Netherlands Language and Languages

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Netherlands Language and Languages

This list summarizes what languages are used in different records.

Dutch: Used in Dutch Reformed Church records and Civil Registration after 1813. Used for any other government records.
Frisian: May be used in place of Dutch in Friesland
Latin: Used in Catholic Church records
German: Used in Lutheran Church records
French: Used in Wallonia Reformed Church records, and in pre-1813 Civil Registration
Portuguese: Used in some Jewish records

Dutch Language

Dutch (like English and German), is a Germanic language derived from Old Low Franconian and Old Saxon.

Dutch is spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium, the Netherlands Antilles in the Caribbean, and Suriname. Flemish, which is spoken in Belgium, is a major dialect (regional variation) of Dutch. It uses words similar to the words on this list. Afrikaans, a separate language spoken in South Africa, is descended  from Dutch and preserves many older and dialect features of Dutch, but contains many German and English words as well .
Frisian, which is spoken in the Dutch province of Friesland, is a different language from Dutch.
The "Additional Resources" section below will tell you how to use the FamilySearch Catalog to find dictionaries of the various dialects and related languages.

In addition, Dutch is found in some early records of the United States (mostly in New York, New Jersey, Michigan, and Iowa) and in South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Brazil and Taiwan.

Language Characteristics

Dutch, along with German, English, Frisian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Afrikaans, is a Germanic language. It is very closely related to the dialects of northern Germany known as Low German.  Indeed, the traditional dialects along the Dutch-German border are virtually the same.  You may want to read about the linguistic situation in the lower Rhine area or about spelling variations there.

Dutch words for nouns (persons, places, and things) are classified as either common or neuter.

Variant Forms of Words

In Dutch, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who—whose—whom, or marry—marries—married are examples of words in English with variant forms. This word list gives the standard form of each Dutch word. As you read Dutch records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage.

The prefix t is equal to the Dutch word het, which means the. The prefix s- is a part of many place-names and means des (of the). All prefixes are disregarded in alphabetized lists, except in Flemish records.

The endings of words in a document may differ from what you find in this list. For example, the document may use the word jonger, but you will find it in this word list as jong. In addition, the suffixes -je, -tje,-tien, or -ke are often added to words to indicate "little." These suffixes can also indicate the feminine version of a name. Therefore, the word zoontje means "little" or "young (tje) son (zoon)." The ending -sdr means "daughter of."

Plural forms of Dutch words usually add -en or -s to the singular word. Thus boer (farmer) becomes boeren (farmers), and tafel (table or index) becomes tafels (tables or indexes). Rarely, -eren is added to form the plural. Examples: blad becomes bladeren (leaves [of a tree]), kind becomes kinderen (children).

In Dutch, many words are formed by joining two or more words. Very few of these compound words are included in this list. You will need to look up each part of the word separately. For example, geboortedag is a combination of two words, geboorte (birth) and dag (day).

Alphabetical Order

In the Dutch language, the letter combination ij is considered a single letter. It has the same value as y, and it is usually alphabetized as if it were a y. Some Dutch dictionaries and indexes use the following alphabetical order:

a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, ij (or y), z

Some Dutch dictionaries alphabetize the letter ij under i then j. Just remember, when a name or town starts with the letter IJ, that you capitalize BOTH the I and the J. In the Netherlands the IJ or ij is ONE letter, not 2 and seeing that you can hardly split one letter when you capitalize it, you really have to capitalize the whole letter - IJ not Ij!

This word list follows the standard English alphabetical order. However, when working with alphabetized Dutch records, use the Dutch alphabetical order.

When the Dutch alphabetize names of places or surnames, prefixes such as van der, de, or ter are not considered in the alphabetization.


ten Brock

van der Graf


van Hijden

de Jong

van Leeuwen

ter Pelkwijk

van IJlst

't Zandt


Spelling rules were not standardized in earlier centuries. Writers often failed to dot the ij, so that it looks like a y. The letter y was not used in older records. In Dutch, the following spelling variations are common.See the article Spelling Variants in Dutch Documents

y used for ij

g used for ch

d and t used interchangeably

j and i used interchangeably


echt spelled as egt

overlijden spelled as overlyden

Arie spelled as Arij

Marietje spelled as Marietie

Additional Resources

The word list on this article includes only the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For further help, use a Dutch-English dictionary. Several Dutch-English dictionaries are available at the Family History Library. These are in the European collection. Their call numbers begin with 439.31321.

The following dictionary is available on microfilm for use in Family History Centers:

Dutch-English, English-Dutch Van Goor Dictionary. 's-Gravenhage: G. B. Van Goor, 1938. (FHL film 1183584 item 2.)

Additional dictionaries are listed in the Subject search of the FamilySearch Catalog under DUTCH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES or in the Place search under NETHERLANDS - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES. These include dictionaries of various dialects and time periods.

On the following Internet address Integrated Language Bank you can find: a modern Dutch dictionary, old, early Middle Ages and later Middle Ages Dutch dictionaries and a Frisian dictionary.

