Difference between revisions of "Old South Carolina State Road"

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''[[United States|United States]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Migration Internal|Migration]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[US Migration Trails and Roads|Trails and Roads]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[South Carolina|South Carolina]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Old South Carolina State Road|Old South Carolina State Road]]''
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[[Image:Old South Carolina State Road.png|border|right|380px]]The '''Old South Carolina State Road''' connected the Lower Cherokee Indian villages, in particular [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] just southwest of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savannah_River Savannah River] in what is now [[Georgia]] (but also villages in [[South Carolina|South Carolina]]), with several Indian trails, especially the [[Great Indian Warpath]] or [[Great Valley Road]] as it was called in [[Virginia]]. Tugaloo, Georgia was at a nexus of several other Indian trails. The Great Valley Road was one of the most significant settler migration routes in America. The Old South Carolina State Road was not fully opened to European settlers until the Cherokee were forced out of South Carolina and part of Georgia in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War after the Cherokee sided with the British in that war. The Old South Carolina State Road began in [[Stephens County, Georgia]] and ended in [[Washington County, Virginia]]. The length of the trail was about 150 miles (241 km).<ref name="HBG">''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 852. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}). [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.]</ref>
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=== Historical Background  ===
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Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), and German farmers migrating along the [[Great Valley Road]] (sometimes called the Great Wagon Road) through Virginia began settling the counties near the north end of the [[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] in the 1750s. However, during part of the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1763 they decided to leave the Washington County, Virginia area. Some settlers after the war in Johnson County, Tennessee and Watauga County, North Carolina were pushing beyond the Proclamation line protecting Indians from intruders. Many of the re-settlers in the area became involved in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association Watauga Association] (a semi-automomous government) starting in 1772.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Watauga Association," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association (accessed 8 April 2011).</ref> In turn this led to the tentative and short-lived [[State of Franklin|State of Franklin]].
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The south end of the [[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] was in [[Oconee County, South Carolina]] at the convergence of several Indian trails and settler roads mostly leading to the lower [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee Indian]] village of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] across the Savannah River in [[Stephens County, Georgia]]. Tugaloo was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in Georgia and South Carolina. Before the Revolutionary War Cherokees resisted white settlements on their land. During the American Revolutionary War the Cherokee Indians took sides with the British. By 1777 Patriot forces had driven the Indians from the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] in South Carolina, and Tugaloo, Georgia, and Patriot veterans began settling the area.
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As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.
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=== Route  ===
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The first European colonists settled in counties along this trail (north to south) as follows:<ref>North Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/NC/Counties/nc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 7 April 2011), and South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 7 April 2011).</ref>
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:*[[Washington County, Virginia]] 1750s by Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), and Germans (abandoned during French and Indian War 1754-1763)<ref>"County History" in ''Historical Society of Washington County, Va.'' at http://hswcv.org/history.html (accessed 7 April 2011).</ref>
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:*[[Johnson County, Tennessee]] about 1769 mostly by English, including Scots-Irish, and Germans<ref>"Johnson County History" in ''The Original Johnson County, Tennessee Genealogy Page'' at http://jctcuzins.org/history/johnhist.html (accessed 7 April 2011).</ref>
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:*[[Watauga County, North Carolina]] 1760s by Scots-Irish
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:*[[Caldwell County, North Carolina]] 1760s from Burke and Wilkes Counties, NC
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:*[[Burke County, North Carolina]] 1760s by English/Welsh, and then Scots-Irish
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:*[[McDowell County, North Carolina]] 1760s from Burke and Rutherford Counties, NC
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:*[[Rutherford County, North Carolina]] 1750s by Scots-Irish
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:*[[Polk County, North Carolina]] 1760s from Rutherford County, NC
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:*[[Spartanburg County, South Carolina]] 1755 by Scots-Irish
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:*[[Greenville County, South Carolina]] 1777 by Scots-Irish, and Revolutionary War Veterans
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:*[[Pickens County, South Carolina]] 1753 by English and Scots-Irish near [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Prince_George_(South_Carolina) Fort Prince George] near [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keowee_(Cherokee_town) Keowee], the primary Lower Cherokee village.
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:*[[Oconee County, South Carolina]] 1784 by Germans, and Revolutionary War Veterans
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:*[[Stephens County, Georgia]] about 1777 by Revolutionary War Veterans
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'''Connecting trails.''' The Old South Carolina State Road linked to other trails at each end. Other trails also crossed it in the middle.
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The migration pathways connected at the ''north'' end in [[Washington County, Virginia]] included:
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:*[[Great Indian Warpath]] pre-historic (overlapped by the [[Great Valley Road]] opened to European settlers about 1744).
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:*[[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] pre-historic
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:*[[Wilderness Road]] 1775
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The migration routes connected at the ''south'' end in [[Oconee County, South Carolina]], or in Tugaloo, [[Stephens County, Georgia|Stephens, Georgia]] included:
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:*Savannah River pre-historic
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:*[[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] pre-historic
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:*[[Lower Cherokee Traders' Path]] pre-historic
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:*[[Coosa-Tualoo Indian Warpath]]
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:*[[Tugaloo-Apalachie Bay Trail]]
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:*[[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]] about 1777
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:*[[Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path|Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path]] about 1777
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:*[[Upper Road]] about 1783
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:*[[Unicoi Trail]] or Turnpike 1813<ref>William E. Myer, ''Indian Trails of the Southeast''. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971). ({{FHL|54678|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 M992i}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523234 WorldCat entry].</ref>
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''Between'' those two ends the [[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] was also crossed by several other important routes:
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:*[[Jonesboro Road]] after 1769 crossed the Old South Carolina State Road near the Burke/McDowell county border, NC. The Jonesboro Road connected New Bern, North Carolina to Jonesborough and Knoxville, Tennessee.
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:*[[Rutherford's War Trace]] opended in 1776 through the same place because it overlapped the Jonesboro Road there.
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:*[[Catawba Trail]] a pre-historic route met the Old South Carolina State Road near the North Carolina/South Carolina border. The Catawba Trail connected the Lower Cherokee villages with the Cumberland Gap and [[Wilderness Road]] into Kentucky.
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:*[[Old South Carolina State Road]] opened in 1747 and met the Old South Carolina State Road near the North Carolina/South Carolina border. The Old South Carolina State Road zig-zagged its way to Columbia and Charleston, South Carolina.
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'''Modern parallels.''' The modern roads that roughly match the old Old South Carolina State Road start in Toccoa, Georgia. From Toccoa, take US-123 east to Easley, South Carolina, then east on US-124 to Greenville. Go north on US-25 to SC-11. Turn east on SC-11 to Gowensville. Take SC-14 north to Landrum, then northwest on US-176/Asheville Highway to Tryon, North Carolina. Turn north and then east onto NC-108 to Rutherfordton. Take US-64 north to Lenoir, then go north on US-321 to Boone. Take US-421 to Mountain City, then turn northeast onto NC-91 to Damascus, Tennessee. From Damascus take US-58 northwest to I-81, the Interstate version of the Great Valley Road.
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=== Settlers and Records  ===
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The Great Valley Road was the trail leading to the north end of the Old South Carolina State Road. A few colonists settled in Washington County Virginia in the early 1750s but decided to leave for safety reasons during the French and Indian War. The Lower Cherokee Villages on the South Carolina and Georgia part of the Old South Carolina State Road inhibited most European settlements until the American Revolutionary War. Settlers prior to 1777 were most likely using trails other than the Old South Carolina State Road to reach their new homes.
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No complete list of settlers who used the '''Old South Carolina State Road''' is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal pioneer settlers who arrived after 1777 and therefore who were the most likely candidates to have traveled the Old South Carolina State Road.
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For partial lists of early settlers who '''''may&nbsp;''''' have used the Old South Carolina State Road, see histories like:
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'''''in Washington County, VA:'''''
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*Lewis Preston Summers, ''History of Southwest Virginia, 1746-1786, Washington County, 1777-1870'' (1903; reprint, Baltimore: Regional Pub. Co., 1971) ({{FHL|353261|item|disp=FHL Book 975.5 H2sLp 1971; Film 162046}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/212906700 WorldCat entry].
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'''''in Oconee County, SC:'''''
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*Frederick Van Clayton, ''Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800'' (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) ({{FHL|397544|item|disp=FHL Book 975.72 W2c}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18802872 WorldCat entry]. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."
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'''''in Stephens County, GA:'''''
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*Katheryn Curtis Trogdon, ''History of Stephens County, Georgia'' (Toccoa, Ga.: Toccoa Womans Club, [c1973]). ({{FHL|160782|item|disp=FHL Book 975.813 H2t}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/623349 WorldCat entry].
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=== External Links  ===
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*[http://gaz.jrshelby.com/cherokee-lower.htm Cherokee Lower Towns] has maps of town locations, a link to a Revolutionary War battle database, sources, and list of Revolutionary War battles involving Cherokees.
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*[http://files.usgwarchives.org/ga/history/earlytrails.txt Georgia History Early Trails] describes westward migration on and route of the Lower Cherokee Traders' Path and other routes through Georgia.
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*Wikipedia contributors, "Tugaloo," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo (accessed 5 April 2011).
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*Wikipedia contributors, "Great Wagon Road," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wagon_Road (accessed 7 April 2011).
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=== Sources  ===
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{{reflist}} {{Georgia|Georgia}}{{North Carolina}}{{South Carolina|South Carolina}}{{Tennessee}}{{Virginia}}
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<div></div>
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[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:Virginia]] [[Category:Washington_County,_Virginia]] [[Category:Tennessee]] [[Category:Johnson_County,_Tennessee]] [[Category:North_Carolina]] [[Category:Watauga_County,_North_Carolina]] [[Category:Caldwell_County,_North_Carolina]] [[Category:Burke_County,_North_Carolina]] [[Category:McDowell_County,_North_Carolina]] [[Category:Rutherford_County,_North_Carolina]] [[Category:Polk_County,_North_Carolina]] [[Category:South_Carolina]] [[Category:Spartanburg_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Greenville_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Pickens_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Oconee_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Georgia]] [[Category:Stephens_County,_Georgia]]

