Viking Age in Norway
From an archeological point of view the age of the Vikings was from about 800 to about 1100 A.D. Seen historical it is more specifically defined from the battle at Lindisfarne in 793 to the fight at Stamford Bridge in 1066. Even though the first Viking attack happened at Portland in 789 it is the plundering of the Cloister at Lindisfarne in 793 that the Vikings show up in European history.
The Vikings quickly got a poor reputation among the then Christian Europeans. But the Viking Age was also driven by commerce, not only in Europe, but also in the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic countries.
This was also a time for emigration or expansion. Reasons for this are varied.
- Iron was brought into use in agriculture which changed the productive environment and caused a shortage of tillable land.
- Many chose plundering as the simplest way to support themselves.
- The small tribes or groups of people were brought into a united kingdom.
- The king had greater power and demanded taxes.
- Many would rather try their luck outside the country than to live under the rule of a king.
Norway Vikings were most active to the north and west. New settlements were built on the north coast of Norway and to the west in Iceland, Færø Islands, Shetland, the Orkney Islands, Scotland, and Ireland. Later they also went to Greenland and to America (Vinland).