The File:German Gothic Handwriting Guide.pdfincludes an example of the German (Gothic) alphabet in print and handwriting. Also go to Germany Handwriting.

See the 3 FamilySearch Tutorials on "Reading Dutch Written Records" 

Cassell’s English–Dutch Dutch–English Dictionary. 36th ed. New York: Macmillan, 1981. (FHL book 439.31321 Ca272.)

Stierp–Impink, A. C. Practisijns Woordenboekje, of Verzameling van Meest alle de Woorden in de Rechtskunde Gebruikelijk (Lawyer’s Dictionary, or List of Most Words Used in Legal Documents). Alkmaar: A. C. Stierp–Impink, 1985. (FHL book 949.2 P26s.) This legal dictionary, originally created in 1785, identifies words found in court, land, notarial, and guardianship records.

Verdam, J. Middelnederlandsch Handwoordenboek (Middle Dutch Dictionary). ’s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1964. (FHL book 439.317 V582m; film 1045404 item 2.) This dictionary will help with most archaic words found in documents before 1811.

Additional language aids, including dictionaries of various dialects and time periods, are listed in the Place search of the FamilySearch Catalog under:



or in the "Subject Search" under:


Key Words

To find and use specific types of Dutch records, you will need to know some key words in Dutch. This section lists key genealogical terms in English and the Dutch words with the same or similar meanings.

For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage. In the second column you will find Dutch words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined, and other words used in Dutch records to indicate marriage.

English Dutch
baptism dopen, doop, gedoopt
birth geboren, geboorte
burial begraven, begraaf
Catholic rooms katholiek, oud katholiek
census volkstelling, bevolking
child, children kind, kinderen
christening (see baptism)
civil registry burgerlijke stand
death overleden, overlijden, gestorven
father vader
husband echtgenoot, man
index tafel, klapper, fiche
Jewish joods
marriage(s) huwelijk(en), trouwen, echt, gehuwden, getrouwd
military militaire, landweer, krijgsmacht
month maand
mother moeder
name, given voornaam, eerste naam
name, surname achternaam, familienaam, bijnaam, toenaam
parents ouders
parish parochie, gemeente
Protestant protestant
supplement bijlage
town, village stad, gemeente, dorp
wife huisvrouw, vrouw, echtgenote
year jaar


In some genealogical records, numbers are written out. This is especially true with dates. The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd) versions of each number. Days of the month are written in ordinal form.

Cardinal Ordinal
1 een 1st eerste
2 twee 2nd tweede
3 drie 3rd derde
4 vier 4th vierde
5 vijf 5th vijfde
6 zes 6th zesde
7 zeven 7th zevende
8 acht 8th achtste
9 negen 9th negende
10 tien 10th tiende
11 elf 11th elfde
12 twaalf 12th twaalfde
13 dertien 13th dertiende
14 veertien 14th veertiende
15 vijftien 15th vijftiende
16 zestien 16th zestiende
17 zeventien 17th zeventiende
18 achttien 18th achttiende
19 negentie 19th negentiende
20 twintig 20th twintigste
21 eenentwintig 21st eenentwintigste
22 tweeëntwintig 22th tweeëntwintigste
23 drieentwintig 23th drieentwintigste
24 vierentwintig 24th vierentwintigste
25 vijfentwintig 25th vijfentwintigste
26 zesentwintig 26th zesentwintigste
27 zevenentwintig 27th zevenentwintigste
28 achtentwintig 28th achtentwintigste
29 negenentwintig 29th negenentwintigste
30 dertig 30th dertigste
31 eenendertig 31th eenendertigste
40 veertig 40th veertigste
50 vijftig 50th vijftigste
60 zestig 60th zestigste
70 zeventig 70th zevenstigte
80 tachtig 80th tachtigste
90 negentig 90th negentigste
100 honderd 100th honderdste
101 honderd(en)een 101st honderd(en)eerste
200 tweehonderd 200th tweehonderdste
1000 duizend 1000th duizendste

Dates and Time

In Dutch records, dates are often written out. For example:

Donderdag, drie en twintig maart in het jaar van onse heer een duizend acht hondert en zesendertig [Thursday, three and twenty March in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and six and thirty].

To understand Dutch dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding "Numbers" section.

English Dutch Archaic Form
January Januari louwmaand tanning month
February Februari sprokkelmaand wood-gathering month
March Maart lentemaand spring month
April April grasmaand grass month
May Mei bloeimaand blossom month
June Juni zomermaand summer month
July Juli hooimaand hay month
August Augustus oogstmaand harvest month
September September (7ber) herfstmaand autumn month
October October (8ber) wijnmaand wine month
November November (9ber) slachtmaand slaughter month
December December (10ber) wintermaand winter month
Days of the Week
English Dutch
Sunday Sondag
Monday Maandag
Tuesday Dinsdag
Wednesday Woensdag
Thursday Donderdag
Friday Vrijdag
Saturday Zaterdag
Times of the Day

Dutch birth and death records often indicated the time of day when the birth or death occurred. This is usually written out.

