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''[[United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' '''Emigration and Immigration'''{{Template:US-sidebar}}{{US-immigration-sidebar}}
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''[[United States]]&nbsp; [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]&nbsp; [[United_States_Emigration_and_Immigration|Emigration and Immigration]]''  
 
  
[[Image:Immigrants Behold the Statue of Liberty.jpg|thumb|left|205px|Immigrants Behold the Statue of Liberty.jpg]][[Image:Ellis Island.jpg|thumb|175px|Ellis Island.jpg]]  
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[[Image:Immigrants Behold the Statue of Liberty.jpg|left|300px|Immigrants Behold the Statue of Liberty.jpg]]<br><br> The&nbsp;[[Tracing Immigrant Origins|Tracing&nbsp;Immigrant&nbsp;Origins]]&nbsp;Wiki pages can help you identify an immigrant ancestor's original hometown. Those pages introduce the principles, search strategies, and additional record types you can use.
  
The [[Tracing Immigrant Origins]] Wiki pages can help you identify an immigrant ancestor's original hometown. Those pages introduce the principles, search strategies, and additional record types you can use.
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== '''Beginner's Corner''' ==
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[[Beginning Research in United States Immigration and Emigration Records#What are United States immigration and emigration records?|'''What are United States immigration and emigration records?''']]<br>
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[[Beginning Research in United States Immigration and Emigration Records#What time periods and locations do they cover?|'''What time periods and locations do they cover?''']]<br>
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[[Beginning Research in United States Immigration and Emigration Records#What can I find in them?|'''What can I find in them?''']]<br>
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[[Beginning Research in United States Immigration and Emigration Records#How do I access them?|'''How do I access them?''']]<br>
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[[Beginning Research in United States Immigration and Emigration Records#Search strategies|'''Search strategies''']]<br>
  
=== Purpose  ===
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*'''See [[Beginning Research in United States Immigration and Emigration Records|Beginning Research in United States Immigration and Emigration Records]].'''
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*'''Then see [[U.S. Immigration and Emigration Class Handout|U.S._Immigration_and_Emigration_Class_Handout]], an article for beginners.'''
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{|
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|{{Click|Image:UI_ORP.png|United States Immigration Online Genealogy Records|right}}
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Emigration records list the names of people leaving and immigration records list those coming into the [[United States|United States.]] There are passenger lists for ships coming into the United States and border-crossing records of people leaving Canada or Mexico for the United States. These records may include an emigrant’s name, age, occupation, destination, and sometimes the place of origin or birth.
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== Purpose  ==
  
=== Historical Background  ===
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Emigration&nbsp;records&nbsp;list&nbsp;the&nbsp;names&nbsp;of people leaving and immigration records list those coming into the [[United States|United States.]] There are passenger lists for ships coming into the United States and border-crossing records of people leaving Canada or Mexico for the United States. These records may include an emigrant’s name, age, occupation, destination, and sometimes the place of origin or birth.
  
Nearly fifty million people have immigrated to America. Significant patterns of immigration and settlement can be observed during three periods: Pre-1820. An estimated 650,000 individuals arrived in America before 1820. The majority (60 percent) were English and Welsh. Smaller numbers of German, Irish, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, French, Spanish, African, and other nationalities also arrived. For the most part these immigrants settled in small clusters in the eastern, middle-Atlantic, and southern states.
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== Historical Background  ==
  
A general overview of emigration and immigration including historical trends, port history, and the naturalization process can be found in this [http://www.mesarfhc.org/powerpoint_training/pdf_files/imigration_naturalization.pdf slide presentation].
+
Nearly fifty million people have immigrated to America. Significant patterns of immigration and settlement can be observed during three periods:  
  
'''1820-1880.''' Over ten million immigrants came from northern Europe, the British Isles, and Scandinavia during these years. There was a significant increase in the number of immigrants from Germany and Ireland beginning in the 1840s and 1850s. While some of the new arrivals settled in large eastern and mid-western cities, most migrated to the midwest and west.  
+
==='''Pre-1820.'''===
 +
An estimated 650,000 individuals arrived in America before 1820. The majority (60 percent) were English and Welsh. Smaller numbers of German, Irish, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, French, Spanish, African, and other nationalities also arrived. For the most part these immigrants settled in small clusters in the eastern, middle-Atlantic, and southern states. <br>
  
'''1880-1920.''' More than twenty-five million immigrants, primarily from southern and eastern Europe, were attracted to this country. The largest numbers (in order) came from Germany, Italy, Ireland, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and England. Many of these immigrants settled in the larger cities, including New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia.  
+
A general overview of emigration and immigration including historical trends, port history, and the naturalization process can be found in this [http://www.mesarfhc.org/powerpoint_training/pdf_files/imigration_naturalization.pdf '''slide presentation'''].
  
