Panama Canal Zone
The Canal Zone was not a "territory" of the United States in the typical sense. From 1903-1936 the Panama Canal Zone was controlled by the U.S. government under the terms of the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty. The 1936 Hull-Alfaro Treaty, ratified by the US Senate in 1939, indicated the Canal Zone was the "territory of the Republic of Panama under the jurisdiction of the United States of America." From 1979-1999, after the Torrijos-Carter treaties were signed, it was jointly administered by the United States and Panama.
At least two United States federal censuses were taken in the Panama Canal Zone.
For more in-depth research in Panama, see the Panama article.
- Panama Canal Zone Records
- Looking for an Ancestor in the Panama Canal Zone, 1904-1914 (NARA)
- The Makers of the Panama Canal, 1911 (Biographies)
- "Controlling the Canal," PBS Online NewsHour (http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/december99/panama_canal1.html: accessed 2 May 2010).
- "Panama Canal Zone," Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panama_Canal_Zone: accessed 18 August 2008).
- "Panama Canal Zone Records," FamilySearch Wiki (https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Panama_Canal_Zone_Records#U.S._Census_Records : accessed 18 August 2008).