White Earth Indian Reservation (Minnesota)
The White Earth Reservation is a federally-recognized reservation in Minnesota.
- Established -- 19 March 1867
- Agency (BIA) --
- Principal tribes -- Chippewa of the Mississippi, Pembina, Pilager Chippewa, and Dakota
- Population -- 9,192 - 2000 census
The White Earth Reservation was established by Treaty of Mar. 19, 1867 (XVI, 719); Executive orders, Mar. 18, 1879, and July 13, 1883; act of Jan. 14, 1889 (XXV, 642). See agreement of July 29, 1889 (H. R. Ex. Doc. 247. 51st Cong., 1st less., 34, 36). After the Reservation was established, the United States increased the effort to have all Minnesota Chippewa Reservations eradicated. They originally wanted to relocate all Chippewa's and Dakota's from Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin to the White Earth Reservation.The Reservation originally covered over 1,300 sq. mi. It now covers 1,093 sq. mi. In 1887, the United States passed the Dawes Act.
Then in 1889 they passed the Nelson Act. It was the Nelson Act which brought ruin to the promised Reservation. The Nelson Act forced many of Minnesota's Chippewa's and Dakota's to relocate to the White Earth Reservation. Though the Dakota did not originally sign the treaty to live on this Reservation, years later they were forced to relocate to the White Earth Reservation. After the forced relocation, the United States then eradicated nearly all of the White Earth Reservation, except a tiny part of the northeast portion of the promised Reservation.
In 1898, chief Bugonaygishig led a rebellion in northern Minnesota which eventually led to the United States returning the promised Reservations. However, the damage had already been done. At the White Earth Reservation, the whites had torn down the vast forest and forced the Chippewa's and Dakota's to accept land allotments which were eventually sold to non Indians. After the 1898 Rebellion, the whites replanted trees across the central and eastern part of this Reservation. The White Earth Reservation is not entirely owned by the whites however. State forests cover much of the Reservation, and countless lakes are also found within the Reservations borders. The western part of the Reservation has a larger white population than Indian. The central and eastern part of the Reservation is where the Chippewa's and Dakota's primarily live.
About half of the Reservation has land not suitable for agriculture. The State of Minnesota and Federal Government of the United States, own much of the Reservations forests and certain other areas. However, that land is actually owned by the Reservation through treaty agreements. .
Throughout the White Earth Reservation are numerous settlements. Some are predominantly non Indian. The most important Chippewa-Dakota community is White Earth. The predominantly Chippewa-Dakota communities are mainly found in the central and eastern part of the Reservation. They are the following:
- White Earth
- Elbow Lake
- North Twin Lake
- Pine Point
- Rice Lake
Allotment,Hinton Roll, Case files and Indian faffidavits of the Linnen and Moorhead investigations, 1909. FHL film: 1294074 first film. *Gilfillan, J. A., et al. Joseph A. Gilfillan and Family Papers. 1872. WorldCat 313831728 Correspondence, articles, translations, and miscellany concerning Gilfillan's work as a Protestant Episcopal missionary on the White Earth Indian Reservation (1872-1898) and his study of Ojibwe language and culture.
- "Minnesota Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge Available online.
- Confederation of American Indians. Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook. Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Co., c1986. WorldCat 14098308; FHL book 970.1 In2.
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906. This publication lists the 22 states which had reservations in 1908. Available online. *Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1902. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142i. Available online.
*Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e. *Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 WorldCat 257331735; FHL book 970.1 P95aa *Prucha, Francis Paul, ed. Documents of United States Indian Policy. 3rd Edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: Univeresity of Nebraska Press, 2000. WorldCat 50416280; FHL book 970.1 P95d. *Prucha, Francis Paul. Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c1964. WorldCat 522839; FHL book 973 M2pf. *Schmeckebier, Laurance F. The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Service Monographs of the United States Government; no. 48. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1972. WorldCat 257893; FHL book 973 B4b v. 48.
*Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
::Volume 1 -- Not yet published ::Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
::Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
::Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
::Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
::Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
::Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
::Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
::Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
::Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10. ::Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
::Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
::Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
::Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176 ::Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
::Volume 16 -- Not yet published ::Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
::Volume 18 -- Not yet published ::Volume 19 -- Not yet published ::Volume 20 -- Not yet published *Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. [Washington, DC]: Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996. WorldCat 35209517; FHL book 970.1 T463a.
*United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. Federal and State Reservations and Trust Areas. 1974. FHL book 970.1 Un3fe/1974. *United States Department of the Interior. Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9.
*United States Federal and State Indian Reservations, Map. Available online.
*Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 3rd ed. WorldCat 244771132; FHL book 970.1 W146a 2009. *Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193;FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.