Dutch English
des avonds ('s avonds) in the evening
des middags ('s middags) in the afternoon
des morgens ('s morgens) in the morning
des nachts ('s nachts) in the night
in de namiddag in the mid-afternoon
in de voormiddag in the mid-morning

Other languages

The Family History Library has genealogical word lists for Dutch, French, German, Latin, and Portuguese. The Dutch Word list is found below at the end of this article.

The File:German Gothic Handwriting Guide.pdfincludes an example of the German (Gothic) alphabet in print and handwriting. Also go to Germany Handwriting.

Alphabetical Wordlist


  • aan - upon, to
  • aangenomen naam - named, alias, also known as, assumed name, accepted surname
  • aannemen to adopt (a child), to assume, to take on
  • aanneming confirmation
  • aannemingsdag day of confirmation
  • aanstaande next, toward, following, expectant, future, impending
  • aanval stroke, attack
  • aarde earth (buried in), ground
  • aardrijkskundig woordenboek gazetteer
  • acht eight
  • achtenswaardig respectable, honorable
  • achtentwintig twenty-eight
  • achtentwintigste twenty-eighth
  • achterkleindochter great-granddaughter
  • achterkleinzoon great-grandson
  • achternaam surname, last name
  • achtste eighth
  • achttien eighteen
  • achttiende eighteenth
  • adel nobility
  • adellijk noble, titled
  • aderlating bleeding, bloodletting
  • adresboek directory
  • advocaat notary, lawyer
  • afkondigen to post banns
  • afkondigingen proclamations, banns
  • afschrift(en) extract, duplicate record, transcript, certified copy
  • afwezig absent
  • akte certificate, deed, license
  • alhier here, at this place, locally
  • alle all, every
  • alleen alone, single, only
  • altijd, steeds always
  • ambt office, function, post
  • ambtelijk official, professional 
  • ambtenaar official, registrar, civil servant, clerk
  • ander(s) other
  • anders genoemd alias, also known as
  • angiften intentions (marriage), declarations
  • Apostolisch Apostolic
  • April, april April
  • arbeider laborer
  • archief archive
  • archieven archives
  • Augustus, augustus August
  • avond ('s avonds) evening, (in the evening)
  • Avondmaal communion, sacrament


  • bad(plaats) resort, spa, bath
  • baker dry nurse
  • bakker baker
  • bedelaar beggar
  • bedrag fee, amount (of money)
  • bedrijf trade, business, concern
  • begraafplaats cemetery
  • begrafenis funeral
  • begraven to bury
  • behoeftigden needy, indigent
  • behoren to belong to
  • beide both
  • bejaard aged
  • bekende acquaintance
  • belasting taxation
  • Belg(isch) Belgian
  • België Belgium
  • bemerking remarks
  • benadering approximation
  • berg mountain
  • beroep trade, occupation
  • beschrijving description
  • beslagnemen to seize
  • besnijdenis circumcision
  • bet-overgrootvader second great-grandfather
  • bet-bet-overgrootvader third great-grandfather
  • betrekking in relation to, relatives
  • betuiging declaration, expression
  • bevolking population
  • bevolkingsregister population register
  • bewaarder guardian, warden
  • bewijs certificate, proof
  • bewijs van overlijden proof of death, death certificate
  • bewijs van trouwen proof of marriage, marriage certificate
  • bidden to pray, to request
  • bijlagen supplemental documents
  • bijna almost, nearly
  • bijnaam surname, nickname
  • bijzit mistress, concubine
  • binnenkant inside
  • biografie biography
  • bisdom diocese
  • bladzijde (blz.) page
  • bloedverwant blood relative
  • bloeimaand blossoming month, May
  • boek book
  • boer farmer
  • boerenarbeider cottager, farmhand, worker
  • boerenknecht farm worker
  • bos woods, forest
  • bosbaas forester
  • bosch woods, forest (old spelling of the word)
  • boswachter forester
  • boven above, over, upstairs
  • bovengemelden above-mentioned
  • braaf honest, worthy, good
  • broeder, broer brother
  • brouwer brewer
  • brug bridge
  • bruid bride
  • bruidegom bridegroom
  • buiten(kant) outside
  • buitenechtelijk illegitimate
  • burgemeester mayor
  • burgelijke administralie civil administration
  • burger citizen
  • burgerboek citizenship book
  • burgerlijke ambtenaar civil registrar
  • burgerlijke stand civil registration, civil administration
  • burgerschap citizenship
  • buurman neighbor
  • buurtschap neighborhood


  • communicanten members, communicants
  • comparant one who appeared
  • compareerde appeared before
  • confirmatie confirmation