An in-depth description of colonial and federal immigration lists is:
+
==='''1820-1880.''' ===
 +
Over ten million immigrants came from northern Europe, the British Isles, and Scandinavia during these years. There was a significant increase in the number of immigrants from Germany and Ireland beginning in the 1840s and 1850s. While some of the new arrivals settled in large eastern and mid-western cities, most migrated to the midwest and west.
  
*Tepper, Michael H. ''[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/27995064 American Passenger Arrival Records: A Guide to the Records of Immigrants Arriving at American Ports by Sail and Steam, updated and enlarged]''. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing, 1993. ({{FHL|973 W27am 1993}}.)
+
*Bergquist, James M. '''''Daily Life in Immigrant America, 1820-1870'''''. The Greenwood Press “Daily Life Through History” Series. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2008.&nbsp;
  
<br>'''Ireland'''  
+
::This is a good resource that gives the context for the immigration that occurred between 1820 and 1870.&nbsp; The title is a misnomer as it has information on the conditions in Europe, the ports of embarkation, conditions during the voyages of the immigrant ships, and then talks about the daily life of immigrants in the United States.&nbsp; He also covers Chinese immigration.&nbsp; There is a helpful chronology and a glossary that add to the usefulness of the book.&nbsp; A good read if one wants to understand the context of an individual's immigration in the time frame covered.
  
Millions of Irish (mostly Catholic) immigrated to the United States (a slight majority to New York City) in especially the mid to late 19th Century. Their migration fanned out into the midwest, i.e. Chicago St. Louis, the south, i.e. Alabama and Georgia and out west. Visit the [http://aad.archives.gov/aad/fielded-search.jsp?dt=180&cat=GP44&tf=F&bc=sl '''Famine Emigrants 1846-1851 database'''] at the NARA website for an online search of nearly 700,000 Irish Famine Immigrants. A significant (60+ million-name) database is now searchable online at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/default.aspx?cat=40 '''Ancestry.com from early to 1960'''] for emigrant passengers to the United States.  
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*Hansen, Marcus Lee.&nbsp; '''''The Atlantic Migration, 1607-1860&nbsp;: A History of the Continuing Settlement of the United States'''''.&nbsp; Cambridge, Massachusetts:&nbsp; Harvard University Press, 1941.&nbsp;
  
Here is an enlarged [[List of Irish Emigration|'''List of Irish Emigration''']] websites for locating Irish ancestors on ships. View FamilySearch online tutorials on Irish immigration by [https://www.familysearch.org/learningcenter/home.html clicking here].  
+
::An excellent overview with a focus on the years 1815-1860.
  
'''England'''  
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==='''1880-1920.''' ===
 +
More than twenty-five million immigrants, primarily from southern and eastern Europe, were attracted to this country. The largest numbers (in order) came from Germany, Italy, Ireland, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and England. Many of these immigrants settled in the larger cities, including New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia.
  
Two main regions of early colonization were New England and Virginia. Nearly all of 14,000 pre-1624 Virgina settlers came from the London area. England's Civil War of 1642-1649 and the subsequent Interregnum years up to 1660 significantly impacted the New World settlements. Royalists, at the be-heading of King Charles I, fled England and found refuge in the Virgina Colony. Because&nbsp;King Charles' war-like campaigns so terrorized the Nonconformists (i.e. Puritans), it likewise caused thousands to flee England for Leyden, Holland and North America. Plymouth Colony, created in 1620, by English Separatists (Pilgrims), had by 1650, become populated with numerous Puritans and other English Nonconformists who crossed the ocean seeking&nbsp;religious freedom. The Massachusetts Bay Colony began around this period, with its first&nbsp;inhabitants&nbsp;who came from counties Devonshire, Dorset and Somerset. Later,&nbsp;during&nbsp;the Civil War, this colony was comprised&nbsp;of emigrant&nbsp;'refugees' from England's cradle of Puritanism--counties Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, NW&nbsp;Essex and east Hertfordshire.&nbsp;
+
An in-depth description of colonial and federal immigration lists is:
  
The Carolinas were populated with English emigrants as well as Connecticut, New Hampshire and portions of Maryland and Maine.
+
*Tepper, Michael H. ''[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/27995064 American Passenger Arrival Records: A Guide to the Records of Immigrants Arriving at American Ports by Sail and Steam, updated and enlarged]''. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing, 1993. ({{FHL|973 W27am 1993}}.)
  
