Scotland Language and Languages

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Most records used in Scottish research are in English, with some in the closely related Scots language. They may, however, be difficult to read because of unique Scottish words, Latin words, or different handwriting styles.

Occasionally records will also contain Gaelic, often written in English phonetics. In the medieval documents about Orkney and Shetland, you may also encounter Norn, an early form of Norwegian.

Unique Scottish Words

Some words you will see in Scottish records are not used in English.

The English past participle -ed, is usually represented by -it in Scots. Older documents may also form the plural or possessive in -is. The English "wh" is often rendered as "quh" in old Scots.

The following list contains some Scottish words more commonly used in documents:

Scottish Words

English         Translation A                                                   A
afore/afoir before
aith oath
ane one, an
anent about, concerning
bairne, bairn child or baby
bairnis baby’s
baptist baptized
beand being
befoir before
befeir before
burgh borough, town
by near somewhere
callit called
compear appeared
croft small agricultural holding
defunct the deceased
delict torts
deponit deponed (witness)
do ditto
dochter daughter
docquet authenticating signature on a deed
doits money (coins)
Erse, Erisch meaning Irish, referring to Gaelic culture or language
executor a person who is empowered by the deceased to carry out the terms of his/her will
fay, fayr father
forby(e) besides, beyond, in addition
haid had
heir portioner inheriting daughter
ieroe great-grandson (Gaelic: iar-ogha)
ilk ("of that ilk") having a surname of the same place
jeroy great-grandson (Gaelic: iar-ogha)
kirk, kyrk church
kirkyird churchyard, graveyard
laird title of landholder; related to, but not equivalent to lord
lammas, lammastide formerly 1st August, now the 28th August
lawful legitimate offspring
miln, myln mill
maid bairn girl child
main bairn boy child
mains the main farm of an estate, known as the home farm in England
manrent a type of contract, usually military in nature and involving Scottish clans
mortcloth cloth covering body during burial ceremony
moy, moyr mother
natural often refers to illegitimate off-spring but could be used for legitimate offspring as well
nevoy nephew
new born usually unbaptized child
not proven, guilty not proven a unique Scottish verdict which confirms the person as neither guilty, nor innocent
oe, oy grandson
per stipes a clause in a will saying that the grandchildren can inherit if the children predecease them
pns presence (of)
producit produced
provost used instead of "mayor" in Scotland
putit presented
pwir poor
quwh (such as who)
quha who
qlk, quilk, quhilk, quhilck which
quairfoir wherefore
raiefeit ratified
relict widow, widower
resile, resiled withdrawn (such as an offer of marriage)
schew show
seik sick
sic such
siccan such, of a type already mentioned
siclike, sicklike, syklyk likewise
sicna such, of a type already mentioned
stillborn born and died same day
tack yearly rent paid to a Highland landlord (Gaelic: "taic")
tacksman member of the Highland middle class, paying a tack to the laird, and often subletting
udal relating to traditional Norse law in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland)
udal law the remnant legal system of the Northern Isles, similar to odelsrett
udal tenure tenure under udal law
unquhile, umquil late, former, deceased
varnit warned
vide see (such as, see page)
wreitting writing
wmquil, umquil now deceased

Scottish Dictionaries

To find definitions for other words that are unfamiliar to you, you can use one of several Scottish dictionaries:

Craigie, Sir William A. A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, from the Twelfth Century to the End of the Seventeenth. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1937-. (Family History Librarybook 403.41 Sco87c.)

Graham, William. The Scots Word Book. 3rd rev. ed. Edinburgh, Scotland: Ramsey Head Press, 1980. (Family History Library book 427.9411 G76s 1980.)

Jamieson, John. A Dictionary of the Scottish Language. Edinburgh, Scotland: William Tait, 1866. (Family History Library book 427.941 J242j.)

Warrack, Alexander. A Scots Dialect Dictionary. London, England: W. & R. Chambers, 1911. (Family History Library book 427.9411 W25s.)

Robinson, Mairi, ed. The Concise Scots Dictionary. Oxford, England: Aberdeen University Press, 1985. (Family Hhistory Library book 427.9411 C748c.)

The Dictionary of the Scots Language can be found online here.


Some Scottish records may contain Latin. Knowing some Latin will help you read these records. For help with Latin words, see the Latin Genealogical Word List (34077).


Handwriting styles have changed over time. In early records, the handwriting is quite different from what it is today.  Visit Scotland Handwriting in  Research Topics.


Abbreviations are common in early handwriting. When recorders left letters out of a word, they indicated the fact by using various marks, such as a period, a colon, a tail on the last letter of the word, a curvy line over the word, or a raised letter at the end of the word. Abbreviations can be indicated in many ways, and it is important to study individual writers to see how they made abbreviations.

In Scottish church records, ministers often used only the first letter of the words, for example:

L.S. = lawful son

L.D. = lawful daughter

N.S. = natural son

N.D. = natural daughter

ch. = child

Ch. N. = child named

N. = named

Instead of writing the words father, mother, witness, son, or daughter, the minister may have used f, m, w, s, or other letters.


Dates, instead of being numerical, are sometimes referred to by the name of the feast day or by one of the terms listed below:

Term Meaning current, instant Same month (Sometimes used to mean "within 30 days" or a month.)
proximo next month
ultimo last month
penultimate day, penult day the day before the last day of the month
jajvii, jmjvii, mvii indicates the century, such as 1700s
eodem tempore, eod tempore at the same time (the same date)
eodem die, eod die, E.D. the same day
Gods die God’s day, the Sabbath
Feb 1st Sabbath Exact day of month not stated
Feb 2nd Sabbath Event took place in Feb on the 1st, 2nd, or  (whatever) Sabbath in the month