  • daar(heen) there
  • dag day
  • dag der begravenis day of the burial, burial day
  • dagelijks daily
  • dagloner day worker, day laborer
  • dagteekening document date
  • dal valley
  • dat that
  • datum date
  • de the
  • December, december December
  • deden done
  • deed did
  • deel volume, part of
  • Deen Dane
  • Deens Danish
  • degenen those
  • Denemarken Denmark
  • derde third
  • dertien thirteen
  • dertiende thirteenth
  • dertig thirty
  • dertigste thirtieth
  • des of the
  • dewelke of which, the which
  • deze this, these
  • diarree diarrhea
  • die those, that
  • dienst service, employment
  • dienstbode servant
  • dienstmeisje servant girl
  • dienstsmeid maid
  • dinsdag Tuesday
  • diocees diocese
  • dit this
  • dochter(tje) (little) daughter
  • doen to do
  • dominee minister
  • donderdag Thursday
  • dood dead
  • dood geboren stillborn
  • doodgraver sexton, grave digger
  • doop baptism, christening
  • doopdag day of baptism
  • doopregister baptismal register
  • Doopsgezinde Mennonite, Baptist
  • doopvader godfather, baptismal sponsor
  • door through, by
  • dopen to baptize
  • dorp village
  • drie three
  • drieëntwintig twenty-three
  • drieëntwintigste twenty-third
  • drupped gout
  • duits German (language)
  • duitser German (person)
  • Duitsland Germany
  • duizend thousand
  • duizendste thousandth
  • duplicaat duplicate
  • dysenterie dysentery


  • echt marriage
  • echtbreker adulterer
  • echtelieden spouses
  • echtgenoot husband
  • echtgenote wife
  • echtgenoten husband and wife, spouses
  • echtscheiding divorce
  • echtverbintenis marriage
  • edel(man) noble(man)
  • een a, an, one
  • eenendertig thirty-one
  • eenendertigste thirty-first
  • eenentwintig twenty-one
  • eenjarig annual, yearly
  • eerder before, previously, earlier
  • eergisteren day before yesterday
  • eerlijk honest
  • eerste first
  • eertijds formerly
  • eeuw century
  • ehelieden spouses
  • eigenaar owner, proprietor
  • eigengeërfde yeoman, freeholder
  • eiland, eilant island
  • elf eleven
  • elfde eleventh
  • elk each, every
  • emigrant emigrant
  • emigranten register emigration file
  • emigratie papieren emigration records
  • en and
  • enig only, single
  • erfenis inheritance
  • erkennende recognizing, acknowledging
  • ervan of it
  • ervoor for it
  • Evangelisch evangelical


  • fabriek factory, mill
  • familie-geschiedenis family history
  • familieleden family members,relatives
  • familielijst family list, group sheet
  • familienaam family name, surname
  • familiewapen familycoat of arms
  • Februarij, februari February
  • feestdag feast day, holiday
  • fiches index cards
  • florijn guilder
  • Frankrijk France
  • frans French


  • gangbaar current
  • geboorte birth
  • geboorteakte birth certificate
  • geboortebewijs proof of birth,birth certificate
  • geboorteplaats place of birth
  • geboortetijd time of birth
  • geboortig born at, native of
  • geboren born, maiden name, née
  • gebracht brought, placed, charged, put, been
  • gedelegeerden delegate, delegates, delegates to
  • gedoopt baptized, christened
  • geelzucht jaundice
  • geen no, none, without
  • geestelijke priest, clergyman
  • gegeven given, gave
  • gehucht hamlet
  • gehuwd married
  • geld money
  • gelegitimeerd legitimized
  • gelijk same, alike, similar
  • gemeenschap community, township
  • gemeente town, municipality, parish
  • gemeenteraadslid councilman, town councilor
  • genaamd named
  • genaamt named
  • genealogie genealogy
  • genoemden named, mentioned
  • gerechtelijk(e) court, judicial
  • gerechtshof judicial court
  • Gereformeerd(e) Calvinist Reformed
  • gering small
  • gescheiden divorced
  • geschenk deed, gift, present
  • geschiedenis history
  • geslacht sex, gender
  • geslachtsboom pedigree, family tree
  • gestorven died
  • gestorven zonder nageslacht died without issue
  • geteekend signed, drew
  • getranscribeerd transcribed
  • getrouwd married
  • getuigen witnesses
  • gewesen former
  • gezegend blessed, the deceased
  • gezin immediate family
  • gezindheid religious affiliation
  • gezinslijst family group sheet
  • gezwel, gezwollenheid swelling, tumor
  • gezworene juryman, person under oath
  • gisteren yesterday
  • Godsbeschikking dispensation, God's will
  • godsdienst religion
  • goed good, right, correct
  • graaf count, earl
  • graafschap county, shire
  • graf grave, tomb
  • grasmaand gras month,April
  • grens border (between countries)
  • grensgebied border, region
  • groen green
  • groet greet, greeting
  • grondeigenaren property owners
  • groot large, big, great
  • groothandelaar trader, merchant
  • grootmoeder grandmother
  • grootvader grandfather
  • gulden guilder (unit of money)