=== Research Tools  ===
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===='''Ireland''' ====
 +
See [[Ireland Emigration and Immigration]]
  
*[[Tracing Immigrant Origins|Tracing Immigrant Origins]] FamilySearch Wiki portal
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Millions of Irish (mostly Catholic) immigrated to the United States (a slight majority to New York City) in especially the mid to late 19th Century. Their migration fanned out into the midwest, i.e. Chicago St. Louis, the south, i.e. Alabama and Georgia and out west. Visit the [http://aad.archives.gov/aad/fielded-search.jsp?dt=180&cat=GP44&tf=F&bc=sl '''Famine Emigrants 1846-1851 database'''] at the NARA website for an online search of nearly 700,000 Irish Famine Immigrants. A significant (60+ million-name) database is now searchable online at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/default.aspx?cat=40 '''Ancestry.com from early to 1960'''] for emigrant passengers to the United States. <br>
*Passenger arrival lists<br>
 
*Canadian border crossing records<br>
 
*Mexican border crossing records<br>
 
*[[Hamburg Passenger Lists|Hamburg passenger lists]]<br>
 
*[http://www.immigrantservants.com/ Indentures Servants Database]
 
*[http://www.libraryireland.com/ScotchIrishAmerica/Contents.php http://www.libraryireland.com/ScotchIrishAmerica/Contents.php]&nbsp; An account of the (mainly) Ulster Presbyterians who immigrated to America in the 18th century and includes genealogical information.
 
*[http://www.westphalia-emigration.de/ http://www.westphalia-emigration.de/]&nbsp;If your German ancestors came to America from Prussia, and if they were roman catholics, there is a chance they came from Westfalen.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Two lists representing the emigrants of two counties in Westfalen.
 
  
'''Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:'''  
+
Here is an enlarged [[List of Irish Emigration|'''List of Irish Emigration''']] websites for locating Irish ancestors on ships. View FamilySearch online tutorials on Irish immigration by [https://www.familysearch.org/learningcenter/home.html '''clicking here'''].
  
*[[Maryland, Baltimore Passenger Lists (FamilySearch Historical Records)|Maryland, Baltimore Passenger Lists (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
+
===='''England''' ====
*[[Massachusetts, Boston Passenger Lists, 1820-1891 (FamilySearch Historical Records)|Massachusetts, Boston Passenger Lists, 1820-1891 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]<br>
 
*[[Massachusetts, Boston Passenger Lists, 1891-1943 (FamilySearch Historical Records)|Massachusetts, Boston Passenger Lists, 1891-1943 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]<br>
 
  
=== Ports of Arrival  ===
+
Two main regions of early colonization were New England and Virginia.
 +
*Nearly all of 14,000 '''pre-1624 Virgina settlers came from the London area.''' England's Civil War of 1642-1649 and the subsequent Interregnum years up to 1660 significantly impacted the New World settlements. Royalists, at the be-heading of King Charles I, fled England and found refuge in the Virgina Colony.
 +
*Because&nbsp;King Charles' war-like campaigns so terrorized the Nonconformists (i.e. Puritans), it likewise caused thousands to flee England for Leyden, Holland and North America. Plymouth Colony, created in 1620, by English Separatists (Pilgrims), had by 1650, become populated with numerous '''Puritans and other English Nonconformists''' who crossed the ocean seeking&nbsp;religious freedom.
 +
*The '''Massachusetts Bay Colony''' began around this period, with its first&nbsp;inhabitants&nbsp;who came from counties Devonshire, Dorset and Somerset. Later,&nbsp;during&nbsp;the Civil War, this colony was comprised&nbsp;of emigrant&nbsp;'refugees' from England's cradle of Puritanism--counties Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, NW&nbsp;Essex and east Hertfordshire.&nbsp; <br>
  
{| width="600" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="0" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
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The Carolinas were populated with English emigrants as well as Connecticut, New Hampshire and portions of Maryland and Maine.
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== Ports of Arrival  ==
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|-
 
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| valign="top" align="left" |  
'''Major Ports''' <br>Atlantic and Gulf Coast Ports<br>Baltimore, Maryland<br>Boston, Massachusetts<br>Detroit, Michigan<br>New Orleans, Louisiana<br>New York City, New York<br>Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  
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'''Major Ports''' <br>Atlantic and Gulf Coast Ports<br>Baltimore, Maryland<br>Boston, Massachusetts<br>Detroit, Michigan<br>[[New Orleans, Louisiana|New Orleans, Louisiana]]<br>New York City, New York<br>Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  
  
 
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{{United States Combo}} {{H-langs|en=United States Emigration and Immigration|pt=Estados Unidos, Emigração e Imigração}} </div>  
[[Category:United_States]] [[Category:United_States_Emigration_and_Immigration]]
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[[Category:United_States_Emigration_and_Immigration]]

Latest revision as of 22:34, 15 August 2016

United States Gotoarrow.png Emigration and Immigration

United States Wiki Topics
Liberty-statue-from-below.jpg
Beginning Research
Record Types
United States Background
Ethnicity
Local Research Resources
Sub-Topics
News and Events

New York passenger arrival lists (Ellis Island) 1892-1924 index and images are now featured on the Internet at the FamilySearch Historical Records - New York Passenger Arrival Lists (Ellis Island) 1892-1924 page.

