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== <br>England, Historical Background ==
<br>Introduction<br>Effective family history research requires an understanding of the historical events that affected<br>your ancestors and record keeping. Learning about wars, local events, laws, migrations,<br>settlement patterns, and economic or religious trends may help you understand family<br>movements. These events may have led to the creation of records, such as settlement<br>certificates or military records, that mention your ancestors. Your family history research will be<br>more interesting if you learn about the events that shaped your ancestors' lives.<br>Historical Overview<br>Here is a list of some key dates and events in English history. Use the links to go directly to the<br>period you are most interested in.<br>• Early to 1600<br>• 1600 to 1700<br>• 1700 to 1800<br>• 1800 to Present<br>c. 480 Angles, Saxons, and Jutes arrived in England.<br>1066 Norman Conquest. William of Normandy (the Conqueror)<br>invaded and was crowned King of England.<br>1215 The Great Charter. Barons forced King John I to sign the Magna<br>Carta.<br>1455-1485 Wars of the Roses. These ongoing wars involved mostly knights<br>pledged to lords or vassals. Few commoners were involved, and<br>few records were kept.<br>1531 Henry VIII recognized as head of the newly created Church of<br>England. All ties with the Pope and the church in Rome severed.<br>1536 England and Wales united politically.<br>1538 Thomas Cromwell ordered all parish ministers to keep records of<br>christenings, marriages, and burials. These records became<br>known as parish registers.<br>1559 From this date, various Acts of Parliament excluded Roman<br>Catholics from governmental offices and fined them for not<br>attending Church of England services.<br>1568 Some Puritans ordained their own ministers and tried<br>unsuccessfully to separate from the Church of England. The<br>Puritan movement split in two: becoming the Presbyterians and<br>the Separatists.<br>1580 Robert Browne, a separatist, and his followers became known<br>as Independents or Congregationalists.<br>England, Historical Background<br>Research Guidance<br>Version of Data: 02/14/01<br>2<br>1598 Parish ministers were required to keep their registers on<br>parchment, and previous registers were copied onto parchment.<br>Parish ministers were also required to send copies of their<br>registers to the bishop of the diocese. These became known as<br>bishops' transcripts.<br>1606 A law required Roman Catholics to be baptised and married by<br>Church of England clergy and to be buried in the churchyard. A<br>fine was imposed for not complying. Many people obeyed<br>regarding burials, but Roman Catholic baptisms and marriages<br>continued in secret .<br>1612 The first General Baptist church was organized.<br>1620 A group of Congregationalists sailed on the Mayflower to the<br>New World.<br>1630 Puritans seeking church reform left for New England under the<br>leadership of John Winthrop.<br>1642-1660 Civil War took place in England. Charles I was executed in 1649.<br>Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of England. Bishop's<br>courts were abolished. Civil war caused political and religious<br>upheaval. Parish registers were poorly kept. Many other<br>changes affected record keeping.<br>1644 Presbyterian and Independent records began, but many of these<br>early records no longer exist.<br>1656 Society of Friends (Quaker) records began. These records are<br>unique among English religious records because they are so<br>thorough.<br>1660 Charles II was restored as monarch, ending civil strife. Bishop's<br>courts were restored.<br>1665-1666 The Great Plague struck England. London and other larger cities<br>were hardest hit. This afftected record keeping. The Great Fire<br>of London followed the plague and destroyed many churches<br>and their registers.<br>1685 The migration of Huguenot refugees to England, mainly from<br>France, increased considerably .<br>1688-89 William of Orange from Holland was crowned King of England.<br>1695-1706 A tax was assessed on parish register entries. To avoid the tax,<br>some people did not register events.<br>1707 England and Wales united with Scotland to form the United<br>Kingdom.<br>1733 English replaced Latin in official records.<br>1735 The Wesleyan Methodist group was started by John Wesley and<br>others. It didn't separate from the Church of England until about<br>1800. The earliest records date from about 1790.<br>1752 England adopted the new Gregorian calendar. The first day of<br>the year changed from 25 March (Lady's Day) to 1 January. See<br>Calendar Changes.<br>1754 Lord Hardwicke's Act outlawed marriage outside the Church of<br>England (except for Quakers and Jews) and required that<br>separate registers for marriages be kept. Common law<br>marriages were also outlawed.<br>1756-1762 The Seven Years War, called the French and Indian War in<br>North America, involved 120,000 British soldiers and began a<br>continuous series of army records.<br>1756-1765 The first English navigation canals appeared. The industrial<br>revolution began, and cities grew with the invention of the steam<br>engine and the spinning jenny.<br>England, Historical Background<br>Research Guidance<br>Version of Data: 02/14/01<br>3<br>1775-1783 The American revolution occured. The British army had 135,000<br>men in North America when fighting broke out. Some men<br>remained in Canada after the war, but most returned to England.<br>Records of Loyalists and others who remained in Canada are<br>separate from other military records.<br>1778 Laws against Roman Catholics were repealed, and many priests<br>started to keep records.<br>1783-1794 The Stamp Duty Act again assessed a tax on parish register<br>entries. Only paupers were exempt, so many people were<br>recorded as paupers when they were not. Others did not have<br>their children baptized until after the act was repealed.<br>1800 Ireland became part of the United Kingdom.