To get started in American Indian Research
Hopi Tribal Council
P.O. Box 123
Kykotsmovi, Az 86039
An ancient one. They have been civilized for at least 1,000 years. They have lived in the northeast of Arizona for a very long time. After the white invasion, tribes from the east were forced westwards looking for new lands. They came into contact with them and some of the contact was of a violent nature. The Spanish whites intruded them but were driven out around 1680. They may be realated to a tribe living in the Mexican State of Baja California Sur who are known historically as the Monqui Indians. It is the similarity in the names. If both people are related, it means the Uto-Aztecan and Yuman Languages are related.
- 1000: Living civilized in their present location.
- 1300: An event occurred which forced them to flee their villages.
- 1540: Met the white invaders for the first time.
- 1629: The Franciscan Period commenced.
- 1680: The whites were driven out.
- 1700: Large numbers of Indians from the east, settled near them.
- 1850: They negotiated with the government of the United States for the first time. The large numbers of eastern Indians relocating near them was a major concern.
- 1882: On December 16, 1882 the Hopi Reservation was established. It occurred almost one week before the Turtle Mountain Reservation was established on December 21, 1882. The Reservation was surrounded by the Navajo Reservation which was established on June 1, 1868, which indicates some problem occurred sometime between 1868 and 1882.
- 1886: Start of the children being forced to attend white controlled schools. The children were forced to lose their tribal identity and stop speaking in their native language. Many of the parents were enraged. The children were also forced to attend white Christian churches. Many of the parents were outraged and prohibited their children from attending school and church.
- 1890: Federal tropps are sent in to force the parents to let their children attend the schools and church. The parents knew their children would lose their nationality and their true language.
- 1894: At the village of Oraibi federal troops arrested 19 parents for not allowing their children to attend white controlled schools. They were sent to Alcatraz Prison for a year.
Additional references to the History of the Tribe
Hopi Reservation in Arizona. It is surrounded by the older and larger Navajo Reservation. The Reservation covers 1.5 million acres.
Important Web Sites
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published