Scotland Language and Languages
Most records used in Scottish research are in English, with some in the closely related Scots language. They may, however, be difficult to read because of unique Scottish words, Latin words, or different handwriting styles.
Occasionally records will also contain Gaelic, often written in English phonetics. In the medieval documents about Orkney and Shetland, you may also encounter Norn, an early form of Norwegian.
Unique Scottish Words
Some words you will see in Scottish records are not used in English.
The English past participle -ed, is usually represented by -it in Scots. Older documents may also form the plural or possessive in -is. The English "wh" is often rendered as "quh" in old Scots.
The following list contains some Scottish words more commonly used in documents:
|bairne, bairn||child or baby|
|croft||small agricultural holding|
|docquet||authenticating signature on a deed|
|Erse, Erisch||meaning Irish, referring to Gaelic culture or language|
|executor||a person who is empowered by the deceased to carry out the terms of his/her will|
|forby(e)||besides, beyond, in addition|
|heir portioner||inheriting daughter|
|ieroe||great-grandson (Gaelic: iar-ogha)|
|ilk ("of that ilk")||having a surname of the same place|
|jeroy||great-grandson (Gaelic: iar-ogha)|
|laird||title of landholder; related to, but not equivalent to lord|
|lammas, lammastide||formerly 1st August, now the 28th August|
|maid bairn||girl child|
|main bairn||boy child|
|mains||the main farm of an estate, known as the home farm in England|
|manrent||a type of contract, usually military in nature and involving Scottish clans|
|mortcloth||cloth covering body during burial ceremony|
|natural||often refers to illegitimate off-spring but could be used for legitimate offspring as well|
|new born||usually unbaptized child|
|not proven, guilty not proven||a unique Scottish verdict which confirms the person as neither guilty, nor innocent|
|per stipes||a clause in a will saying that the grandchildren can inherit if the children predecease them|
|provost||used instead of "mayor" in Scotland|
|quwh||(such as who)|
|qlk, quilk, quhilk, quhilck||which|
|resile, resiled||withdrawn (such as an offer of marriage)|
|siccan||such, of a type already mentioned|
|siclike, sicklike, syklyk||likewise|
|sicna||such, of a type already mentioned|
|stillborn||born and died same day|
|tack||yearly rent paid to a Highland landlord (Gaelic: "taic")|
|tacksman||member of the Highland middle class, paying a tack to the laird, and often subletting|
|udal||relating to traditional Norse law in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland)|
|udal law||the remnant legal system of the Northern Isles, similar to odelsrett|
|udal tenure||tenure under udal law|
|unquhile, umquil||late, former, deceased|
|vide||see (such as, see page)|
|wmquil, umquil||now deceased|
To find definitions for other words that are unfamiliar to you, you can use one of several Scottish dictionaries:
Craigie, Sir William A. A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, from the Twelfth Century to the End of the Seventeenth. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1937-. (Family History Librarybook 403.41 Sco87c.)
Graham, William. The Scots Word Book. 3rd rev. ed. Edinburgh, Scotland: Ramsey Head Press, 1980. (Family History Library book 427.9411 G76s 1980.)
Jamieson, John. A Dictionary of the Scottish Language. Edinburgh, Scotland: William Tait, 1866. (Family History Library book 427.941 J242j.)
Warrack, Alexander. A Scots Dialect Dictionary. London, England: W. & R. Chambers, 1911. (Family History Library book 427.9411 W25s.)
Robinson, Mairi, ed. The Concise Scots Dictionary. Oxford, England: Aberdeen University Press, 1985. (Family Hhistory Library book 427.9411 C748c.)
The Dictionary of the Scots Language can be found online here.
Some Scottish records may contain Latin. Knowing some Latin will help you read these records. For help with Latin words, see the Latin Genealogical Word List (34077).
Handwriting styles have changed over time. In early records, the handwriting is quite different from what it is today. Visit Scotland Handwriting in Research Topics.
Abbreviations are common in early handwriting. When recorders left letters out of a word, they indicated the fact by using various marks, such as a period, a colon, a tail on the last letter of the word, a curvy line over the word, or a raised letter at the end of the word. Abbreviations can be indicated in many ways, and it is important to study individual writers to see how they made abbreviations.
In Scottish church records, ministers often used only the first letter of the words, for example:
L.S. = lawful son
L.D. = lawful daughter
N.S. = natural son
N.D. = natural daughter
ch. = child
Ch. N. = child named
N. = named
Instead of writing the words father, mother, witness, son, or daughter, the minister may have used f, m, w, s, or other letters.
Dates, instead of being numerical, are sometimes referred to by the name of the feast day or by one of the terms listed below:
|Term||Meaning||current, instant||Same month (Sometimes used to mean "within 30 days" or a month.)|
|penultimate day, penult day||the day before the last day of the month|
|jajvii, jmjvii, mvii||indicates the century, such as 1700s|
|eodem tempore, eod tempore||at the same time (the same date)|
|eodem die, eod die, E.D.||the same day|
|Gods die||God’s day, the Sabbath|
|Feb 1st Sabbath||Exact day of month not stated|
|Feb 2nd Sabbath||Event took place in Feb on the 1st, 2nd, or (whatever) Sabbath in the month|