- 1800 Census--Lists of territorial residents in 1800 also exist for Washington County.
- 1810 Census--Returns for the 1810 were almost entirely destroyed. All that remains of the 1810 census are the returns for Washington County.
- 1820-1930 Census--The Family History Library has the U.S. Federal censuses of Ohio for 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, and 1930.
- 1890 Census--Returns for the 1890 were almost entirely destroyed. All that remains of the 1890 census are military schedules listing widows and pensioners from the Civil War.
Census Substitute--Some early tax records have been compiled and indexed to substitute for the early censuses. 
Ancestry--All federal census years available for Ohio are indexed on Ancestry.
State Wide Indexes
Statewide indexes for the 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, and 1880 censuses are available in book format. Soundex (phonetic) indexes are on microfilm for the 1880, 1900, 1910, and 1920 censuses. Be aware that the 1880 soundex index is incomplete and includes only those families with children born between 1870 and 1880. Either check the 1880 index in book format or search the actual census for the place where your ancestors lived.
When indexes are not available or a name is omitted from an index you can still look for the name in the census. To find a person who lived in a large city, it helps to first find his or her address in the city directory for the same year as the census (see Ohio Directories). Then look for that address on the original census schedules.
The following reference tools help determine which census schedule microfilm and enumeration district to search for specific addresses:
- A Handy Guide to Record- Searching in the Larger Cities of the United States Includes ward maps and street indexes for Cincinnati, 1850 to 1855.
Census Descriptions of Geographic Subdivisions and Enumerations Districts.
- 1830 Family History Library 
- 1840 Family History Library 
- 1850 Family History Library 
- 1860 Family History Library 
- 1870 Family History Library 
- 1880 Family History Library 
- 1900 Family History Library 
- 1910 Family History Library 
- 1920 Family History Library 
- 1930 Family History Library 
- United States. Bureau of the Census. Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts, 1910 Census  Often referred to as the 39 Cities Index, it lists street addresses with corresponding census enumeration districts for Canton, Cleveland, Dayton, and Youngstown.
Mortality schedules (lists of deaths in the year preceding the census) exist for the years 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880. The 1850 schedule includes only counties beginning alphabetically with Hamilton through Wyandot. The 1860 schedule includes all counties, the 1870 includes only Seneca County, and the 1880 includes the counties Adams through Geauga. These records are available at the State Library of Ohio and at the Family History Library. Some have been indexed. For online mortality schedules see: Mortality Schedules 1850-1880
State and Territorial Censuses
- Access Genealogy
- Census Online
- Genealogy Today
- Heritage Quest Online
- Mortality Schedules
- Jackson, Ronald Vern, ed. Early Ohio Census Records. Second Edition. Bountiful, Utah: Accelerated Indexing Systems, 1974. (Family History Library book 977.1 X2p.)
- Kirkham, E. Kay. A Handy Guide to Record- Searching in the Larger Cities of the United States. Logan, Utah: Everton, 1974. (Family History Library book 973 D27kc; fiche 6010059-60.)
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- (on 51 Family History Library fiche 6331481.)