  • haar, hare hair, her, hers
  • had(den) had
  • half half
  • halfbroeder half brother
  • halfzuster half sister
  • handel trade, occupation
  • handtekening signature
  • handwerksgezel journeyman
  • hebben to have
  • heden today
  • heel all, whole, entire, complete
  • heer master, gentleman, Mr.
  • Heer the Lord
  • heerschappen gentry, lords
  • hem him
  • hen, hun them, their, theirs
  • herbergier innkeeper
  • herder shepherd
  • herfst autumn, fall
  • herfstmaand fall month, September
  • Hernhutter Moravian
  • hertog duke
  • hertogdom duchy
  • hertogin duchess
  • Hervormd(e) Dutch reformed
  • Hessisch Hessian
  • het it, the
  • heuvel hill
  • hij he
  • hoe how
  • hoer harlot, immoral woman
  • hoesten cough
  • hoger upper, higher
  • hollands Dutch
  • honderd hundred
  • honderdste hundredth
  • hoofdplaats capital
  • hoog high
  • hooimaand hay month, July
  • houtvester forester
  • huidziekte measles
  • huis house
  • huisgezin immediate family
  • huishoudster housekeeper
  • huisland home, native country, homeland
  • huisvrouw housewife
  • huizenkant inside, side of a house 
  • hun their
  • huwelijksaangiften marriage intention
  • huwelijk marriage
  • huwelijksaf(aan)-kondigingen marriage banns
  • huwelijksbijlagen marriage supplements
  • huwelijksdag day of marriage
  • huwelijksfeest wedding
  • huwen to marry


  • immigrant immigrant
  • in in
  • ingekomen arrival, immigration
  • ingezetenen citizen, occupants
  • inhoud contents
  • inwoner inhabitant, citizen
  • is is
  • italiaans Italian
  • Italië Italy


  • jaar, jaren year, years
  • jaarlijks annual, yearly
  • jager hunter
  • Januarij, januari January
  • j.d. (jonge dochter) unmarried daughter
  • j.g. (jong gezel) young man, bachelor
  • jicht gout
  • j.m. (jonge man) young man, bachelor
  • jong(e) young
  • jongeling a youth, unmarried man
  • jongen boy
  • Jood Jew
  • joods(e) Jewish
  • juffrouw Miss, Madame
  • Julij, juli July
  • Junij, juni June


  • kamer room (in a house)
  • kan can
  • kanaal canal
  • kanker cancer
  • kantwerkster lacemaker
  • karman coachman
  • kasteel castle
  • Katholiek Catholic
  • keizerlijk imperial
  • keizerrijk empire
  • kerk church
  • kerkboek church book,parish register
  • kerkelijk(e) church (pertaining to church)
  • kerkelijk ambt parish office
  • kerkeraads-handelingen church minutes
  • kerkgenootschap religious affiliation
  • kerk meester church warden
  • kerk voogt church warden
  • kil stream, brook
  • kind, kinderen child, children
  • kinkhoest whooping cough
  • klapper index
  • kledinghandelaar clothier
  • kleermaker tailor
  • klein little, small
  • kleindochter granddaughter
  • kleiner smaller, lesser
  • kleinzoon grandson
  • klompenmaker wooden shoemaker
  • km. kilometer
  • knecht servant, laborer, journeyman
  • kohier(en) register(s), ledger(s)
  • koning king
  • koningin queen
  • koninklijk royal
  • koninkrijk kingdom
  • koopman buyer, seller, vendor, trader, merchant
  • kopen to buy
  • koperslager coppersmith
  • koster sexton
  • kraambed childbed
  • kraambed gestorven died in childbirth
  • kraambedkoorts puerperal fever, childbed fever
  • kramer seller, vendor, peddler
  • krampachtig convulsions
  • krampen cramps, convulsions
  • krijgen to receive
  • kuiper cooper
  • kunnen could
  • kwaal disease, complaint
  • kwaliteit status, quality
  • kwartierstaat pedigree, family tree


  • laat, laatste tijd late (in the day), lately
  • laatste latter, last
  • lakenvoller (-volder) clothier, fuller
  • land land, country
  • landbouwer farmer
  • landgoed, landbezit estate
  • landkaart map
  • landlieden farmers
  • landman cottager, farmer
  • land verlatend emigrant
  • laten to let, leave, allow
  • leeftijd age
  • leerjongen apprentice
  • leerling student, apprentice, pupil
  • leggen to place, put, impose, to lay
  • lente spring (season)
  • lentemaand spring month,March
  • leven to live
  • levend living
  • levenloos without life, stillborn
  • levens-beschrijving biography
  • lidmaten members, membership
  • linker hand left hand
  • links left (direction)
  • linnenwever linen weaver
  • logementhouder innkeeper
  • longontsteking pneumonia
  • longtering consumption, tuberculosis
  • looier tanner
  • louwmaand January
  • Lutheraan, Luthers Lutheran
  • lijk corpse
  • lijnslager rope maker


  • maagd virgin, maid, servant girl
  • maand month
  • maandag Monday
  • maar but
  • Maart March
  • mag may (might)
  • makelaar registers real estate registers
  • man husband, man
  • mannelijk male
  • markt market
  • mazelen measles
  • meer lake, more
  • meerderjarige of legal age
  • Meij, mei May
  • meier tenant farmer, bailiff
  • meisje girl
  • melkerij milk factory, dairy
  • melkfabriek milk factory, dairy
  • mengel (mingel) liquid measure, about one to two quarts
  • met with
  • met name named, alias
  • metselaar mason, bricklayer
  • meu aunt
  • meubelmaker furniture maker
  • middag ('s middags) afternoon (in the afternoon)
  • middernacht midnight
  • mijnheer Mr.
  • mijnwerker miner
  • militaire military
  • minderjarige minor, below legal age
  • misschien maybe, perhaps
  • missen to miss, lack
  • mocht might
  • moeder mother
  • moet(en) must
  • mogen may (might have), to allow
  • molen mill
  • mondig verklaring declaration of being of legal age
  • morgen unit of land area, about two acres
  • morgen ('s morgens) morning, tomorrow (in the morning)
  • mijl mile (varying lengths, up to 5.5 km.)


