier. For each military unit the service records are arranged alphabetically by the soldier's surname. Further description of the collection.
- St. Louis Public Library (SLPL)owns a copy of the NARA indexes and compiled military service records for Missouri Union and Confederate soldiers. SLPL also owns NARA's Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served With the United States Colored Troops,and provides lists of Missouri men who served in Illinois regiments and Missouri men who served in Kansas regiments on its website.
- United States. War Department. Record and Pension Office. Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Volunteer Union Organizations. (Washington, District of Columbia: The National Archives, c1964).FHL Collection. Other libraries with this microfilm. View Online at Internet Archives.
- Bartels, Carolyn M., comp., The Forgotten Men, Missouri State Guard (Shawnee Mission, KS: Two Trails Publishing, 1995). This is an alphabetical list of over 7000 soldiers and officers of the Missouri State Guard (or Home Guards) organized by Confederate General Sterling Price. A casualty list index by name and place is also included. FHL book 977.8 M28b; Other libraries with the book (WorldCat)
- Also see Missouri Soldiers' Database: War of 1812 - WWI below.
- Missouri Confederate Pension Applications and Soldiers Home Applications, both approved and disapproved, are available online. FHL films beginning with 1021101. The records are also available at the Missouri State Archives.
Prisoners of War
- A small number of Confederate prisoners of the Gratiot Street Prison in St. Louis are listed online at Civilwarstlouis.com. The list was compiled from prison ledgers. Gratiot Street Prison held civilian as well as military prisoners.
- St. Louis Public Library owns the portion of the NARA microfilm set "Selected Records of the War Department Relating to Confederate Prisoners of War, 1861-1865" that includes prisoners at Alton and Camp Douglas in Illinois, and Myrtle and Gratiot Street Prisons in St. Louis.
Other Confederate Lists
- Bartels, Carolyn M., Missouri Amnesty. (s.l.: Bartels,?). After the Civil War, pro-Southerners were required to sign an oath of allegiance to obtain a Presidential pardon and regain the right to vote. FHL book 977.8 M2bar. Other libraries (WorldCat).
- Eakin, Joanne C. and Donald R. Hale, Branded as Rebels: A list of Bushwackers, Guerrillas, Partisan Rangers, Confederates and Southern Sympathizers from Missouri during the War Years. (s.l.: Eakin and Hale, ?) Most entries are references to sources ranging from National Archives records to contemporary newspapers. FHL book 977.8 M2e. Other libraries (WorldCat).
1890 Census Veterans Schedules
- 1890 Census Veterans Schedules - The "Special Schedules of the Eleventh Census (1890) Enumerating Union Veterans and Widows of Union Veterans of the Civil War" (NARA M123) are available online for the state of Missouri. The schedules list Union veterans and their widows living in Missouri in 1890. For more information on the 1890 Veterans Schedules see Union Census Records.
- The Compiled Service Records ($) (Fold3.com) of volunteer Union soldiers who served in organizations from the state of Missouri are available online. The compiled service records consist of an envelope containing card abstracts taken from muster rolls, returns, pay vouchers, and other records. In the future, these records will be made available at no charge through the National Archives web site. Service records may provide rank, unit, date of enlistment, length of service, age, place of birth, and date of death. The service records are available at no charge at any library that provides free access to Fold3. For more information see Union Service Records.
- St. Louis Public Library (SLPL) owns a copy of the NARA indexes and compiled military service records for Missouri Union and Confederate soldiers. SLPL also owns NARA's Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served With the United States Colored Troops, and provides lists of Missouri men who served in Illinois regiments and Missouri men who served in Kansas regiments on its website.
- United States. War Department. Record and Pension Office. Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Volunteer Union Organizations. (Washington, District of Columbia: The National Archives, c1964).FHL US/CAN Film 1488552. Other libraries with this microfilm. View Online at Internet Archives.
Also see Missouri Soldiers' Records: War of 1812 - WWI below.
- Civil War Pension Index Cards - An Index to Pension Applications of veterans who served in the US Army between 1861-1917 is available on FamilySearch. Each card gives the soldier’s name, application and certificate numbers, state of enlistment, and might include rank and death information. The majority of the records are of Civil War veterans, but the collection also includes records for veterans of the Spanish-American War, the Philippine Insurrection, the Indian Wars, and World War I. For more information see Union Pension Records.
African-American Service Records
- St. Louis County Library has An Index to Descriptive Recruitment Lists of Volunteers for the United States Colored Troops for the State of Missouri, 1863–1865 (NARA Microfilm Publication M1894 – 6 rolls) available online. This index has 5,500+ entries and can be browsed either by recruits’ names or by slave owners’ names. The index provides the following information:
• Recruit’s last name
• Recruit’s first name
• Birth State
• County of Birth
• Slave Owner
• County of Residence
• State of Residence
The U.S. Congress allowed slave owners whose slaves were serving in the Military Service to request compensation for that slave. The claim was based on the slave's military service. Therefore The Index to Slave Compensation Claims found in the Compiled Service Records of U.S. Colored Troops, also provides information on the soldier. These records were placed in the soldier's military file.
