East Prussia Land and Property
Grundherrschaft and Gutsherrschaft in Germany
Through the centuries most of our ancestors lived in rural areas and came under the auspices of a Grund- or Gutsherr (landowner). Most cultivable land was owned by them – less by small farmers, although it was possible for a Grundherr to lease land to more or less independent farmers. A Grundherr can be lord over a small area, does not have to be a nobleman and can also be a monastery. A manorial system was complex and embraced all aspects of life. A Gutsherr, also a manor lord, owned land and managed it through workers. The farmers of the surrounding area were his subordinates and their affairs were regulated by him or his administrator.
There were three forms of manorial systems:
2. Interest or annuity based
3. Manorial or patrimonial based
This system consisted of a manor and a couple of dependent farms. The manor lord owned acreage, meadows, gardens, woods, lakes, rivers, canals, vineyards and mills. The manor lord lived either at the manor house or had his administrator (Villikus) conduct the business. This man was responsible to collect contributions from the farmers, also called Grundholden. He had the power to hold court. Even if some farmers were independent, somehow they became part of the multifaceted enterprise of the manor.
• The interest or annuity based system
This system very much functioned as villication did, only there did not exist the right to ownership. The manor lord leased the land and collected interest or annuities. This form of manorial system was prevalent in areas of clearing or colonization.
• The manorial or patrimonial system
East of the Elbe River in Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, East/West Prussia, Silesia (Ober-/Niederlausitz) the Gutsherrschaft was prominent. A Gut consisted of a castle like manor house to which was attached a large farming area and smaller farming units (Vorwerk). A Gutsherr was interested in expansion by re-cultivating waste lands and annexing or buying farmlands. In this wise an entire village could become part of the Gutsherrschaft and economic growth be ensured. The entire area was cultivated by farm hands, subordinate farmers and squatters (Gärtner, Häusler). The members of a Gut were part of a more or less crushing personal dependence. Dependents had to observe Erbuntertänigkeit (subservience which was inheritable) Schollenpflicht (tied to the area) and Gesindedienstzwang (had to provide services by waiting in the wings). Gutsherrschaft was spreading because authoritative laws were transferred to the Gutsherrr of noble descent. He exercised police powers and patrimonial jurisprudence.
With all these regulations, obligations, stipulations etc. there are numerous records re. land transactions, regulative and obligatory actions involving our ancestors who dwelled in rural Germany. See the following examples:
Prästationstabellen were property tax registers for the royal villages in Prussia beginning in 1723. These records contain besides information about the ecomonic situation of a village lists of farmers. These lists were renewed every 6 years. With the year 1787 Prästationstabellen are especially valuabe since they contain information from the property and mortgage records, which contained information about the acquisition of a property. There do not exist lists for properties of nobility (Rittergüter, Dominia) as well as city properties. Within Prästationstabellen are also lists of millings.
Since the land reforms of the 19th century Erbpacht (inheritable leases) were abolished and the buying of property was possible. The land now became properties rather than leases. With this change the Prästationstabellen disappeared (1850). The records for such Ablösungen or Austuungen (discharge) are in the Generalkommissionen at Breslau for Silesia as well as in Bromberg for Poznan and West Prussia. The Prästationstabellen were replaced to some degree through Kataster done by Katasterämter starting in the year 1861.
see also this article at http://genealogischenotizen.blogspot.com/2010/06/die-praestationstabellen-als.html
Some records of Prästationstabellen for East Prussia are available through www.familysearch.org catalog, keyword search Prastationstabellen. Film can be ordered through the Family History Center network.