Revision as of 11:33, 9 April 2011

United States  Gotoarrow.png  Migration  Gotoarrow.png  Trails and Roads  Gotoarrow.png  South Carolina  Gotoarrow.png  Old South Carolina State Road

Old South Carolina State Road.png
The Old South Carolina State Road connected the Lower Cherokee Indian villages, in particular Tugaloo just southwest of the Savannah River in what is now Georgia (but also villages in South Carolina), with several Indian trails, especially the Great Indian Warpath or Great Valley Road as it was called in Virginia. Tugaloo, Georgia was at a nexus of several other Indian trails. The Great Valley Road was one of the most significant settler migration routes in America. The Old South Carolina State Road was not fully opened to European settlers until the Cherokee were forced out of South Carolina and part of Georgia in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War after the Cherokee sided with the British in that war. The Old South Carolina State Road began in Stephens County, Georgia and ended in Washington County, Virginia. The length of the trail was about 150 miles (241 km).[1]

Historical Background

Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), and German farmers migrating along the Great Valley Road (sometimes called the Great Wagon Road) through Virginia began settling the counties near the north end of the Old South Carolina State Road in the 1750s. However, during part of the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1763 they decided to leave the Washington County, Virginia area. Some settlers after the war in Johnson County, Tennessee and Watauga County, North Carolina were pushing beyond the Proclamation line protecting Indians from intruders. Many of the re-settlers in the area became involved in the Watauga Association (a semi-automomous government) starting in 1772.[2] In turn this led to the tentative and short-lived State of Franklin.