Missouri Soldiers' Records: War of 1812 - WWI
The Missouri State Archives' database, Missouri Soldiers' Records: War of 1812 - WWI, was created using service cards that included over 576,000 Missourians who served in twelve conflicts. A large number of the cards, 380,000 of the them, relate to the Missourians in the Civil War. Links to images of the service cards are available using the "view record" link for many of the records. Information on the original record that was used to create the card is often mentioned on the card.
Similar to the Compiled Service Records cards created by the federal government to document the service of soldiers in the Civil War, the Missouri Adjutant General's Office created cards to document the service of Missourians in twelve wars and military engagements. The cards cover the War of 1812 to WWI. The cards were eventually transferred from the Missouri Adjutant General's Office to the Missouri State Archives.
The original service cards were created from muster rolls and other records between 1910 and 1960. Some information came from files maintained by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, as well as published sources.
Provost Marshal Papers
The Missouri State Archives includes in their collection a group of papers called the Provost Marshal Papers. These are records from the Union Army War Department. Many of the records pertain to Confederate citizens and sympathizers. Some of them specifically deal with the confiscation and destruction of property in Missouri by Confederate forces in 1864. These records span 1861-1866 and an index to the Missouri portion of the records is available online.
The Provost Marshal papers are available online free at FamilySearch Historical Records and on 300 FHL films beginning with 1527305. The papers are in alphabetical order, but not every page has the name of the person, so you may need to look at a few pages.
Another set called, Union Provost Marshals' File of Papers Relating to Two or More Civilians, is on 94 FHL films starting with 1534697. This collection is available online as well. The documents relate to civilians, or 'citizens,' who came in contact with the Army. "They include correspondence, provost court papers, lists of prisoners, orders, passes, paroles, oaths of allegiance, transportation permits, and claims for compensation for property used or destroyed by military forces"--Intro. The series has the following as explained in the introduction:
- (1) An incomplete place and subject index, on the first roll, to some the numbered documents
- (2) "Documents numbered and in numerical order from 1 to 22737, those on rolls 2-72 being arranged chronologically by year and month from March 1861 to December 1866, and those on rolls 73-83 arranged partly in chronological order"
- (3) "Unnumbered documents, on roll 83, arranged chronologically by month from January to October 1867"
- (4) "Lists of civilian prisoners confined by the Middle Department, 8th Army Corps, at Baltimore, Md., bearing various numbers between 7893 and 21616, on rolls 84-86, arranged chronologically by year and month from January 1864 to December 1865"
- (5) "Papers relating to civilians confined in military prisons, 1862- 65, on rolls 87-94, arranged alphabetically by the location of the prison, from Alton, Illinois, to Wheeling, West Virginia"
- (6) "Documents relating to the confiscation and destruction of property in Missouri by Confederate forces in 1864, on roll 94, the first part being arranged alphabetically in three subseries by the name of the claimant, and the second part unarranged"
For more on these records and where to find them online see Union Provost Marshals' File.
- Missouri Civil War Sesquicentennial site has several videos about Civil War battles and records on the home page (accessed 13 January 2012).
- Missouri Secretary of State. Civil War Resources, has several digital collections (accessed 13 January 2012).
- Missouri Digital Heritage: Civil War Resources
- Person, Thomas A. Missouri Civil War Union Militia Organizations. (St. Louis, Missouri: St. Louis Public Library, May 2001). (accessed 23 May 2012). This explains the different types of Missouri militia organizations during the Civil War.
- Ferguson, Bob, Finding Confederates in Missouri lists many useful sources and give research help (accessed May 2012).
- Missouri's Civil War Heritage Foundation, The Civil War in Missouri gives information about the history, trails and battles of the Civil War in Missouri (accessed 29 May 2012)
- Monaghan, Jay. Civil War on the Western Border, 1854-1865. (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1955). This book gives a clear account of the Kansas-Missouri strife, before and during the war. Politics, social life, as well as battle actions are covered. Libraries with this book (WorldCat).
- Castel, Albert. General Sterling Price and the Civil War in the West. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968). This give the story of General Price, an important military leader in Missouri Civil War.Libraries with this book (WorldCat).
- Fellman, Michael. Inside War, The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri During the American Civil War. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989). This is a useful book for searching Missouri Confederates.Libraries with this book (WorldCat).
- Bartels, Carolyn M. The Civil War in Missouri, Day by Day, 1861-1865. (Shawnee Mission, KS: Two Trails Publishing, 1992). This book gives a chronology of events in Missouri. Libraries with this book (WorldCat).
- Wikipedia contributers, Missouri in the American Civil War, (accessed 9 August 2011).