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The following article by the Max-Planck- Institute explains the development of census taking throughout Germany with graphics for a quick overview of how each German state handled the issue. Read the article at http://www.demogr.mpg.de/papers/working/wp-2009-023.pdf
The 1852 census of the kingdom of Hannover
For the first time the entire population was registered in 1852. All former census taking between 1833 and 1848 as well as during the French occupation between 1811 and 1813 and local census taking listed only head of households. In 1852, wives and children, servants, widows etc. were accounted for. Also, temporary inhabitants were listed, such as journeymen, students, patients in hospitals and inmates. The only group not accounted for were soldiers. They appear in separate lists.
Complete information was written in original lists, so called “Urlisten”, which were signed by the mayor or city official. Besides names, these lists contained occupation, age, religion as well as an address. Lists were preserved and are available for 175 Ämter (administrations) and 45 cities of the kingdom. They can be found in the state archives of Aurich, Osnabrück and Stade, in Hannover and as well as in some local archives.
Information about the population of Amt Achim, Amt Hoya, Amt Martfeld and the city of Bodenwerder are online at www.hist.de-Ortsliste?Volkszaehlung.htm#H , the website www.edition-hist.de can be accessed for further information.
Here is a list of villages from the 1852 census as referred to above
Familysearch.org has a collection of census records