The south end of the Old South Carolina State Road was in Oconee County, South Carolina at the convergence of several Indian trails and settler roads mostly leading to the lower Cherokee Indian village of Tugaloo across the Savannah River in Stephens County, Georgia. Tugaloo was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in Georgia and South Carolina. Before the Revolutionary War Cherokees resisted white settlements on their land. During the American Revolutionary War the Cherokee Indians took sides with the British. By 1777 Patriot forces had driven the Indians from the Lower Cherokee Villages in South Carolina, and Tugaloo, Georgia, and Patriot veterans began settling the area.

As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.

Route

The first European colonists settled in counties along this trail (north to south) as follows:[3]

Connecting trails. The Old South Carolina State Road linked to other trails at each end. Other trails also crossed it in the middle.

The migration pathways connected at the north end in Washington County, Virginia included:

The migration routes connected at the south end in Oconee County, South Carolina, or in Tugaloo, Stephens, Georgia included:

Between those two ends the Old South Carolina State Road was also crossed by several other important routes:

  • Jonesboro Road after 1769 crossed the Old South Carolina State Road near the Burke/McDowell county border, NC. The Jonesboro Road connected New Bern, North Carolina to Jonesborough and Knoxville, Tennessee.
  • Rutherford's War Trace opended in 1776 through the same place because it overlapped the Jonesboro Road there.
  • Catawba Trail a pre-historic route met the Old South Carolina State Road near the North Carolina/South Carolina border. The Catawba Trail connected the Lower Cherokee villages with the Cumberland Gap and Wilderness Road into Kentucky.
  • Old South Carolina State Road opened in 1747 and met the Old South Carolina State Road near the North Carolina/South Carolina border. The Old South Carolina State Road zig-zagged its way to Columbia and Charleston, South Carolina.

Modern parallels. The modern roads that roughly match the old Old South Carolina State Road start in Toccoa, Georgia. From Toccoa, take US-123 east to Easley, South Carolina, then east on US-124 to Greenville. Go north on US-25 to SC-11. Turn east on SC-11 to Gowensville. Take SC-14 north to Landrum, then northwest on US-176/Asheville Highway to Tryon, North Carolina. Turn north and then east onto NC-108 to Rutherfordton. Take US-64 north to Lenoir, then go north on US-321 to Boone. Take US-421 to Mountain City, then turn northeast onto NC-91 to Damascus, Tennessee. From Damascus take US-58 northwest to I-81, the Interstate version of the Great Valley Road.

Settlers and Records

The Great Valley Road was the trail leading to the north end of the Old South Carolina State Road. A few colonists settled in Washington County Virginia in the early 1750s but decided to leave for safety reasons during the French and Indian War. The Lower Cherokee Villages on the South Carolina and Georgia part of the Old South Carolina State Road inhibited most European settlements until the American Revolutionary War. Settlers prior to 1777 were most likely using trails other than the Old South Carolina State Road to reach their new homes.

No complete list of settlers who used the Old South Carolina State Road is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal pioneer settlers who arrived after 1777 and therefore who were the most likely candidates to have traveled the Old South Carolina State Road.

For partial lists of early settlers who may  have used the Old South Carolina State Road, see histories like:

in Washington County, VA:

in Oconee County, SC:

  • Frederick Van Clayton, Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800 (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) (FHL Book 975.72 W2c) WorldCat entry. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."

in Stephens County, GA:

External Links

Sources

  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 852. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002). WorldCat entry.
  2. Wikipedia contributors, "Watauga Association," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association (accessed 8 April 2011).
  3. North Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/NC/Counties/nc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 7 April 2011), and South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 7 April 2011).
  4. "County History" in Historical Society of Washington County, Va. at http://hswcv.org/history.html (accessed 7 April 2011).
  5. "Johnson County History" in The Original Johnson County, Tennessee Genealogy Page at http://jctcuzins.org/history/johnhist.html (accessed 7 April 2011).
  6. William E. Myer, Indian Trails of the Southeast. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971). (FHL Book 970.1 M992i) WorldCat entry.