  • na after
  • naaister seamstress
  • naam name
  • naar to, toward, for, according to
  • naar gelang van to, after, according to
  • naast beside, following, next (to)
  • nabijkomen approach, approximate
  • nabuur neighbor
  • nacht ('s nachts) night (in the night)
  • namen names
  • namiddag, ('s namiddags) afternoon (in the afternoon)
  • neder low, lower (directional)
  • Nederland the Netherlands
  • nederlands Dutch
  • neef nephew, male cousin
  • neefje nephew, young male cousin
  • negen nine
  • negende ninth
  • negenentwintig twenty-nine
  • negenentwintigste twenty-ninth
  • negentien nineteen
  • negentiende nineteenth
  • negentig ninety
  • negentigste ninetieth
  • neger Negro
  • nicht niece, female cousin
  • nichtje niece, young female cousin
  • niet(s) no, none, not
  • niets nothing
  • nieuw new
  • nimmer never
  • noemen to christen, call, name
  • nog still, yet, other
  • nog in leven still living, surviving
  • nommer, nummer number
  • nooit never
  • noor(s) Norwegian
  • noord north
  • Noorwegen Norway
  • notaris notary
  • november November


  • october October
  • of or
  • om for, because of, at, round
  • oma grandma
  • omstreeks about, around 
  • on- un- (prefix)
  • onbekend unknown
  • onder under
  • ondergetekende the undersigned
  • ondertrouw betrothal (already registered)
  • ondertrouw betrothal (already registered)
  • onderwijzer (school) teacher
  • onderwijzeres female teacher
  • onecht kind illegitimate child
  • ongehuwd unmarried
  • ongeleerdheid illiterate, unlearned
  • ongetrouwd single, unmarried
  • ongeveer almost, approximately
  • onkunde inability, incompetence, ignorance, ignorance of
  • onmiddellijk right away, immediately
  • onmondigen minor, under age
  • ons, onze us, our
  • ontvangen to receive, received 
  • ontvanger tax collector
  • onwettig illegitimate, illegal
  • onze, ons us, our
  • opgesteld drafted
  • oogstmaand harvest month,August
  • ook also
  • oom uncle
  • oorkonden records, documents
  • oost east
  • op on, upon
  • opa grandpa
  • opgetreden appeared
  • op heden today, on this day
  • op hoge leeftijd at a great (old) age
  • opnemen to receive
  • opper upper
  • oprecht honest
  • optreden to appear
  • opziener overseer, inspector, guardian
  • organisatie organization, society
  • oud old (age)
  • ouder older, elder
  • ouderdom age
  • ouders parents
  • oudoom great-uncle
  • oudste eldest
  • oudtante great-aunt
  • over above, over, via
  • overeenkomst contract, agreement
  • overgrootmoeder great-grandmother
  • overgrootvader great-grandfather
  • overleden dead, deceased
  • overledene, de the deceased
  • overlevenden survivors
  • overlijden to die
  • overnemen to take over, adopt (an action)
  • overschrijven to extract


  • pachter tenant farmer, leaser, one who leases
  • pachter (van belastingen) publican, tax collector
  • Palts, de the Palatinate
  • Paltsgraafschap count palatine (the place)
  • paltsgrafelijk (from the) palatinate
  • parochie parish
  • parochieregisters parish registers
  • Pasen Easter, Passover
  • Pascha Paasover
  • pastoor pastor, priest (Roman Catholic church)
  • patroon manor lord, patron, employer
  • peet godfather, godparent, sponsor
  • peetoom godfather
  • peettante godmother
  • pensionering retirement
  • pest plague, pestilence
  • petemoei godmother
  • peten godparents
  • plaag plague, scourge
  • plaats place
  • planter planter, farmer
  • pokken smallpox
  • Polen Poland, Poles
  • pools Polish
  • poorter citizen, freeman
  • poortersboeken burgher registers
  • portugees Portuguese
  • predikant minister, clergyman (Protestant church)
  • prins prince
  • prinses princess
  • protestant protestant
  • protocol document, register
  • provinciaal provincial
  • provincie provinces
  • Pruis(isch) Prussian
  • Pruissen Prussia