<br>1803-1815 The Napoleonic Wars occured. Numerous battles across Europe<br>involved 365,000 British soldiers and 300,000 seamen. These<br>battles included the Peninsular Wars in Portugal and Spain.<br>When the wars ended, the soldiers returned to Britain to find that<br>many traditional occupations had been eliminated by the<br>Industrial Revolution.<br>1812 The George Rose Act required Church of England christening,<br>marriage, and burial records to be kept in separate registers on<br>preprinted forms, starting 1 January 1813.<br>1830 The first railways appeared in England.<br>1834 Poor law unions took poor relief responsibilities away from<br>parishes. Workhouses were established.<br>1837 Civil registration of births, marriages, and deaths began on 1<br>July. However, events could still be recorded in parish registers.<br>Bishops' transcripts were kept less frequently.<br>Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901.<br>First missionaries of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day<br>Saints began preaching in the Preston, Lancashire area.<br>1841 The first genealogically useful census was taken by the<br>government.<br>1854-1856 225,000 troops were involved in the Crimean war (by the Black<br>Sea).<br>1857 The Matrimonial Causes Act created divorce courts and made it<br>easier for unhappy couples to obtain a divorce.<br>1857-1858 The Indian Mutiny occured. Many of the troops discharged after<br>the Crimean War were recalled to quell the revolt in India.<br>1858 Principal Probate Registry began handling all English probates.<br>1877-1902 The Boer Wars occured. The first Anglo-Boer War led to South<br>African independence in 1881. The second Anglo-Boer War<br>(1899–1902) led to the unification of South Africa in 1910.<br>1882 Married women were given the right to use and dispose of their<br>own property.<br>1914– 1918 About 3 million English troops served in World War I. 750,000<br>died.<br>1939–1945 Over 1 million British soldiers and civilians died in World War II.<br>England, Historical Background<br>Research Guidance<br>Version of Data: 02/14/01<br>4<br>Historical Sources<br>The following are a few of the historical sources available at the Family History Library:<br>• British [or English] Historical Facts, by Chris Cook, et. al., in five volumes covering 1485-1900,<br>lists key dates, offices, and office holders in history.<br>• The Oxford History of England, in 15 volumes (FHL book 942 H3oh; films 874261-267), is<br>organized by period and covers from 100 B.C. to A.D. 1945.<br>• Record Sources For Local History, by Phillip Riden, explains governmental changes and how<br>they affect local and family history.<br>• Sources for English Local History, by W. B. Stephens, explains historical records and lists<br>sources with more detailed information.<br>• Chronicle of Britain: incorporating a chronicle of Ireland, edited by Henrietta Heald, is<br>arranged by year and gives information about major events in the British Isles from the Ice<br>Age to 1992.<br>Similar sources may be available at public and university libraries.<br>Local Histories<br>A local history describes the economy, prominent families, and the founding of churches,<br>hospitals, schools, and businesses in a specific area. Even if a local history does not mention<br>your ancestor, you may find important clues that suggest other records to search. Local histories<br>also provide background information about your family's lifestyle, community, and environment.<br>For many localities, there may be more than one history. There are hundreds of histories about<br>English parishes. The Family History Library has many histories, and they will be listed in the<br>Family History Library Catalog. Go to What to Do Next, select the catalog, and look for a specific<br>locality and the topic of History. Similar histories are often available at major public and university<br>libraries and archives.<br>Victoria County Histories is an important ongoing series of local histories for most counties. Each<br>entry includes general background and history from pre-Roman times and individual chapters on<br>industry, economy, and history. Pedigrees or histories of prominent individuals and occupants of<br>historic homes are often included. These histories are found in the Family History Library Catalog.<br>Go to What to Do Next, select the catalog, and look for a specific county and the topic of History.<br>Calendar Changes<br>The Gregorian calendar, the one commonly used today, is a correction of the Julian calendar,<br>which, because of miscalculated leap years, was 11 days behind the solar year by 1752.<br>England began using the new calendar in 1752. Eleven days were omitted to bring the calendar<br>in line with the solar year. The day after Wednesday, 2 September 1752, became Thursday, 14<br>September 1752.<br>Also at that time, the first day of the year changed to 1 January. Before 1752, the first day of the<br>year was 25 March.<br>Pre-1752 dates may be confusing. For example, the day after 24 March 1565 was 25 March<br>1566. Dates between 1 January and 24 March are often recorded using a technique called<br>double dating. An example of double dating is 16 February 1696/7.<br>For more information, see Handbook of Dates for Students of English History, by C. R. Cheney.
Three pages:&nbsp;England History,&nbsp;England Historical Overview and English Historical Background all existed and were dups or were&nbsp;very similar.&nbsp;&nbsp;I deleted the text in the English H B page,&nbsp;and&nbsp;basically switched the content between the England&nbsp;History and England&nbsp;H O pages.&nbsp; The information&nbsp;on this Talk page below is also a dup.&nbsp; [[User:BakerBH|BakerBH]] 22:47, 25 January 2011 (UTC)

Latest revision as of 00:13, 12 April 2013

Three pages: England History, England Historical Overview and English Historical Background all existed and were dups or were very similar.  I deleted the text in the English H B page, and basically switched the content between the England History and England H O pages.  The information on this Talk page below is also a dup.  BakerBH 22:47, 25 January 2011 (UTC)