Immigrants Behold the Statue of Liberty.jpg


The Tracing Immigrant Origins Wiki pages can help you identify an immigrant ancestor's original hometown. Those pages introduce the principles, search strategies, and additional record types you can use.

Beginner's Corner

What are United States immigration and emigration records?
What time periods and locations do they cover?
What can I find in them?
How do I access them?
Search strategies

UI ORP.png

Purpose

Emigration records list the names of people leaving and immigration records list those coming into the United States. There are passenger lists for ships coming into the United States and border-crossing records of people leaving Canada or Mexico for the United States. These records may include an emigrant’s name, age, occupation, destination, and sometimes the place of origin or birth.

Historical Background

Nearly fifty million people have immigrated to America. Significant patterns of immigration and settlement can be observed during three periods:

Pre-1820.

An estimated 650,000 individuals arrived in America before 1820. The majority (60 percent) were English and Welsh. Smaller numbers of German, Irish, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, French, Spanish, African, and other nationalities also arrived. For the most part these immigrants settled in small clusters in the eastern, middle-Atlantic, and southern states.

A general overview of emigration and immigration including historical trends, port history, and the naturalization process can be found in this slide presentation.

1820-1880.

Over ten million immigrants came from northern Europe, the British Isles, and Scandinavia during these years. There was a significant increase in the number of immigrants from Germany and Ireland beginning in the 1840s and 1850s. While some of the new arrivals settled in large eastern and mid-western cities, most migrated to the midwest and west.

  • Bergquist, James M. Daily Life in Immigrant America, 1820-1870. The Greenwood Press “Daily Life Through History” Series. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2008. 
This is a good resource that gives the context for the immigration that occurred between 1820 and 1870.  The title is a misnomer as it has information on the conditions in Europe, the ports of embarkation, conditions during the voyages of the immigrant ships, and then talks about the daily life of immigrants in the United States.  He also covers Chinese immigration.  There is a helpful chronology and a glossary that add to the usefulness of the book.  A good read if one wants to understand the context of an individual's immigration in the time frame covered.
  • Hansen, Marcus Lee.  The Atlantic Migration, 1607-1860 : A History of the Continuing Settlement of the United States.  Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Harvard University Press, 1941. 
An excellent overview with a focus on the years 1815-1860.

1880-1920.

More than twenty-five million immigrants, primarily from southern and eastern Europe, were attracted to this country. The largest numbers (in order) came from Germany, Italy, Ireland, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and England. Many of these immigrants settled in the larger cities, including New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia.

An in-depth description of colonial and federal immigration lists is:

Ireland

See Ireland Emigration and Immigration

Millions of Irish (mostly Catholic) immigrated to the United States (a slight majority to New York City) in especially the mid to late 19th Century. Their migration fanned out into the midwest, i.e. Chicago St. Louis, the south, i.e. Alabama and Georgia and out west. Visit the Famine Emigrants 1846-1851 database at the NARA website for an online search of nearly 700,000 Irish Famine Immigrants. A significant (60+ million-name) database is now searchable online at Ancestry.com from early to 1960 for emigrant passengers to the United States.

Here is an enlarged List of Irish Emigration websites for locating Irish ancestors on ships. View FamilySearch online tutorials on Irish immigration by clicking here.

England

Two main regions of early colonization were New England and Virginia.

  • Nearly all of 14,000 pre-1624 Virgina settlers came from the London area. England's Civil War of 1642-1649 and the subsequent Interregnum years up to 1660 significantly impacted the New World settlements. Royalists, at the be-heading of King Charles I, fled England and found refuge in the Virgina Colony.
  • Because King Charles' war-like campaigns so terrorized the Nonconformists (i.e. Puritans), it likewise caused thousands to flee England for Leyden, Holland and North America. Plymouth Colony, created in 1620, by English Separatists (Pilgrims), had by 1650, become populated with numerous Puritans and other English Nonconformists who crossed the ocean seeking religious freedom.
  • The Massachusetts Bay Colony began around this period, with its first inhabitants who came from counties Devonshire, Dorset and Somerset. Later, during the Civil War, this colony was comprised of emigrant 'refugees' from England's cradle of Puritanism--counties Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, NW Essex and east Hertfordshire. 

The Carolinas were populated with English emigrants as well as Connecticut, New Hampshire and portions of Maryland and Maine.

Ports of Arrival

Major Ports
Atlantic and Gulf Coast Ports
Baltimore, Maryland
Boston, Massachusetts
Detroit, Michigan
New Orleans, Louisiana
New York City, New York
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Minor Ports by State
Alabama
Alaska
California
Connecticut
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Louisiana
Maine

Maryland
Massachusetts
Mississippi
New York (not New York City)
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Texas
Washington
Wisconsin

United States

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