  • raad council, counsel
  • recht right (correct), straight, law, justice
  • rechter judge, magistrate
  • rechter(zijde) right side
  • rechter hand right hand
  • rechterlijk legal, court (judicial)
  • rechtmatig rightful, right (correct)
  • rechts right (direction)
  • regering government, administration
  • rekeningen accounts, bills
  • rentenier retired tradesperson, man of means
  • rivier river
  • roede rod (unit of length, about twelve feet or 3.6 meters)
  • rond around, about
  • rood red
  • roodvonk scarlet fever
  • Rooms Katholiek Roman Catholic
  • ruim [ruim 80 = eighty plus years old] large, broad, wide, upwards of
  • Rus(sisch) Russian
  • Rusland Russia
  • rijk empire, kingdom, rich, wealthy
  • rijksarchief national and/orstate archive, public record office


  • 's = des of the

Sakser Saxon

  • samen together
  • schaapherder shepherd
  • scheeps of a ship (the ship's)
  • schenking donation, gift
  • schepen alderman, magistrate, ships
  • schepenakten city council records
  • schilder painter
  • schip ship
  • schipper barge man, boatman, skipper
  • schlepel unit of measure, about .7 to 1.3 bushels
  • schoenmaker shoemaker
  • school school
  • schoondochter daughter-in-law
  • schoonzoon son-in-law
  • schoonzuster sister-in-law
  • schriftgeleerde scribe
  • schrijnwerker cabinet maker, joiner
  • schrijver scribe, writer, author
  • schuit barge, boat
  • September September
  • sinds(dien) since
  • slachter, slager butcher
  • slachtmaand slaughter month,November
  • slag hit, stroke, blow
  • slager, slachter butcher
  • slechts but, only, merely
  • sloot ditch
  • slot lock, castle
  • slotenmaker locksmith
  • smid (black)smith
  • soldaat soldier
  • soms sometimes, besides, in addition to 
  • spaans Spanish
  • Spanjaard Spaniard
  • Spanje Spain
  • spoedig quickly, soon, speedy
  • sprokkelmaand wood gathering month, February
  • staat state
  • staats of the state
  • staatsburger citizen
  • stad city, town
  • stamboeken lineage books, genealogical register
  • stamboom pedigree
  • steeds always, still
  • steenbakker brick maker, stone mason
  • stellen to place, put, impose
  • sterven to die
  • stief- step-
  • straat street
  • stroom stream, river


  • 't = het the
  • taal language
  • tachtig eighty
  • tachtigste eightieth
  • tafel index, table
  • tanden krijgen getting teeth, teething
  • tante aunt
  • te at, to
  • tegelijk together, at the same time
  • tegen(over) against, across
  • tegenwoordigheid presence, the presence of
  • te huis at home
  • teraardebestelling burial, interment
  • testament last will, testament
  • thuis at home
  • tien ten
  • tiende tithing
  • tiende tenth
  • tienjarige tafels ten-year (decennial) index
  • tiental [tiental dagen = about ten days] decade
  • timmerman carpenter
  • toekomend future, next
  • toekomstig future, prostpective
  • toenaam surname
  • toestaan to let, grant, allow
  • toestemmen to consent
  • touwslager rope maker
  • trouwboek marriage book
  • trouwdag wedding day
  • trouwen to marry
  • tuberculose consumption, tuberculosis
  • tuin garden, yard
  • tuinman, tuinier gardener
  • tussen between
  • twaalf twelve
  • twaalfde twelfth
  • twee two
  • tweede second
  • tweeëntwintig twenty-two
  • tweeëntwintigste twenty-second
  • tweeling twins
  • twintig twenty
  • twintigste twentieth
  • tyfus typhoid fever
  • tyfuslijder typhoid patient
  • tijd time
  • tijdelijk temporary
  • tijdschrift periodical


  • uit out of, from
  • uiterlijk outward, external, appearance, at the latest
  • uitgeven to publish
  • uittrekken extract
  • uur hour, o'clock


