Shawnee Indians

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United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Georgia Gotoarrow.png Indians of Georgia Gotoarrow.png Shawnee Indians


Guide to Shawnee Indians ancestry, family history and genealogy: birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, parish registers, and other agency records.


Shawnee - Ten-squat-a-way (the open door)- The Prophet.jpg
Alternate Names and Spellings:
Shawnee, Shawanoe, Shawanoese, Shawanee, Shawonee

Ancestral Homeland: near Cumberland River, Ohio and Tennessee River (Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio)

Federal Recognition

Leaders: Tecumseh

Tribal Headquarters

Shawnee Tribe
P.O. Box 189
Miami, OK 74355
Phone: 1.918.542.2441
Fax: 1.918.542.2922

History

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Shawnee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=631 Shawnee Indians

Flora Harvey Kittle. Shawnee Indians in Kansas, FHL Book 970.1 Al #89

Brief Timeline

  • 1677: Early contact with non-Indians, a French trader La Potherie
  • 1677: began to move from the Carolina's into Pennsylvania and Ohio, they became closely associated with the Delaware.
  • 1689-1763: French and Indian Wars, sided with the French
  • 1754: Eskippakithiki, a Shawnee settlement abandoned
  • 1763: Joined the Ottawa and other tribes in Pontiac's Rebellion against the British
  • 1769: Shawnee warned Daniel Boone to leave "Kentucky"
  • 1774: Fought Virginians in Lord Dunmore's War. (Lord Dunmore gave veterans of the French and Indian War who fought under him land that belonged to the Shawnee)
  • October 6, 1774: Point Pleasant, West Virginia- Treaty - ceded land
  • 1775: Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War
  • 1782: The Shawnee joined by the Delaware, Wyandot, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Mingo in a Confederacy to remove settlers from Kentucky and Ohio.
  • 1794: General Anthony Wayne defeated the Shawnee at Fallen Timbers, Ohio
  • 1794: Land ceded
  • 1795: Treaty of Fort Greenville; proposed factory system
  • 1802: A Factory was established at Fort Wayne
  • 1812-1815: War of 1812, at the end of the War, the colonial government of Virginia gave bonuses to soldiers in the form of military tracts, in Kentucky
  • October 5, 1813: Battle of the Thames, Tecumseh killed
  • 1815: Many Shawnee residing near Cape Girardeau and on the Merrimack River near St. Louis. Delaware and Abesentee Shawnee moved into Arkansas and in 1820 moved to Texas.
  • 1825: A census of Indians in the United States total of Shawnee 2,293 (not including Shawnee living in Texas)
  • 1828: Fish or Jackson band of Shawneee Indians move to Kansas
  • 1831: August 8, Treaty at Wapaghkonnetta and Hog creek in Ohio. Land ceded and removed to land west of Missouri.
  • 1832: Black Hawk War
  • 1832: Wapakoneta Shawnee left Ohio and removed west of the Missouri River, into Kansas
  • 1833: Hog Creek Shawnee removed to Kansas
  • 1835: Newspaper printed by Jotham Meeker
  • 1861-65: The Shawnee supported the Union during the Civil War
  • 1867: Shawnee located on three reservation in Indian Territory. Absentee Shawnee from Texas settled with the Potawatomi (Pottawatomie County); Kansas Shawnee to the Cherokee reservation in 1870 they were incorporated with the Cherokee Nation; Mixed band of Seneca and Shawnee settled in Ottawa County, Oklahoma.
  • 1980: Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band is recognized by the state of Ohio

Migrations:

Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas

Agencies

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[1], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[2], and others.

Shawnee Agency - Kansas, Shawnee Agency - Missouri, Piqua and Ohio Agency, Fort Leavenworth Agency, Kansas Agency, Union Agency, Neosho Agency, Quapaw Agency, Seneca Agency, Wichita Agency ,Sac and Fox Agency - Iowa , Sac and Fox Agency - Oklahoma

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[3], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[4], and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.

Shawnee Reservation

Absentee Shawnee Reservation

Superintendencies

Records for Superintendencies exist in the National Archives and copies of many of them are also available in other research facilities.

