Difference between revisions of "Research in the Austro-Hungarian Empire"

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The Holy Roman Empire was the major political entity in the heart of Europe between 1500 and 1806. Austrian Empire begin in 1814 and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or the Dual Monarchy, after 1867.
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The Holy Roman Empire was the major political entity in the heart of Europe between 1500 and 1806. Austrian Empire begin in 1814 and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or the Dual Monarchy, after 1867.  
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==The kingdoms and crownlands of the Austrian Empire==
  
 
The Austrian part of the dual monarchy did not have its own historic name and was officially called the "kingdoms and crownlands represented in the imperial parliament." It came to be known as Austria, or ''Cisleithania'', which refers to "the lands on this side of the Leitha River", from the perspective of Vienna. The river formed part of the boundary of Austria and Hungary. ''Cisleithania'' comprised Austria proper, Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia, Slovenia, and Austrian Poland. The Hapsburgs ruled there as Austria's emperors.  
 
The Austrian part of the dual monarchy did not have its own historic name and was officially called the "kingdoms and crownlands represented in the imperial parliament." It came to be known as Austria, or ''Cisleithania'', which refers to "the lands on this side of the Leitha River", from the perspective of Vienna. The river formed part of the boundary of Austria and Hungary. ''Cisleithania'' comprised Austria proper, Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia, Slovenia, and Austrian Poland. The Hapsburgs ruled there as Austria's emperors.  
  
 
The kingdoms and crownlands of the Austrian Empire were:
 
The kingdoms and crownlands of the Austrian Empire were:
the Kingdom of Bohemia
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*the Kingdom of Bohemia
the Kingdom of Dalmatia
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*the Kingdom of Dalmatia
the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
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*the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
the Archduchy of Austria, which included Upper Austria and Lower Austria
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*the Archduchy of Austria, which included Upper Austria and Lower Austria
the Duchy of Bukovina
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*the Duchy of Bukovina
the Duchy of Carinthia
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*the Duchy of Carinthia
the Duchy of Carniola
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*the Duchy of Carniola
the Duchy of Salzburg
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*the Duchy of Salzburg
the Duchy of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia
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*the Duchy of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia
the Duchy of Styria
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*the Duchy of Styria
the Margravate of Moravia
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*the Margravate of Moravia
the Princely County of Tyrol, including the Land ofVorarlberg
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*the Princely County of Tyrol, including the Land of Vorarlberg
the Coastal Land, including the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, the State of Trieste and the Margravate of Istria
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*the Coastal Land, including the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, the State of Trieste and the Margravate of Istria  
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==The lands of the Hungarian Kingdom==
  
 
''Transleithania'', which refers to “the land on the other side of the Leitha River” included Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and part of the Dalmatian coast. The Hapsburgs ruled it as kings of Hungary after 1867.  
 
''Transleithania'', which refers to “the land on the other side of the Leitha River” included Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and part of the Dalmatian coast. The Hapsburgs ruled it as kings of Hungary after 1867.  
  
 
The lands of the Hungarian Kingdom were:
 
The lands of the Hungarian Kingdom were:
the Kingdom of Hungary, with Transylvania and Vojvodina (Banat, Batschka)
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*the Kingdom of Hungary, with Transylvania and Vojvodina (Banat, Batschka)
the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia
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*the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia
the State of Rijeka
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*the State of Rijeka  
  
Bosnia-Herzegovina was jointly administered by the empire's two halves.
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Bosnia-Herzegovina was jointly administered by the empire's two halves.  
  
Names of the Dual Monarchy in languages of its citizens officially recognized:  
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==Names of the Dual Monarchy in languages of its citizens officially recognized:==
  
 
*Bosnian: Austro-Ugarska  
 
*Bosnian: Austro-Ugarska  

Revision as of 16:36, 12 November 2010

The Holy Roman Empire was the major political entity in the heart of Europe between 1500 and 1806. Austrian Empire begin in 1814 and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or the Dual Monarchy, after 1867.