  • vaak often
  • vader father
  • vallende ziekte epilepsy
  • van from, of
  • veehoeder herdsman
  • veertien fourteen
  • veertiende fourteenth
  • veertig forty
  • veertigste fortieth
  • veld field
  • veldwachter constable, policeman, patrolman, village policeman
  • verdrinking drowning
  • vergunning permission
  • verjaardag birthday
  • verklaard declared
  • verklaren to declare
  • verklaring declaration, affidavit, sworn statement
  • verkondigen publish (as in banns), proclaim
  • verlamming paralysis, stroke
  • verlaten to leave, left
  • verleden past
  • verlof leave (soldier's), permission
  • verloofd betrothed, engaged
  • verloofde(n) engaged person(s), fiancée, fiancé
  • verloving betrothal, engagement
  • verpandings-kohieren tax ledger
  • verscheiden to pass away or die, various, different
  • verschijnt appears
  • verstopping obstruction, blockage
  • vertering consumption, tuberculosis
  • vertrokken departed, moved, gone away
  • verver dyer, house painter
  • verwantschap relationship
  • verwijderen to remove, to withdraw
  • vestigen to settle, establish
  • vesting fortress
  • vier four
  • vierde fourth
  • vierentwintig twenty-four
  • vierentwintigste twenty-fourth
  • visser fisherman
  • vleeshouwer butcher
  • vlij marsh, swamp
  • V.O.C. Dutch East Indies Company
  • voerman coachman
  • volbracht performed, completed, finished
  • volbrengen to finish, complete
  • volgend following, next
  • volgende dag (the) following day
  • volgens to, after, according to, follows
  • volkstelling census, population records
  • volmacht authorization
  • voltooien to finish, complete
  • voltrekkingen solemnization
  • vondeling foundling
  • voogd guardian
  • voor for, in front of, before
  • vooraf(gang) previous, preceding
  • voorafgaand former
  • voorafgaande dag the previous day
  • voorbij [voorbij gaan = gone by] past, beyond, over
  • voorgaand previous, preceding
  • voorheen previous, formerly, in former days 
  • voorjaar spring (season)
  • voorlezing reading, reading aloud
  • voormeld  before mentioned, said, stated
  • voormiddag morning, forenoon (in the morning)
  • voornaam given name
  • voornoemde above-mentioned, aforesaid
  • voorouder ancestor
  • voortekening over his signature
  • voorts furthermore, moreover, further, addition, also
  • voortgebracht produced, generated, produced in, brought forth, emitted
  • voorvader ancestor, forefather
  • vorig previous, preceding
  • vorige dag previous day
  • vormer framer, molder
  • vormsel Catholic confirmation
  • vorst monarch, sovereign, ruler
  • vorstendom principality
  • vreemd foreign, strange
  • vriend friend
  • vrijboer farmer owner 
  • vrijdag Friday
  • vrijgezel bachelor
  • vroedmeester man who assists in childbirth
  • vroedvrouw midwife
  • vroeg(tijdig) early (a.m.), prematurely, untimely
  • vroeger formerly, earlier
  • vrouw woman, wife, Mrs.
  • vrouw(spersoon) wife, woman, female
  • vrouwelijk female
  • V.W.C. Dutch West Indies Company
  • vijf five
  • vijfde fifth
  • vijfentwintig twenty-five
  • vijfentwintigste twenty-fifth
  • vijftien fifteen
  • vijftiende fifteenth
  • vijftig fifty
  • vijftigste fiftieth


  • waar where
  • waaraan which
  • waarheen where to
  • waarom why
  • wagenmaker cartwright, wagon builder, coach builder
  • wanneer when
  • wapen heraldic crest, coat of arms
  • waren were, goods
  • was was
  • wat what, how
  • waterzucht dropsy
  • weduwe widow
  • weduwnaar widower
  • week week
  • weeskamer orphan's court
  • weeskind orphan
  • wegens because of
  • weinig little, small, few 
  • welk(e) which
  • wellicht maybe, perhaps
  • werkman laborer
  • west west
  • wet law
  • wethouder alderman
  • wettelijk legal
  • wettelijk kind legitimate child
  • wettig lawful, legal
  • wever weaver
  • wie who
  • wieldraaijer wheelwright
  • wil will, desire, wish, consent
  • wilde(n) Indian(s) (in New York), savage(s)
  • willen to want to
  • winkelier(ster) shopkeeper male (female)
  • winter winter
  • wintermaand winter month,December
  • wit white
  • woensdag Wednesday
  • wonende residing
  • woonachtig resident, living at
  • woonplaats residence, domicile, dwelling place
  • woordenboek dictionary
  • worden to become, be
  • woud forest
  • wij we
  • wijk district, area, section, ward
  • wijlen late (deceased), the late, blessed
  • wijnmaand wine month, October




  • ijs ice
  • IJsland Iceland
  • ijzer iron
  • ijzer smelterij iron foundry
  • ijzersmid smith, blacksmith
  • ijzerwaren hardware
  • ijzerwerker ironworder


  • zaken trade, business, case, affairs
  • zaterdag Saturday
  • ze they, she
  • zeeman sailor
  • zeepzieder soap maker
  • zelfde the same
  • zes six
  • zesde sixth
  • zesentwintig twenty-six
  • zesentwintigste twenty-sixth
  • zestien sixteen
  • zestiende sixteenth
  • zestig sixty
  • zestigste sixtieth
  • zetten to place, put, impose
  • zeven seven
  • zevende seventh
  • zevenentwintig twenty-seven
  • zevenentwintigste twenty-seventh
  • zevenstigte seventieth
  • zeventien seventeen
  • zeventiende seventeenth
  • zeventig seventy
  • zie see
  • ziekte disease, illness
  • zomer summer
  • zomermaand summer month, June
  • zondag Sunday
  • zonder without
  • zoon son
  • zoontje little son, small son
  • zou should
  • zuid south
  • zuigeling baby, suckling
  • zuivelboer dairy farmer
  • zuster sister
  • zwager brother-in-law
  • zwakheid weakness
  • zwakte weak
  • zwanger pregnant
  • zwart black
  • zwarten Negroes, blacks
  • Zweden Sweden
  • zweeds Swedish
  • zwelling swelling, tumor
  • Zwitserland Switzerland
  • zwitsers Swiss
  • zij she, they
  • zijn its, his, to be, are
  • zijrivier tributary, river, stream