Michigan Superintendency

St. Louis Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Southern Superintendency

Records

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence

M 234 RG 75 Roll 962

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Post-1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Roll 693

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Shawnee, Indian Territory Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952 Fort Wayne - - - FHL Films: 581865-581871
Shawnee, Ohio Piqua and Ohio Agencies, 1831-43 Washington D.C. Rolls 600-03 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas Fort Leavenworth Agency,1824-51 Washington D.C. Rolls 299-303 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas Kansas Agency, 18521-55 Washington D.C. Rolls 363-70 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas Shawnee Agency, 1855-76 Washington D.C. Rolls 808-23 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas-Indian Territory Union Agency, 1875-80 Washington D.C. Rolls 864-77 - - -
Shawnee, Eastern Neosho Agency, 1867-71 Washington D.C. Rolls 534-37 - - -
Shawnee,Eastern Quapaw Agency 1885-1939 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth - - Rolls 410-16 FHL Films:581405-581410
Shawnee, Eastern Seneca Agency, 1901-7, 1910-21 Washington D.C. - - Rolls 487-89 FHL Films:581498-581499
Shawnee, Absentee Wichita Agency, 1859-67 Washington D.C. Rolls 927-30 - - -
Shawnee, Absentee Sac and Fox Agency, ca. 1869-80 Chicago - - - -
Shawnee, Absentee Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth - - Rolls 490-96 FHL Films:581865-581871

Removal / Census

  • 1842 Census of 887 Shawnee Indians listed by age and gender naming 247 heads of household is in NARA M234, Roll 301, frames 1154-1161. [5] vol. 12 no. 1
  • 1857 Shawnee Census (M1813, roll 1) The census was take as part of the Kansas Territorial Censuses, 1855-1859. At the end of roll 1 of the 1857 census is a census of Shawnee Indians in Kansas Territory, taken in conjunction with the treaty made with the tribe on May 10, 1854.
  • 1871 Shawnee Tribe who moved to Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory before June 10, www.accessgenealogy.com:List of 770 Shawnee Tribe who moved to Cherokee Nation. 9 June 1871. The Journal of American Indian Family Research Vol. 4 No. 2 pg 101 - 110. FHL 970.3 J825j

Church Records

  • Belle Caldwell. Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission. Topeka, KS. Kansas Historical Society, 1939. FHL Book 970.3 Sh28c

Enrollment Records

Treaties

Year link (date of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty. fckLRfckLR*1786 January 31, on the Miami

  • 1795 August 3, at Greenville fckLR*1803June 7, at Fort Wayne with the Delaware
  • 1805 July 4, at Fort Industry, with the Wyandot
  • 1808 November 25, at Brownstown, with the Chippewa
  • 1814 July 22, at Greenville, with the Wyandot
  • 1815 September 8, at Spring Wells, with the Wyandot
  • 1817 September 29, with the Wyandot
  • 1818 September 17, at St. Mary's, with the Wyandot
  • 1825 November 7, at St. Louis,
  • 1831 July 20, at Lewistown, with the Seneca
  • 1831 August 8, at Wapaghkonnetta
  • 1832December 29, at Seneca Agency with the Seneca fckLR*1832 October 26, at Castor Hill, with Shawnee fckLR*1854 May 10, at Washington fckLR*1865 September 13, at Fort Smith - unratified- with the Cherokee and other Tribes in the Indian Territory fckLR*1867 February 23, at Washington, with Seneca, Mixed Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Etc.,

Vital Records

Important Web Sites

References

  1. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  2. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  3. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  4. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
  5. The Journal of American Indian Family Research Vol. 11 No. 1 1991 FHL 9701. J825j

Bibliography

  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; Family History Library book970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; Family History Library book&970.1 G131g.:Volume 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean :Volume 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America :Volume 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau :Volume 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands.
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
    Volume 1 -- Not yet published .
    Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751<br> fckLR*:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371.
    Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.4.
    Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.5.
    Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.6.
    Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
    Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.8.
    Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.9.
    Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.10.
    Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.11.
    Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.12.
    Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
    Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
    Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.15.
    Volume 16 -- Not yet published
    Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
    Volume 18 -- Not yet published
    Volume 19 -- Not yet published
    Volume 20 -- Not yet published.
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; Family History Library book970.1 W146e 2006.