Oklahoma in the Civil War

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United States Gotoarrow.png U.S. Civil War Gotoarrow.png Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png Oklahoma Military Gotoarrow.png Oklahoma in the Civil War

Confederate General Stand Watie (1806-1871)


Introduction

During the Civil War, most of the area of present-day Oklahoma, was called the Indian Territory. The Five Civilized Tribes decided to support the Confederacy, and about 3500 Indians served in Confederate units. Two major Oklahoma units were the Confederate Indian Brigade and the Union Indian Home Guard.[1]

Many Indians also served in regiments in the Confederate Regular Troops and in other state regiments.

Oklahoma Military Units

Confederate Indian Brigades

First Indian Cavalry Brigade (Confederate)

Created early 1864 when Major General Samuel B. Maxey reorganized Confederate troops in Indian Territory. Colonel Stand Watie was its commander.[2]

Second Indian Cavalry Brigade (Confederate)

Created early 1864 when Major General Samuel B. Maxey reorganized Confederate troops in Indian Territory. Colonel Tandy Walker was its commander. It was mostly composed of veteran soldiers from various Choctaw and Chickasaw units.[3]

Union Indian Home Guard

  • 2nd Regiment, Indian Home Guard (Oklahoma) (Union)
    Organized on Big Creek and at Five-Mile Creek, Kansas, June 22 to July 18, 1862.
    Commanded by Colonel John Ritchie
    Consisted of one company each of Delaware, Kickapoo, Quapaw, Seneca, and Shawnee, two companies of Osage, and two of Cherokee.[4]

Confederate Sources

Service Records Index

  • Chase, Marybelle W., transcriber, Index to Civil War service records - Watie's Cherokee Regiments, (Tulsa, Oklahoma : M.W. Chase, 1989), 32 pages. Includes the following: First Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (Watie's Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers; 2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles, Arkansas; 1st Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen); 1st Cherokee Squadron Mounted Volunteers (Holt's Squadron Cherokee Mounted Volunteers); Second Cherokee Mounted Volunteers (2d Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles or Riflemen). FHL book 973 M22cm. Other libraries (WorldCat).

Pension Records

Rosters

Civil War Rosters (accessed 18 April 2012) has rosters for the:

  • 1st Cherokee Mtd.Rifles Co. A That Fought For The South
  • 1st Cherokee Mtd.Rifles Co. B That Fought For The South

Union Sources

Service Records

For information on Union service records, see Union Service Records.

Pension Records

  • Civil War Pension Index Cards - An Index to Pension Applications of veterans who served in the US Army between 1861-1917 is available on FamilySearch. Each card gives the soldier’s name, application and certificate numbers, state of enlistment, and might include rank and death information. The majority of the records are of Civil War veterans, but the collection also includes records for veterans of the Spanish-American War, the Philippine Insurrection, the Indian Wars, and World War I. For more information see Union Pension Records.

1890 Census Veterans Schedules

  • 1890 Census Veterans Schedules - The "Special Schedules of the Eleventh Census (1890) Enumerating Union Veterans and Widows of Union Veterans of the Civil War" (NARA M123) are available online for the state of Oklahoma. The schedules list Union veterans and their widows living in Oklahoma in 1890. For more information on the 1890 Veterans Schedules see Union Census Records.

Other Sources

Internet Sites
Union Sources

General Books and Microfilms

  • Abel, Annie Heloise, The American Indian as Slaveholder and Secessionist, Reprint. Originally published: Cleveland: Arthur H. Clarke Co., 1915. (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, c1992). Internet Archive. FHL book 970.1 Ab34ai
  • Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division. Civil War Records, 1862-1888, (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma : Oklahoma Historical Society, Indian Archives Division, 1976- ), one microfilm,FHL film 1666362 item 6
  • Warde, Mary Jane. 'Now the Wolf Has Come': The Civilian Civil War in the Indian Territory. The Chronicles of Oklahoma, Vol 71 (Spring 1993).

References

  1. The Handybook for Genealogists, 10th ed., (Logan, UT: Everton Publishers, c2002), p. 549.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Oklahoma Historical Society, First Indian Cavalry Brigade, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 4 August 2011) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "OHS" defined multiple times with different content
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Oklahoma Historical Society, Second Indian Cavalry Brigade, article in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture (accessed 4 August 2011)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wikipedia contributors, Indian Home Guard (American Civil War) article (accessed 5 August 2011).