The kingdoms and crownlands of the Austrian Empire

The Austrian part of the dual monarchy did not have its own historic name and was officially called the "kingdoms and crownlands represented in the imperial parliament." It came to be known as Austria, or Cisleithania, which refers to "the lands on this side of the Leitha River", from the perspective of Vienna. The river formed part of the boundary of Austria and Hungary. Cisleithania comprised Austria proper, Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia, Slovenia, and Austrian Poland. The Hapsburgs ruled there as Austria's emperors.

The kingdoms and crownlands of the Austrian Empire were:

  • the Kingdom of Bohemia
  • the Kingdom of Dalmatia
  • the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
  • the Archduchy of Austria, which included Upper Austria and Lower Austria
  • the Duchy of Bukovina
  • the Duchy of Carinthia
  • the Duchy of Carniola
  • the Duchy of Salzburg
  • the Duchy of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia
  • the Duchy of Styria
  • the Margravate of Moravia
  • the Princely County of Tyrol, including the Land of Vorarlberg
  • the Coastal Land, including the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, the State of Trieste and the Margravate of Istria

The lands of the Hungarian Kingdom

Transleithania, which refers to “the land on the other side of the Leitha River” included Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and part of the Dalmatian coast. The Hapsburgs ruled it as kings of Hungary after 1867.

The lands of the Hungarian Kingdom were:

  • the Kingdom of Hungary, with Transylvania and Vojvodina (Banat, Batschka)
  • the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia
  • the State of Rijeka

Bosnia-Herzegovina was jointly administered by the empire's two halves.

Names of the Dual Monarchy in languages of its citizens officially recognized:

  • Bosnian: Austro-Ugarska
  • Croatian: Austro-Ugarska
  • Czech: Rakousko-Uhersko
  • German: Österreich-Ungarn
  • Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia
  • Italian: Austria-Ungheria
  • Polish: Austro-Węgry
  • Romanian: Austro-Ungaria
  • Serbian: Aустро-Угарска/Austro-Ugarska
  • Slovak: Rakúsko-Uhorsko
  • Slovene: Avstro-Ogrska
  • Ukrainian: Австро-Угорщина/Avstro-Uhorshchina

Timeline

  • abt 1,000 A.D.: Iron plow invented in Lower Rhine region. Resultant increase in food production leads to population growth and German emigration to the east - Bohemia and Hungary - and to the Crusades.
  • 1130s: Zipser and Transylvania Saxon colonies founded by Germans (Upper Hungary - Slovakia and Transylvania).
  • 1241: Mongol raid devastates Hungary, Slovakia.
  • 1335-1350: Black Death (Bubonic plague) begins in Constantinople, spreads to Mediterranean seaports, then to Central and Western Europe. 50-75 % of Europe's population is wiped out. Emigration to the east ceases for a long time.
  • 1526: Battle of Mohacs - The Turks defeat Hungary and the Hungarian King dies on the battlefield. The Turks are repulsed in Vienna and the Habsburg monarchy takes over rule of Hungary.
  • 1545-1547: Council of Trent - Reform of the Roman Catholic church, beginning of church registers of baptism, marriage, death.
  • 1620-1650: Thirty Years' War - Germany and Bohemia are devastated by warring factions - Many church registers lost.
  • 1683: Second siege of Vienna by Turks - Turks are turned back and gradually retreat from Hungary; 1686 Budapest liberated; 1688 Belgrade liberated.
  • 1700s and early 1800s: Re-settlement of Hungary in the wake of 150 years of Turkish rule. The Banat and Backa are two main areas of 'Danube Swabian' settlements. (New settlers are actually from Alsace-Lorraine, Swabia, Slovakia, Bohemia, Galicia, Sub-Carpathian Rus, etc.).
  • 1848: Nationalist revolutions in Western and Central Europe. Vestiges of serfdom finally abolished. Beginning of Hungarian independence from Austria; Czechs and other nationalities gain small measures of cultural independence.
  • 1867: The compromise which institutes a dual monarchy. Two independent states which shared a common ruler, as emperor in Austria, as king in Hungary.
  • 1914-1918: Austria-Hungary defeated in First World War, split into separate entities based on nationality: Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia created; Galicia goes to Poland; Transylvania goes to Romania.

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